click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Slipway

A slipway known as boat ramp or launch or boat deployer, is a ramp on the shore by which ships or boats can be moved to and from the water. They are used for building and repairing ships and boats, for launching and retrieving small boats on trailers towed by automobiles and flying boats on their undercarriage; the nautical terms ways and skids are alternative names for slipway. A ship undergoing construction in a shipyard is said to be on the ways. If a ship is scrapped there, she is said to be broken up in the ways; as the word "slip" implies, the ships or boats are moved over the ramp, by way of crane or fork lift. Prior to the move the vessel's hull is coated with grease, which allows the ship or boat to "slip" off of the ramp and progress safely into the water. Slipways can only dry-dock or repair smaller ships. Pulling large ships against the greased ramp would require too much force. Therefore, for dry-docking large ships, one must use carriages supported by wheels or by roller-pallets; these types of dry-docking installations are called "marine railways".

The words "slip" and "slipway" are used for all dry-docking installations that use a ramp. In its simplest form, a slipway is a plain ramp made of concrete, stone or wood; the height of the tide can limit the usability of a slip: unless the ramp continues well below the low water level it may not be usable at low tide. There is a flat paved area on the landward end; when used for building and repairing boats or small ships, the vessel is moved on a wheeled carriage, run down the ramp until the vessel can float on or off the carriage. Such slipways are used for repair as well as for putting newly built vessels in the water; when used for launching and retrieving small boats, the trailer is placed in the water. The boat may be pulled off; when recovering the boat from the water, it is winched back up the trailer. Whaling ships are equipped with a slipway at the back, to assist in hauling harpooned whales onto the main deck, where they are flensed. To achieve a safe launch of some types of land-based lifeboats in bad weather and difficult sea conditions, the lifeboat and slipway are designed so that the lifeboat slides down a steep steel slip under gravity.

For large ships, slipways are only used in construction of the vessel. They may be arranged perpendicular to the shore line. On launching, the vessel slides down the slipway on the ways; the process of transferring the vessel to the water is known as launching and is a ceremonial and celebratory occasion. It is the point. At this point the hull is complete and the propellers and associated shafting are in place, but dependent on the depth of water and weight the engines might have not been fitted or the superstructure may not be completed. In a perpendicular slipway, the ship is built with its stern facing the water. Modern slipways take the form of a reinforced concrete mat of sufficient strength to support the vessel, with two "barricades" that extend to well below the water level taking into account tidal variations; the barricades support the two launch ways. The vessel is built upon temporary cribbing, arranged to give access to the hull's outer bottom, to allow the launchways to be erected under the complete hull.

When it is time to prepare for launching a pair of standing ways are erected under the hull and out onto the barricades. The surface of these ways are greased. A pair of sliding ways is placed on top, under the hull, a launch cradle with bow and stern poppets is erected on these sliding ways; the weight of the hull is transferred from the build cribbing onto the launch cradle. Provision is made to hold the vessel in place and release it at the appropriate moment in the launching ceremony, these are either a weak link designed to be cut at a signal or a mechanical trigger controlled by a switch from the ceremonial platform; some slipways is launched sideways. This is done where the limitations of the water channel would not allow lengthwise launching, but occupies a much greater length of shore; the Great Eastern built by Brunel was built this way as were many landing craft during World War II. This method requires many more sets of ways to support the weight of the ship. In both cases heavy chains are attached to the ship and the drag effect is used to slow the vessel once afloat until tugboats can move the hull to a jetty for fitting out.

The practice of building on a slipway is dying out with the increasing size of vessels from about the 1970s. Part of the reason is the space requirement for slowing and maneuvering the vessel after it has left the slipway, but the sheer size of the vessel causes design problems, since the hull is supported only at its end points during the launch process and this imposes stresses not met during normal operation. Boat lift Canoe launch Dry dock Ferry slip Harbor Patent slip Port Ship cradle Shiplift Travel lift

Santa Fe 5017

Santa Fe 5017 is a 2-10-4 or "Texas" type steam locomotive built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1944 for the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway. No. 5017 was built by Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1944 during World War II. The 5017, along with the 5011 Class 2-10-4's were Nicknamed "War Babies" by the AT&SF, It entered service on July 20 of that year and was assigned to freight service on the Pecos division, the Mountain Division of New Mexico; the 5017 operated between Belen, New Mexico, Oklahoma, La Junta, Colorado. Between 1953 and 1955, No. 5017 was used in extra service on the Pecos division in eastern New Mexico to supplement diesel power during the peak movement of perishables and other commodities. On July 25, 1955, No. 5017 made her last trip. The Locomotive was Retired by the AT&SF's Newer Low-Maintenance Diesels. No. 5017 was brought to the National Railroad Museum through the efforts of former director, Mr. W. L. Thorton, the Director of Traffic for the Kimberly-Clark railway, it was formally donated on December 1959, by E. Marsh, President of the Santa Fe Railway.

Today, 5017 is one of 5 Surviving 2-10-4 Texas Type Locomotives that were Built for AT&SF. Kansas Memory: Atchison and Santa Fe steam engine diagrams and blueprints

Paul Wolfowitz

Paul Dundes Wolfowitz is an American political scientist and diplomat who served as the 10th President of the World Bank, U. S. Deputy Secretary of Defense, U. S. Ambassador to Indonesia, former dean of Johns Hopkins SAIS, he is at the American Enterprise Institute, chairman of the U. S.-Taiwan Business Council. He was an early advocate of the Iraq War and has been described as an architect of the war. In the aftermath of the insurgency and civil war that followed the invasion, Wolfowitz denied influencing policy on Iraq and disclaimed responsibility, he is considered to be a leading neoconservative. After serving two years, he resigned as president of the World Bank due to scandals described by a Reuters report as "a protracted battle over his stewardship, prompted by his involvement in a high-paying promotion for his companion"; the second child of Jacob Wolfowitz and Lillian Dundes, Paul Wolfowitz was born in Brooklyn, New York, into a Polish Jewish immigrant family, grew up in Ithaca, New York, where his father was a professor of statistical theory at Cornell University.

Influenced by his father, Paul Wolfowitz became "a soft-spoken former aspiring-mathematician-turned-policymaker... world views... were forged by family history and in the halls of academia rather than in the jungles of Vietnam or the corridors of Congress...... left new country Poland after World War I and after 123 years of partitions. The rest of his father's family perished in the Holocaust."In the mid-1960s, while they were both undergraduate students at Cornell residing at the Cornell Branch of the Telluride Association, he met Clare Selgin, who became an anthropologist. They had three children and lived in Chevy Chase, Maryland, they separated in 1999, according to some sources, became separated in 2001 and divorced in 2002. In late 1999, Wolfowitz began dating Shaha Riza, their relationship led to controversy during his presidency of the World Bank Group. Wolfowitz speaks five languages in addition to English: Arabic, German and Indonesian, he was the model for a minor character named Philip Gorman in Saul Bellow's 2001 book Ravelstein.

Wolfowitz entered Cornell University in 1961. He lived in the Telluride House in 1962 and 1963, while philosophy professor Allan Bloom served as a faculty mentor living in the house. In August 1963, he and his mother participated in the civil-rights march on Washington organized by A. Philip Randolph Wolfowitz was a member of the Dagger society. Wolfowitz graduated in 1965 with a B. A. in mathematics. Against his father's wishes, Wolfowitz decided to go to graduate school to study political science. Wolfowitz would say that "one of the things that led me to leave mathematics and go into political science was thinking I could prevent nuclear war." In 1972, Wolfowitz received a Ph. D. in political science from the University of Chicago, writing his doctoral dissertation on Nuclear Proliferation in the Middle East: The Politics and Economics of Proposals for Nuclear Desalting. At the University of Chicago, Wolfowitz took two courses with Leo Strauss, he completed his dissertation under Albert Wohlstetter.

Wohlstetter became Wolfowitz's "mentor". In the words of Wolfowitz's future colleague Richard Perle: "Paul thinks the way Albert thinks." In the summer of 1969, Wohlstetter arranged for Wolfowitz and Peter Wilson to join the Committee to Maintain a Prudent Defense Policy, set up by Cold War architects Paul Nitze and Dean Acheson. While finishing his dissertation, Wolfowitz taught in the department of political science at Yale University from 1970 to 1972. In the 1970s, Wolfowitz and Perle served as aides to proto-neoconservative Democratic Senator Henry M. Jackson. A Cold War liberal, Jackson supported higher military spending and a hard line against the Soviet Union alongside more traditional Democratic causes, such as social welfare programs, civil rights, labor unions. In 1972, US President Richard Nixon, under pressure from Senator Jackson, dismissed the head of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and replaced him with Fred Ikle. Ikle brought in a new team. While at ACDA, Wolfowitz wrote research papers and drafted testimony, as he had done at the Committee to Maintain a Prudent Defense Policy.

He traveled with Ikle to strategic arms limitations talks in other European cities. He helped dissuade South Korea from reprocessing plutonium that could be diverted into a clandestine weapons program. Under President Gerald Ford, the American intelligence agencies came under attack over their annually published National Intelligence Estimate. According to Mann, "The underlying issue was whether the C. I. A. and other agencies were underestimating the threat from the Soviet Union, either by intentionally tailoring intelligence to support Kissinger's policy of détente or by failing to give enough weight to darker interpretations of Soviet intentions." Attempting to counter these claims, Director of Central Intelligence George H. W. Bush formed a committee of anti-Communist experts, headed by Richard Pipes, to reassess the raw data. Based on the recommendation of Perle, Pipes picked Wolfowitz for this committee, called Team B; the team's 1976 report, leaked to the press, stated that "all the evidence points to an undeviating Soviet commitment to what is euphemistically called the'worldwide triumph of socialism,' but in fact connotes global Soviet hegemony", highlighting a number of key areas where they believed the government's intelligence analysts had failed.

According to Jack Davis, Wolfowitz observed later: The B

Coronation of George VI and Elizabeth

The coronation of George VI and his wife Elizabeth as king and queen of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth took place at Westminster Abbey, London, on 12 May 1937. George VI ascended the throne upon the abdication of his brother, Edward VIII, on 11 December 1936, three days before his 41st birthday. Edward's coronation had been planned for 12 May 1937 and it was decided to continue with his brother and sister-in-law's coronation on the same date. Although the music included a range of new anthems and the ceremony underwent some alterations to include the Dominions, it remained a conservative affair and followed the ceremonial of George V's coronation in 1911; the ceremony began with the anointing of the King, symbolising his spiritual entry into kingship, his crowning and enthronement, representing his assumption of temporal powers and responsibilities. The peers of the realm paid homage to the King before a shorter and simpler ceremony was conducted for the Queen's coronation.

The return procession to Buckingham Palace was over six miles in length, making it the longest coronation procession up to that time. The coronation was commemorated by the issuing of official medals and stamps, by military parades across the Empire, by numerous unofficial celebrations, including street parties and the production of memorabilia; the event was designed to be not only a sacred anointing and formal crowning, but a public spectacle, planned as a display of the British Empire. May 1937 included a programme of royal events lasting nearly the entire month to commemorate and mark the occasion; as a preliminary to the coronation, guests from across the Empire and around the world assembled at Buckingham Palace and official receptions were held to welcome them. For the event itself, the prime ministers of each Dominion took part in the procession to the abbey, while representatives of nearly every country attended. Contingents from most colonies and each Dominion participated in the return procession through London's streets.

The media played an important part in broadcasting this show of pageantry and imperialism to the Empire. The coronation was an important event in the history of television, being the country's first major outside broadcast, although television cameras were not allowed inside the abbey, it was the first coronation to be filmed, as well as the first to be broadcast on radio. In January 1936, King George V died and his eldest son, Edward VIII, succeeded him as king-emperor of the British Empire, he was unmarried at that time, but the American socialite, Wallis Simpson, had accompanied him on numerous social occasions in years leading up to 1936. The relationship had not been reported in the British press, but was receiving considerable media attention in the United States. In October 1936 Simpson filed for divorce, the King informed the Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin, that he intended to marry her. Baldwin and several leading imperial administrators advised the King that popular opinion in the dominions was hostile to the proposed marriage.

The widespread unwillingness to accept Simpson as the King's consort, Edward's refusal to give her up, led to his abdication in December 1936. He was succeeded by his next younger brother, George VI. Before his accession, George had been known as Duke of York. In 1923, he had married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, the daughter of the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. Although the reign of the British monarch begins on his or her succession to the throne, the coronation service marks their formal investiture. In 1937, the ceremony was organised by a Coronation Committee, established by the Privy Council and chaired by the Lord President of the Council, a political appointment; the Coronation Committee had been delayed when it met for the first time on 24 June 1936: Ramsay MacDonald, the Lord President of the Council, met the Duke of Norfolk to discuss the proceedings. While Edward VIII was away, cruising on the Nahlin with Wallis Simpson, his brother, Duke of York sat in his place on the committees.

Edward VIII had been reluctant to have a coronation at all, but conceded that a shorter service would be acceptable. After the abdication of Edward VIII, the coronation committee continued to plan the event for George VI with minimal disruption.

Olio (book)

Olio is a book of poetry written by Tyehimba Jess, released in 2016. The book is split into 16 sections, 14 of which are poems with the introduction section and extras and acknowledgments acting as the beginning and ending sections; the book won the 2017 Pulitzer Prize for Poetry. Jess' purpose behind writing Olio was to put together the work of first generation freed slaves to share their story and their suffering, as well as to create a piece of work that each reader will experience differently."Fix your eyes on the flex of these first-generation-freed voices: They coalesce in counterpoint, name nemeses, summon tongue to wit-ness. Weave your own chosen way between these voices". John William Boone Henry BrownPaul Laurence Dunbar The Fisk Jubilee SingersErnest Hogan Sissieretta Jones Scott Joplin Millie and Christine Mckoy Booker T. Washington Tom Wiggins Bert Williams and George WalkerEdmonia Lewis There are pictures on page 5, 13, 37, 69, 99, 129, 153, 177, 209; the illustrations are by Jessica Lynne Brown of Missouri.

Jess, Tyehimba. Olio. Seattle: Wave, 2016. Print. "Olio by Tyehimba Jess". The Rumpus.net. 2016-04-06. Retrieved 2017-02-18. Book's publisher page

Rauhhügel

The Rauhhügel is an 812.9 m high mountain located in the Thuringian Highland, Thuringia. It is located close to the municipalities of Schmiedefeld and Lichte and the Leibis-Lichte Dam in the Saalfeld-Rudolstadt district in the Thuringian Forest Nature Park within walking distance of the Rennsteig; the Leipzig tower on top of the Rauhhügel is 17.5 m high. It has viewing platforms on two levels, the upper at 14 m, from which in good weather one can see far into the surrounding mountains of the Thuringian Highland, the Thuringian Forest and to mountains of the Fichtelgebirge and the Erzgebirge, including: Neuhaus am Rennweg Ochsenkopf, Fichtelgebirge Schneekopf, Fichtelgebirge Fichtelberg, ErzgebirgeThere is a guesthouse at the base of the tower. List of Mountains and Elevations of Thuringia