Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of, a 20-metre pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground; when ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches, they communicate with two off-field scorers. There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length.
Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core, layered with wound string. Cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century, it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council, which has over 100 members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches; the game's rules are held in a code called the Laws of Cricket, owned and maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in London. The sport is followed in the Indian subcontinent, the United Kingdom, southern Africa and the West Indies, its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.
Women's cricket, organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia, having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups, more than any other country, having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement. In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket, that the batsman must defend; the cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets. It is believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period. Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597.
The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that: "Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies". Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey. The view that it was a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket". One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word "cryce" meaning a staff. In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick". In Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of stick. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch "krick", meaning a stick.
Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de sen. Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but the sport itself may be of Flemish origin. Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects; the ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick.
England cricket team
The England cricket team represents England and Wales in international cricket. Since 1997 it has been governed by the England and Wales Cricket Board, having been governed by Marylebone Cricket Club from 1903 until the end of 1996. England, as a founding nation, is a full member of the International Cricket Council with Test, One Day International and Twenty20 International status; until the 1990s, Scottish and Irish players played for England as those countries were not yet ICC members in their own right. England and Australia were the first teams to play a Test match, these two countries together with South Africa formed the Imperial Cricket Conference on 15 June 1909. England and Australia played the first ODI on 5 January 1971. England's first T20I was played on 13 June 2005, once more against Australia; as of 12 March 2019, England has played 1010 Test matches, winning 365 and losing 300. The team has won The Ashes on 32 occasions. England has played 726 ODIs, winning 362, its record in major ODI tournaments includes finishing as runners-up in three Cricket World Cups, in two ICC Champions Trophys.
England has played 108 T20Is, winning 53. They won the ICC World Twenty20 in 2010, were runners-up in 2016; as of 12 March 2019, England are ranked fifth in Tests, first in ODIs and third in T20Is by the ICC. Though the team and coaching staff faced heavy criticism after their Group Stage exit in the 2015 Cricket World Cup, it has since adopted a more aggressive and modern playing style in ODI cricket, under the leadership of captain Eoin Morgan and head coach Trevor Bayliss; the first recorded incidence of a team with a claim to represent England comes from 9 July 1739 when an "All-England" team, which consisted of 11 gentlemen from any part of England exclusive of Kent, played against "the Unconquerable County" of Kent and lost by a margin of "very few notches". Such matches were repeated on numerous occasions for the best part of a century. In 1846 William Clarke formed the All-England Eleven; this team competed against a United All-England Eleven with annual matches occurring between 1847 and 1856.
These matches were arguably the most important contest of the English season if judged by the quality of the players. The first overseas tour occurred in September 1859 with England touring North America; this team had six players from the All-England Eleven, six from the United All-England Eleven and was captained by George Parr. With the outbreak of the American Civil War, attention turned elsewhere. English tourists visited Australia in 1861–62 with this first tour organised as a commercial venture by Messrs Spiers and Pond, restaurateurs of Melbourne. Most matches played during tours prior to 1877 were "against odds", with the opposing team fielding more than 11 players to make for a more contest; this first Australian tour were against odds of at least 18/11. The tour was so successful that George Parr led a second tour in 1863–64. James Lillywhite led a subsequent England team which sailed on the P&O steamship Poonah on 21 September 1876, they played a combined Australian XI, for once on terms of 11 a side.
The match, starting on 15 March 1877 at the Melbourne Cricket Ground came to be regarded as the inaugural Test match. The combined Australian XI won this Test match by 45 runs with Charles Bannerman of Australia scoring the first Test century. At the time, the match was promoted as James Lillywhite's XI v Combined Victoria and New South Wales; the teams played a return match on the same ground at Easter, 1877, when Lillywhite's team avenged their loss with a victory by four wickets. The first Test match on English soil occurred in 1880 with England victorious. G. Grace included in the team. England lost their first home series 1–0 in 1882 with The Sporting Times printing an obituary on English cricket: In Affectionate Remembrance of ENGLISH CRICKET, which died at the Oval on 29th AUGUST 1882, Deeply lamented by a large circle of sorrowing friends and acquaintances R. I. P. N. B. – The body will be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia. As a result of this loss the tour of 1882–83 was dubbed by England captain Ivo Bligh as "the quest to regain the ashes".
England with a mixture of amateurs and professionals won the series 2–1. Bligh was presented with an urn that contained some ashes, which have variously been said to be of a bail, ball or a woman's veil and so The Ashes was born. A fourth match was played which Australia won by 4 wickets but the match was not considered part of the Ashes series. England dominated many of these early contests with England winning the Ashes series 10 times between 1884 and 1898. During this period England played their first Test match against South Africa in 1889 at Port Elizabeth. England won the 1890 Ashes Series 2–0, with the third match of the series being the first Test match to be abandoned. England lost 2 -- 1 in the 1891 -- 92 series. England again won the 1894 -- 95 series. In 1895 -- 96 England played Test South Africa; the 1899 Ashes series was the first tour where the MCC and the counties appointed a selection committee. There were three active players: Lord Hawke, W. G. Grace and Herbert Bainbridge, the captain of Warwickshire.
Prior to this, England teams for home Tests had been chosen by the club on whose ground the match was to be played. England lost the 1899 Ashes series 1–0, with WG Grace making his final Test appearance in the first match of the series; the start of the
Bedford is the county town of Bedfordshire, England. The town has an estimated population of 87,590, whereas the Borough of Bedford had an estimated population of 169,912. Bedford was founded at a ford on the River Great Ouse, is thought to have been the burial place of Offa of Mercia. Bedford Castle was built by Henry I, although it was destroyed in 1224. Bedford was granted borough status in 1165 and has been represented in Parliament since 1265, it is well known for its large population of Italian descent. Bedford is on the Midland Main Line, with stopping services to London and Brighton operated by Thameslink, express services to London and the East Midlands operated by East Midlands Trains; the name of the town is thought to derive from the name of a Saxon chief called Beda, a ford crossing the River Great Ouse. Bedford was a market town for the surrounding agricultural region from the early Middle Ages The Anglo-Saxon King Offa of Mercia was buried in the town in 796. In 886 it became a boundary town separating Danelaw.
It was the seat of the Barony of Bedford. In 919 Edward the Elder built the town's first known fortress, on the south side of the River Great Ouse and there received the area's submission; this fortress was destroyed by the Danes. William II gave the barony of Bedford to Paine de Beauchamp who built a strong castle. Bedford traces its borough charter in 1166 by Henry II and elected two members to the unreformed House of Commons, it remained a small agricultural town, with wool being an important industry in the area for much of the Middle Ages. The new Bedford Castle was razed in 1224 and today only a mound remains. From the 16th century Bedford and much of Bedfordshire became one of the main centres of England's lace industry, lace continued to be an important industry in Bedford until the early 20th century. In 1660 John Bunyan was imprisoned for 12 years in Bedford Gaol, it was here. The River Great Ouse became navigable as far as Bedford in 1689. Wool declined in importance with brewing becoming a major industry in the town.
The 19th century saw Bedford transform into an important engineering hub. In 1832 gas lighting was introduced, the railway reached Bedford in 1846; the first corn exchange was built 1849, the first drains and sewers were dug in 1864. Bedford is the largest settlement in Borough of Bedford; the borough council is led by a directly elected mayor who holds the title'Mayor of Bedford', an office, first held by Frank Branston, until his death in 2009. The current Mayor of Bedford is Dave Hodgson from the Liberal Democrat Party. Bedford itself is divided into 10 wards: Brickhill, Cauldwell, De Parys, Harpur, Newnham, Queens Park, Kempston East and Kempston West. Brickhill elects its own parish council. Bedford is served by Bedfordshire Police; the Bedfordshire Police and Crime Commissioner of that force is Kathryn Holloway. Bedford forms part of the Bedford constituency, represented in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom Parliament; the current Member of Parliament for Bedford is Mohammad Yasin, a member of the Labour Party.
Bedford is 46 miles miles north-northwest of London, 65 miles southeast of Birmingham, 25 miles west of Cambridge and 19 miles east-southeast of Northampton. The town of Kempston is adjacent to Bedford, as are the villages of Elstow and Ravensden. Wixams is a new town, being developed to the south of Bedford. Villages in the Borough of Bedford with populations of more than 2,000 as of 2005 were Biddenham, Clapham, Oakley, Shortstown and Wootton. There are many smaller villages in the borough; the villages in the borough are popular with commuters to Bedford, with people who commute to Milton Keynes and towns in Northamptonshire and Cambridgeshire. Nearby small towns include Ampthill, Biggleswade and Sandy, all of which are in Central Bedfordshire, as well as Rushden in Northamptonshire and St Neots in Cambridgeshire; the nearest towns and cities with larger populations than Bedford are Northampton to the north west, Cambridge to the east, Milton Keynes to the south west, Luton to the south, all of which have urban area populations of 150,000 or more.
As with the rest of the United Kingdom, Bedford has a maritime climate, with a limited range of temperatures, even rainfall throughout the year. The nearest Met Office weather station to Bedford is Bedford airport, about 6.5 miles north of Bedford town centre at an elevation of 85 metres. Since 1980, temperature extremes at the site have ranged from 35.9 °C in August 2003 and 35.3 °C during July 2006 down to −15.3 °C in January 1982. However, such extremes would be superseded if longer term records were available – Historically, the nearest weather station to Bedford was Cardington about 2.4 miles south south east of the town centre with an elevation of 30 metres. This location recorded a minimum of −18.3 °C during January 1963. Rainfall averages around 585mm a year, with an excess of 1mm falling on 109 days. Sunshine at around 1500 hours a year is typical of inland areas of southern-central England. Bedford is home to one of the largest concentrations of Italian immigrants in the United Kingdom.
According to the 2001 census 30% of Bedford's population were of at least partial Italian descent. This is as a result of labour recruitment in the early 1950s by the London Brick Company from Southern Italy. From 1954 to 20
Squatting is a posture where the weight of the body is on the feet but the knees and hips are bent. In contrast sitting involves taking the weight of the body, at least in part, on the buttocks against the ground or a horizontal object such as a chair seat; the angle between the legs when squatting can vary from zero to splayed out, flexibility permitting. Another variable may be the degree of forward tilt of the upper body from the hips – see here and here. Squatting may be either: full – known as full squat, deep squat, on one's haunches, on one's hunkers, or hunkering – see text and see image gallery partial – known as partial, half, parallel, intermediate, incomplete or monkey squat etc. – see text and see image gallery. Crouching is considered to be synonymous with squatting, it is common to kneel with the other leg. One or both heels may be up when squatting. Young children instinctively squat. Among Chinese, Southeast Asian and Eastern European adults, squatting takes the place of sitting or standing.
Elements of squatting are used in everyday life without us realising it, whenever we lower our body. The variations in this section apply to full squatting but can apply to or have elements of partial squatting. Squatting for both legs can involve: heels down for both feet heels up for both feet, or the heel up for just one foot. Heels down squatting for both feet is the most stable arrangement of the three but most Western adults cannot do it. Where the heel is up for one foot, the thigh for that leg is more parallel to the ground than the other leg, additionally the heel up foot is planted further back than the heel down foot. Where the heel is up for both feet, it can be by different degrees thus giving two different thigh angles, it is common for one leg to be kneeling, while the other leg is: squatting with the heel down, or squatting with the heel up. Genuflection requires the heel down version of the squat/kneel combination; the kneel in the squat/kneel combination is just taking the heel up for one foot variant of both legs squatting a stage further.
The heel up squat version of the squat/kneel combination is a stage before both legs kneeling. Variations are possible as to which part of the toes touch the ground for a kneeling leg: the tip the under part the upper part; as a verb – early 15th century. Squatting in the sense of "crouch on the heels" is from the Old French words esquatir and escatir. Squatting in the sense of "compress, press down, lay flat, crush" is from about 1400. Meaning "posture of one who squats" is from 1570s. Act of squatting is from 1580s. Weight-lifting sense is from 1954. Young children squat instinctively as a continuous movement from standing up whenever they want to lower themselves to ground level. One- and two-year-olds can be seen playing in a stable squatting position, with feet wide apart and bottom not quite touching the floor, although at first they need to hold onto something to stand up again. Full squatting involves resting one's weight on the feet with the buttocks resting on the backs of the calves, it may be used as a posture for resting or working at ground level where the ground is too dirty or wet to sit or kneel.
Most Western adults cannot place their heels flat on the ground when squatting because of shortened Achilles tendons caused by habitually: sitting on chairs or seats wearing shoes with heels For this reason the squatting position is not sustainable for them for more than a few minutes as heels-up squatting is a less stable position than heels-down squatting. See dorsiflexion. Catchers in baseball and wicket-keepers in cricket facing slow deliveries assume full squatting positions. Australian wicket-keeper Sammy Carter was the first to squat on his haunches rather than bend over from the waist. Gopnik is a pejorative term to describe a particular subculture in Russia, the former Soviet republics, other East Slavic countries. Gopniks are seen squatting in groups, it is described as a learned behavior attributed to Russian prison culture. Gopniks wear Adidas tracksuits, due to them being popularised by the 1980 Moscow Olympics Soviet team; the Slav squat or Russian squat is associated with Gopniks in Eastern European countries together with stereotypical Eastern European behavior such as consumption of vodka and cigarettes and participation in street gambling.
It is a full squat with both heels down. Equivalents to the Slav squat in Western culture, sometimes with the hands together in a prayer position, are the rap squat, prison pose, jail pose, they are used as photographic poses. "Hunkerin'" is, in particular, the name applied to the American fad of resting in the squatting position in the late 1950s. Life referred to it as "sociable squatting"; such behavior had been seen in many cultures in Asia, for centuries when it became a fad in the United States in 1959. While the word "hunkerin'" is believed to originate from the Scots word for "haunches", claims were made for Yorkshire and Japan. Time reported that the craze started at the University of Arkansas when a shortage of chairs at a fraternity house led students to imitate their Ozark forefathers, who hunkered regularly; the fad spread first to Missouri and Oklahoma across the U. S. While males were the predominant hunkerers, it was reported that females were welcomed by many groups. Within months, re
Stephen Paul Fleming, ONZM is a New Zealand cricket coach and former cricketer, captain of the New Zealand national cricket team in all three formats of the game. Known for his astute tactical abilities, he is New Zealand's second-most capped Test player with 111 appearances, longest-serving and most successful captain, having led the side to 28 victories and having won Test match series' against India, West Indies, Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe, he is the winning captain of the 2000 ICC KnockOut Trophy, New Zealand's only ICC trophy to win up to date. Fleming captained New Zealand in the historic first Twenty20 International of the world, played against Australia in 2005 as well, he retired from international cricket on 26 March 2008. Fleming played in the 2008 Indian Premier League for the Chennai Super Kings after being signed for US$350,000 and became the team's coach from 2009. In February 2015 he was signed as coach of the Melbourne Stars of the Big Bash League. On 19 January 2018 he resumed his duties as head coach of the Chennai Super Kings in 2018 Indian Premier League season again, after the team was barred from playing in the tournament for two seasons.
He coached the Rising Pune Supergiant during this time. Fleming's birth was a result of a brief relationship between his mother Pauline Fleming and Gary Kirk. Pauline raised him as a single mother, he did not meet his father until he was 16. Gary Kirk had always maintained a keen interest in his son's progress. Both Gary Kirk and Stephen Fleming played senior rugby and captained Cashmere High's first XV. On 9 May 2007, Fleming married his long-term partner Kelly Payne in a ceremony held in Wellington; the couple had a daughter Tayla born in 2006 and a son called Cooper in 2008. He had to return to New Zealand just before the Semi Finals of the IPL tournament in India for the birth of his second child, Cooper, his father was President of the South Christchurch Cricket Club. He was made an Officer of the New Zealand Order of Merit in the 2011 Queen's Birthday Honours, for services to cricket. Fleming has played county cricket in England for Middlesex and Nottinghamshire, he captained Nottinghamshire to County Championship victory in 2005, their first Championship title in 18 years..
There was speculation in 2007 that he might join controversial Indian rebel Twenty20 league, the Indian Cricket League. However it turned out to be unfounded and he has since joined the'official' Indian Twenty20 league, the Indian Premier League, played for the Chennai Super Kings in the league's initial incarnation. A left-handed batsman, Fleming made his Test debut in March 1994 against India winning the Man of the Match award on debut after scoring 92. In 1995 he survived controversy when he was caught and admitted to smoking marijuana with teammates Matthew Hart and Dion Nash while on tour at their hotel. In England's tour of New Zealand in 1996/97 he scored his maiden Test century in the First Test at Auckland. In the Third Test of the tour he took over the captaincy from Lee Germon becoming New Zealand's youngest captain at 23 years and 321 days, he was noted for his captaincy, having been praised from the likes of Shane Warne as the "best captain in world cricket" and most Graeme Swann who said that Fleming is one of the two true leaders that he's seen, alongside Andrew Strauss.
Fleming became New Zealand's most successful captain in September 2000 with a victory over Zimbabwe. This was the 12th win under his captaincy overtaking Geoff Howarth. Fleming was regarded by some as an underperformer with the bat, with one of the worst 50 to 100 conversion ratios in world cricket. However, since the 2003 tour of Sri Lanka, Fleming started to gain form, with 274 not out against Sri Lanka – when he declared rather than staying to reach 300 which would have been a record in New Zealand cricket history. Arguably Fleming's best ODI innings was his unbeaten 134 to help New Zealand beat hosts South Africa in the 2003 Cricket World Cup. Chasing a rain adjusted target of 229 off 39 overs, Fleming hit 134 off just 132 deliveries as New Zealand cruised to a 9-wicket victory over a team they had struggled against in the past. In the second Test between New Zealand and South Africa at Newlands, Cape Town in April 2006, Fleming scored his 3rd Test double-century and became the first New Zealander to achieve this feat.
Fleming scored 262 as he and Wellington teammate James Franklin put 256 runs for the 8th wicket, the highest partnership to date in Tests between New Zealand and South Africa. It is a New Zealand record for the 8th wicket against any country. On 25 October 2006, Fleming captained his country for the 194th time in an ODI – a world record, overtaking Arjuna Ranatunga, he played well throughout the 2007 World Cup scoring 353 runs at an average of 39.22 and was New Zealand's second highest run scorer in the tournament. He failed in the semi-final against Sri Lanka scoring just 1 off 4 balls as New Zealand went on to lose the match and crashed out of the tournament. On 24 April 2007, Fleming resigned as the ODI captain of the Blackcaps; the announcement was made in a post-match press conference held after the Semi-Final defeat to Sri Lanka in the 2007 Cricket World Cup. After Fleming's last match as captain, Mahela Jayawardene added a tribute. "Stephen's been a great leader for New Zealand for some time, you could learn a lot from him".
Over a decade of leading the side he finished with 98 wins, 106 losses. As of April 2007, Fleming had captained New Zealand in 80 Test matches—a New Zealand record and the second highest number worldwide; as a fielder, Fleming took over 170 catches giving him the 3rd highest Test aggregate for a non-wicketkeeper
The wicket-keeper in the sport of cricket is the player on the fielding side who stands behind the wicket or stumps being watchful of the batsman and be ready to take a catch, stump the batsman out and run out a batsman when occasion arises. The wicket-keeper is the only member of the fielding side permitted to wear gloves and external leg guards; the role of the keeper is governed by Law 27 of the Laws of Cricket. During the bowling of the ball the wicket-keeper crouches in a full squatting position but stands up as the ball is received. Australian wicket-keeper Sammy Carter was the first to squat on his haunches rather than bend over from the waist; the keeper's major function is to stop deliveries that pass the batsman, but he can attempt to dismiss the batsman in various ways: The most common dismissal effected by the keeper is for him to catch a ball that has nicked the batsman's bat, called an edge, before it bounces. Sometimes the keeper is in the best position to catch a ball, hit high in the air.
More catches are taken by wicket-keepers than by any other fielding position. The keeper can stump the batsman by using the ball to remove the bails from the stumps, if the batsman is out of his crease after a delivery has passed the stumps into the keeper's hands; the keeper must dislodge the bail and the batsman is out if he is still outside the crease. When the ball is hit into the outfield, the keeper moves close to the stumps to catch the return throw from a fielder and, if possible, to run out a batsman. A keeper's position depends on the bowler: for fast bowling he will squat some distance from the stumps, in order to have time to react to edges from the batsman, while for slower bowling, he will come much nearer to the stumps, to pressure the batsman into remaining within the crease or risk being stumped; the more skilled the keeper, the faster the bowling to which he is able to "stand up", for instance Godfrey Evans stood up to Alec Bedser. Like the other players on a cricket team, keepers will bat during the team’s batting innings.
At elite levels, wicket-keepers are expected to be proficient batters, averaging more than specialist bowlers. See Wicket-keeper-batsman. Law 27.2, which deals with the specifications for wicketkeepers' gloves, states that: If... the wicket-keeper wears gloves, they shall have no webbing between the fingers except joining index finger and thumb, where webbing may be inserted as a means of support. If used, the webbing shall be a single piece of non-stretch material which, although it may have facing material attached, shall have no reinforcements or tucks; the top edge of the webbing shall not protrude beyond the straight line joining the top of the index finger to the top of the thumb and shall be taut when a hand wearing the glove has the thumb extended. Substitutes were not allowed to keep wicket, but this restriction was lifted in the 2017 edition of the Laws of Cricket; this rule was sometimes suspended, by agreement with the captain of the batting side. For example, during the England–New Zealand Test Match at Lord's in 1986, England's specialist keeper, Bruce French was injured during England's first innings.
England used 4 keepers in New Zealand's first innings: Bill Athey kept for the first two overs. Arthur Jones was the first substitute to keep wicket in a Test match, when he did so against Australia at The Oval in 1905. There is no rule stating. On 5 June 2015 during a T20 Blast game between the Worcestershire Rapids and the Northamptonshire Steelbacks, Worcestershire chose not to play a wicket-keeper in the 16th over of the match, their keeper, Ben Cox, became an extra fielder at fly slip. The umpires consulted with each other and agreed that there was nothing in the rules to prevent it from happening; the following are the top 10 wicket-keepers by total dismissals in Test cricket. The following are the top 10 wicket-keepers by total dismissals in one day cricket; the following are the top 10 wicket-keepers by total dismissals in Twenty20 International cricket. Catcher Glossary of cricket terms Wicket-keeper's gloves Surya Prakash Chaturvedi, Bharat ke Wicket Keepers, National Book Trust, 2011