Earl Cadogan /kəˈdʌɡən/ is a title that has been created twice in the Peerage of Great Britain. The Cadogan family descends from Major William Cadogan, a officer in Oliver Cromwells army. His son Henry Cadogan was a barrister in Dublin and his eldest son William Cadogan was a noted soldier and diplomat. He was a general in the army and fought in the War of the Spanish Succession and served as Ambassador to the Netherlands and as Master-General of the Ordnance. In 1716, he was raised to the Peerage of Great Britain as Baron Cadogan, of Reading in the County of Berkshire and these titles were in the Peerage of Great Britain. Lord Cadogan had two daughters but no sons, so on his death in 1726, three titles - the barony of 1716, the viscountcy, and earldom - became extinct. However, he was succeeded in the barony of 1718 according to the remainder by his brother Charles. He was a General of the Horse and represented Reading and Newport, Isle of Wight, Cadogan married Elizabeth, second daughter and heiress of the prominent physician and collector Sir Hans Sloane.
Through this marriage the Sloane estates in central London came into the Cadogan family, and his son, the third Baron, sat as Member of Parliament for Cambridge and served as Master of the Mint. In 1800 the earldom of Cadogan held by his uncle was revived when he was created Viscount Chelsea, in the County of Middlesex and these titles were in the Peerage of Great Britain. His youngest son, the third Earl, was an admiral in the Royal Navy. In 1831, one year before he succeeded in the earldom, he was raised to the Peerage of the United Kingdom in his own right as Baron Oakley and he was succeeded by his eldest son, the fourth Earl. He was a Conservative politician and served under Lord Derby and Benjamin Disraeli as whip and his eldest son, the fifth Earl, was a noted Conservative politician. He held office under Disraeli and Lord Salisbury as Under-Secretary of State for War, Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, Lord Privy Seal and his only son Edward, Viscount Chelsea, died in 1910 at the age of seven.
Lord Cadogan was therefore succeeded by his third but eldest surviving son, as of 2014 the titles are held by the latters grandson, the eighth Earl, who succeeded his father in 1997. Several other members of the Cadogan family have gained distinction, lady Sarah Cadogan, daughter of the first Earl of the first creation, married Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond, and was the mother of the famous Lennox sisters. Sir George Cadogan, second son of the third Earl, was a general in the army, two further members represented seats in the House of Commons. The family seat was Culford Park, near Culford, the heir apparents heir apparent is his eldest son Hon. George Edward Charles Diether Cadogan
Bond Street is a major shopping street in the West End of London. The southern section is Old Bond Street and the northern section New Bond Street—a distinction not generally made in everyday usage. The street was built on fields surrounding Clarendon House on Piccadilly and it was built up in the 1720s, and by the end of the 18th century was a popular place for the upper-class residents of Mayfair to socialise. It is one of the most expensive and sought after strips of real estate in Europe, Bond Street is the only street that runs between Oxford Street and Piccadilly. Old Bond Street is at the end between Piccadilly and Burlington Gardens. The northern section, New Bond Street, extends as far as Oxford Street, the entire street is around 0.5 miles long. Many of the shop frontages are less than 20 feet wide, the nearest tube stations are Green Park in Piccadilly, and Bond Street station in Oxford Street. Despite its name, Bond Street station does not directly connect to either New or Old Bond Street, No buses use the street, although the C2 service crosses New Bond Street.
Part of New Bond Street is numbered B406 but the remainder, New Bond Street is pedestrianised between Grafton Street and Clifford Street to prevent through traffic and to stop the road being used as a rat run. There is evidence of Roman settlement around what is now Bond Street, in 1894, a culvert made from brick and stone was discovered in the area. At that time, the house backed onto open fields, known as Albemarle Ground, New Bond Street was laid out during a second phase of construction 14 years after Bonds syndicate began developing the area. Most of the building along the street occurred in the 1720s, john Rocques map of London, published in 1746, shows properties along the entire length of Bond Street, including the fully constructed side streets. The two parts of the street have always had separate names, and a plan by the council to merge the two into a singular Bond Street in the 1920s was rejected by locals. During the 18th century, the street began to be popular with the bourgeoisie living around Mayfair, shop owners let out their upper storeys for residential purposes, attracting lodgers such as Jonathan Swift, George Selwyn, William Pitt the Elder and Laurence Stern.
In 1784, Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire, an active socialite and this had caused him to lose his seat in parliament, leading to the dissolution of the Fox–North Coalition. She insisted people should look for nearer shopping streets, and encouraged people to go to Bond Street, the street became a retail area for people living in Mayfair. By the end of the century, a social group known as the Bond Street Loungers had appeared, wearing expensive wigs and parading up. Lord Nelson stayed at temporary lodgings in New Bond Street between 1797–8, and again in 1811–13, Thomas Pitt, 2nd Baron Camelford lived in Bond Street and was unhappy about the presence of the Bond Street Loungers
In the United Kingdom, a Sloane Ranger is a stereotypical young upper-middle or upper class person who pursues a distinctive fashionable lifestyle. The term is a portmanteau of Sloane Square, a location in Chelsea, London famed for the wealth of residents and frequenters, and the television character The Lone Ranger. The term dates from 1975, when aspiring writer Peter York had conversations with Ann Barr about what had become a tribe of young people living in Chelsea. This led to an article for the magazine, defining the characteristics of this slice of English society, several years passed before the two collaborated on the Official Sloane Ranger Handbook, which became a global bestseller in 1982. The innovatory journalistic format and techniques from the 1975 article had by well established. Ann Barr and her team at Harpers & Queen spent much time working on the original draft of the 1975 article. The potential of the piece, to become a talking point and the sub-editors at the magazine devised many of the attributes of a Sloane, added as boxes to the main text, in what became a widely imitated format.
These delineated the habits and customs of the group in question, from clothes, to shopping, to holiday venues. The Sloane Ranger proposal came from Martina Margetts, a sub-editor on Harpers & Queen who worked on the 1975 article, in her early twenties she had found herself amongst this social group while undertaking a course on fine art at the Victoria and Albert Museum. Initially the term Sloane Ranger was used mostly in reference to women, the term now usually includes men. A male Sloane has referred to as a Rah. The term Sloane Ranger has equivalent terms in countries, in France they are called BCBG. The exemplar female Sloane Ranger was considered to be Lady Diana Spencer before marrying the Prince of Wales, most Sloanes were not aristocrats as Lady Diana was. The pubs and nightclubs in these areas are popular with Sloanes, in particular the White Horse pub, known as the Sloaney Pony in Fulham, Sloanes are associated with being educated at top-tier private schools, known as public schools in England.
The most well-known schools for Sloane Rangers boys are Eton, Harrow, St Pauls, Radley, for girls, its Francis Holland, Downe House, St Pauls Girls and Queens Gate. Young Sloanes aspire to attend the ancient universities of Oxford and Cambridge, or Durham, a number of other universities, have established reputations as havens for Sloanes, notably St Andrews, the University of London, Exeter and Newcastle. Typically Sloane careers include banking, finance, PR, certain regiments of the British Army, in 2015, Peter York argued that the Sloane population has been winnowed and that Sloanes were more likely to be leading the British trend to downward social mobility
Albert Bridge, London
The Albert Bridge is a road bridge over the River Thames in West London, connecting Chelsea on the north bank to Battersea on the south bank. In 1973 the Greater London Council added two concrete piers, which transformed the central span into a beam bridge. As a result, today the bridge is a hybrid of three different design styles. It is an English Heritage Grade II* listed building, built as a toll bridge, it was commercially unsuccessful. Six years after its opening it was taken into public ownership, the tollbooths remained in place and are the only surviving examples of bridge tollbooths in London. Incorporating a roadway only 27 feet wide, and with serious structural weaknesses, the strengthening work carried out by Bazalgette and the Greater London Council did not prevent further deterioration of the bridges structure. In 1992, the Albert Bridge was rewired and painted in a colour scheme designed to make it more conspicuous in poor visibility. At night it is illuminated by 4,000 bulbs, making it one of west Londons most striking landmarks, in 2010–2011, these were replaced with LEDs.
Work on the Victoria Bridge, a distance downstream of Battersea Bridge, began in 1851 and was completed in 1858. Meanwhile, the proposal to demolish Battersea Bridge was abandoned, the wooden Battersea Bridge had become dilapidated by the mid-19th century. It had grown unpopular and was considered unsafe, the newer Victoria Bridge, suffered severe congestion. A compromise was reached, and in 1864 a new Act of Parliament was passed, the Act compelled the Albert Bridge Company to purchase Battersea Bridge once the new bridge opened, and to compensate its owners by paying them £3,000 per annum in the interim. Rowland Mason Ordish was appointed to design the new bridge, Ordish was a leading architectural engineer who had worked on the Royal Albert Hall, St Pancras railway station, the Crystal Palace and Holborn Viaduct. The bridge was built using the Ordish–Lefeuvre system, a form of cable-stayed bridge design which Ordish had patented in 1858. While plans for the Chelsea Embankment were debated, Ordish built the Franz Joseph Bridge over the Vltava in Prague to the design as that intended for the Albert Bridge.
In 1869, the time allowed by the 1864 Act to build the bridge expired, delays caused by the Chelsea Embankment project meant that work on the bridge had not even begun, and a new Act of Parliament was required to extend the time limit. Construction finally got underway in 1870, and it was anticipated that the bridge would be completed in about a year, in the event, the project ran for over three years, and the final bill came to £200,000. As the law demanded, the Albert Bridge Company bought Battersea Bridge, ordishs bridge was 41 feet wide and 710 feet long, with a 384-foot-9-inch central span
J. D. Sedding
John Dando Sedding was an English church architect, working on new buildings and repair work, with an interest in a crafted Gothic style. He was a figure in the Arts and Crafts movement, many of whose leading designers including Ernest Gimson, Ernest Barnsley and Herbert Ibberson. The German architect and critic Hermann Muthesius said that he formed the first bridge between the camp and that of handicraft proper. Sedding was born in 1838, at Eton in Berkshire and he was the son of a village schoolmaster, who spent much of his youth in Derbyshire. He was fifteen when The Nature of Gothic first appeared in John Ruskins Stones of Venice, in 1858, like William Morris, Philip Webb and Norman Shaw before him, Sedding became a pupil of the Gothic Revival architect, George Edmund Street. His elder brother, Edmund Sedding, had trained as an architect with Street. Street had studied in the office of Sir Gilbert Scott, Sedding left Street in 1863 and by about 1865 he had joined his brother Edmund, who had set up as an architect in Penzance, Cornwall.
The brothers shared an interest in music, and Edmund is remembered as the composer of the music for the hymn. Edmund suffered from tuberculosis and died young in 1868, Sedding moved first to Bristol, and to London, though he always retained an affection for Cornwall, the West Country and country life. One of his first churches was the Anglo-Catholic St Martins at Marple in Cheshire completed in 1872, the interior was designed by William Morris with contributions from Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Ford Madox Brown, Edward Burne-Jones and William Holman Hunt. In 1873 Sedding designed St Clements Church Boscombe, Bournemouth, a grade one listed church, the reredos, high altar, church plate, lectern, choir stalls, encaustic tiles, statue of St Clement and rood screen were all designed by the architect. In 1876 Sedding met Ruskin under whose influence he developed a freer Gothic style, Sedding encouraged his students to study old buildings at first hand, focusing on the practicalities of craft techniques.
He was elected a member of the Art Workers Guild in 1884 and his other churches include St Clements, Boscombe and those at Holbeton and Ermington in Devon, and St Elwyns at Hayle in Cornwall. At All Saints Church, Falmouth, he unconventionally combined tall round-arched arcades with Gothic windows and he gained a reputation in the West Country as a skilled repairer of old churches. His most notable work in the Bristol area is the so-called House of Charity, with picturesque detailing. He added a new vestry to St Marys Church, Stamford, in 1890, and was the architect of St Edwards Church in the Hampshire village of Netley Abbey and he carried out restorations at St. Levans Church, St. With Henry Wilson, he was commissioned by 6th Duke of Portland to create an extension to Welbeck Abbey to link the old building with the Riding School and he was commissioned to build a Chapel, which was completed by Wilson. Sedding died on 7 April 1891, at Winsford in Somerset, there is a memorial on the north wall of the Lady Chapel of Holy Trinity Sloane Street
Hungerford Bridge and Golden Jubilee Bridges
The Hungerford Bridge crosses the River Thames in London, and lies between Waterloo Bridge and Westminster Bridge. The north end of the bridge is Charing Cross railway station, and is near Embankment Pier, the south end is near Waterloo station, County Hall, the Royal Festival Hall, and the London Eye. Each pedestrian bridge has steps and lift access, the first Hungerford Bridge, designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, opened in 1845 as a suspension footbridge. It was named after the Hungerford Market, because it went from the South Bank to Hungerford Market on the side of the Thames. In 1859 the original bridge was bought by the railway company extending the South Eastern Railway into the newly opened Charing Cross railway station. The railway company replaced the bridge with a structure designed by Sir John Hawkshaw, comprising nine spans made of wrought iron lattice girders. The chains from the old bridge were re-used in Bristols Clifton Suspension Bridge, the buttress on the South Bank side still has the entrances and steps from the original steamer pier Brunel built on to the footbridge.
Walkways were added on each side, with the one being removed when the railway was widened. Another walkway was added in 1951 when an Army Bailey bridge was constructed for the Festival of Britain. In 1980 a temporary walkway was erected on the side while the downstream railway bridge. It is one of three bridges in London to combine pedestrian and rail use, the others being Fulham Railway Bridge. The footbridge gained a reputation for being narrow and dangerous, in the mid-1990s a decision was made to replace the footbridge with new structures on either side of the existing railway bridge, and a competition was held in 1996 for a new design. It was felt, especially following the Marchioness disaster, that these should be clad in concrete at water level, the Golden Jubilee Bridges achieved this protection at no cost to Railtrack. The concept design for the new footbridges was won by architects Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands, detailed design of the two bridges was carried out by consulting engineers Gifford, now Ramboll UK.
Despite extensive surveys of the riverbed, London Underground was unwilling to accept these risks and preliminary works were stopped in 2000. The design was modified so that the structure on the north side. Excavation near the lines was carried out when the tube was closed. The two new 4-metre wide footbridges were completed in 2002 and they were named the Golden Jubilee Bridges, in honour of the fiftieth anniversary of Queen Elizabeth IIs accession, although in practice they are still referred to as the Hungerford Footbridges
Historic England is an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport. It is tasked with protecting the environment of England by preserving and listing historic buildings, ancient monuments. The body was created by the National Heritage Act 1983. Historic England has a remit to and complements the work of Natural England which aims to protect the natural environment. Historic England inherits English Heritages position as the UK governments statutory adviser and this includes archaeology on land and under water, historic buildings sites and areas, designated landscapes and the historic elements of the wider landscape. It monitors and reports on the state of Englands heritage and publishes the annual the Heritage at Risk survey which is one of the UK Governments Official statistics and it is tasked to secure the preservation and enhancement of the man-made heritage of England for the benefit of future generations. Giving grants national and local organisations for the conservation of buildings, monuments.
In 2013/14 over £13 million worth of grants were made to support heritage buildings, advising central UK government on which English heritage assets are nationally important and should be protected by designation. Administering and maintaining the register of Englands listed buildings, scheduled monuments, registered battlefields, conservation areas and protected parks and this is published as an online resource as The National Heritage List for England. Advising local authorities on managing changes to the most important parts of heritage, providing expertise through advice and guidance to improve the standards and skills of people working in heritage, practical conservation and access to resources. In 2009–2010 it trained around 200 professionals working in local authorities and collaborating with other heritage bodies and national planning organisations e. g. It is not responsible for approving alterations to listed buildings, the management of listed buildings is the responsibility of local planning authorities and the Department for Communities and Local Government.
It owns the National Heritage Collection of nationally important historic sites, however they do not run these sites as this function is instead carried out by the English Heritage Trust under licence until 2023. Britain from Above, presents the unique Aerofilms collection of photographs from 1919-1953. Images of England website Heritage Explorer, Education site for teachers Department for Culture Media and Sport
Hans Place is a garden square in central London, immediately south of Harrods in Knightsbridge, SW1. It is named after Sir Hans Sloane, 1st Baronet, PRS, physician and collector, notable for his bequest, which became the foundation of the British Museum. Hans Place dates from the 1770s, when the architect Henry Holland leased 89 acres from Earl Cadogan, the octagonal shape of the square is thought to have been modelled on the Place Vendôme in Paris. Horwood’s Maps of 1799 and 1813 confirm that, with the exception of Nos. 55–56, all of the lots had been developed by the first edition, and that the final two houses were complete by the second. The houses were let on 99-year leases, and apart from modernisation from time to time, numbers 14,16, 17–22 and 23–27 Hans Place are all Grade II listed for their architectural merit. Jane Austen resided at 23 Hans Place, letitia Elizabeth Landon, the poet LEL, lived on the top floor of 22 Hans Place between 1826 and 1837. She was born at No.25 in 1802,22 Hans Place formed the headquarters of the 1921 Irish Treaty delegation.
Hans Place was the scene of a murder in 1983, when actor Peter Arne was battered to death in his flat, in the south-east corner at 17 Hans Place is the headmasters office of Hill House School, where Prince Charles and Lily Allen were pupils. Hans Place now represents one of the most sought after addresses in Chelsea. The communal garden is 0.4346 hectares in size and contains mature plane and lime trees, the garden is listed Grade II on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. It is not open to the public
The upper class in modern societies is the social class composed of the wealthiest members of society, who wield the greatest political power. According to this view, the class is generally distinguished by immense wealth which is passed on from generation to generation. Prior to the 20th century, the aristocracy was widely used. The term is used in conjunction with terms like upper-middle class, middle class. Upper-class status commonly derived from the position of ones family. Much of the population that composed the upper consisted of aristocrats, ruling families, titled people. These people were born into their status and historically there was not much movement across class boundaries. This is to say that it was harder for an individual to move up in class simply because of the structure of society. The Transatlantic Slave Trade helped create a class of white Europeans while maintaining a lower class of black Europeans and Africans. This fact is often edited out of academic research both in publications and online ones such as Wikipedia.
In many countries, the upper class was intimately associated with hereditary land ownership. Political power was often in the hands of the landowners in many pre-industrial societies despite there being no legal barriers to land ownership for other social classes. Upper-class landowners in Europe were often members of the titled nobility, though not necessarily. Some upper classes were almost entirely untitled, for example, the Szlachta of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, in England, Wales and Ireland, the upper class traditionally comprised the landed gentry and the aristocracy of noble families with hereditary titles. The vast majority of post-medieval aristocratic families originated in the merchant class and were ennobled between the 14th and 19th centuries while intermarrying with the old nobility and gentry. Since the Second World War, the term has come to encompass rich, members of the English gentry organized the colonization of Virginia and New England and ruled these colonies for generations forming the foundation of the American upper class or East Coast Elite.
In this respect, the US differs little from such as the UK where membership of the upper class is dependent on other factors. The American upper class is estimated to less than 1% of the population
A brand is a name, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes one seller’s product from those of others. Brands are used in business and advertising, the term has been extended to mean a strategic personality for a product or company, so that ‘brand’ now suggests the values and promises that a consumer may perceive and buy into. Branding is a set of marketing and communication methods that help to distinguish a company from competitors, the key components that form a brands toolbox include a brand’s identity, brand communication, brand awareness, brand loyalty, and various branding strategies. Brand equity is the totality of a brands worth and is validated by assessing the effectiveness of these branding components. To reach such an invaluable brand prestige requires a commitment to a way of doing business. A corporation who exhibits a strong brand culture is dedicated on producing intangible outputs such as customer satisfaction, reduced price sensitivity and customer loyalty. A brand is in essence a promise to its customers that they can expect long-term security, when a customer is familiar with a brand or favours it incomparably to its competitors, this is when a corporation has reached a high level of brand equity.
Many companies are beginning to understand there is often little to differentiate between products in the 21st century. Branding remains the last bastion for differentiation, in accounting, a brand defined as an intangible asset is often the most valuable asset on a corporation’s balance sheet. The word ‘brand’ is often used as a referring to the company that is strongly identified with a brand. Marque or make are often used to denote a brand of motor vehicle, a concept brand is a brand that is associated with an abstract concept, like breast cancer awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business. A commodity brand is a associated with a commodity. The word, derives from Dutch brand meaning to burn and this product was developed at Dhosi Hill, an extinct volcano in northern India. Roman glassmakers branded their works, with Ennion being the most prominent, the Italians used brands in the form of watermarks on paper in the 13th century. Blind Stamps and silver-makers marks are all types of brand, industrialization moved the production of many household items, such as soap, from local communities to centralized factories.
When shipping their items, the factories would literally brand their logo or insignia on the barrels used, Bass & Company, the British brewery, claims their red-triangle brand as the worlds first trademark. Another example comes from Antiche Fornaci Giorgi in Italy, which has stamped or carved its bricks with the same proto-logo since 1731, cattle-branding has been used since Ancient Egypt. The term, originally meaning an un-branded calf, came from a Texas pioneer rancher, Sam Maverick, use of the word maverick spread among cowboys and came to apply to unbranded calves found wandering alone
Harvey Nichols, founded in 1831, is a British department store chain with a flagship store in Knightsbridge, London. It sells fashion collections for men and women, fashion accessories, beauty products, wine, in 1831 Benjamin Harvey opened a linen shop in a terraced house on the corner of Knightsbridge and Sloane Street in London. In 1835 the shop expanded to number 8 next door, in 1841 Benjamin employed James Nichols from Oxfordshire. In 1845 Nichols was promoted to management and in 1848 he married Harvey’s niece, Benjamin Harvey died in 1850, leaving the business in the care of his wife Anne, who went into partnership with James Nichols to form Harvey Nichols & Co. In 1889, the space was demolished to make way for a new department store. The building was designed by C Q Stephens and built in stages between 1889 and 1894, in 1904 the location underwent a change of address to become 109-125 Knightsbridge. In 1920 Harvey Nichols was purchased by Debenhams, in 1975 a restaurant called Harvey’s opened on the fifth floor.
In 1985 Debenhams including Harvey Nichols was acquired by the Burton Group, in 1991, Dickson Poon of Dickson Concepts acquired Harvey Nichols from the Burton Group. Ten years in 2002 the restaurant interior was replaced by a new design by Lipschutz Davison, on 17 February 2014 Stacey Cartwright joined Harvey Nichols as Chief Executive Officer of the Harvey Nichols Group of Companies. She replaced Joseph Wan, who held the position of CEO for 21 years, in the United Kingdom, Harvey Nichols has stores in London, Edinburgh, Manchester, Bristol and a Beauty Bazaar at Harvey Nichols store in Liverpool. It has a store in Al-Faysaliyah Tower in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and it opened a store in Istanbuls Kanyon Shopping Mall on 13 October 2006. In February 2006, it opened a store in Dubai, designed by architecture firm Callison in the Mall of the Emirates, the Dubai store is operated by Al Tayer Insignia, the luxury retail arm of Al Tayer Group. A store in the Grand Indonesia mall in Jakarta, Indonesia was operated by the Indonesian retail conglomerate Mitra Adiperkasa from October 2008, on 25 January 2009 a new store opening was announced for Kuwait which opened in 2012.
Harvey Nichols opened a 22,000 square foot store in Manestys Lane in the Liverpool One shopping area in 2012, the London flagship store is located in Knightsbridge, a few streets from rival Harrods. In addition to its fashion retailing business, Harvey Nichols redeveloped the top floor of its London flagship store to create a restaurant, café, wine shop, a similar concept operates from the top floors of all Harvey Nichols full-size stores. In 1996 Harvey Nichols launched its first stand-alone restaurant in London, the OXO Tower Restaurant, Bar, OXO and three of the in-store restaurants were designed by London-based architects Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands. In May 2013, Harvey Nichols announced they were to double the size of the Birmingham store located in The Mailbox complex, the store will cover 45,000 square feet, double the size of the existing store. In 2015, Harvey Nichols opened a store in Baku, after four months, Harvey Nichols terminated its licence agreement with the Baku store, which now trades under a different name