Nike, Inc. is an American multinational corporation, engaged in the design, development and worldwide marketing and sales of footwear, equipment and services. The company is headquartered near Oregon, in the Portland metropolitan area, it is the world's largest supplier of athletic shoes and apparel and a major manufacturer of sports equipment, with revenue in excess of US$24.1 billion in its fiscal year 2012. As of 2012, it employed more than 44,000 people worldwide. In 2014 the brand alone was valued at $19 billion, making it the most valuable brand among sports businesses; as of 2017, the Nike brand is valued at $29.6 billion. Nike ranked No. 89 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. The company was founded on January 25, 1964, as Blue Ribbon Sports, by Bill Bowerman and Phil Knight, became Nike, Inc. on May 30, 1971. The company takes its name from the Greek goddess of victory. Nike markets its products under its own brand, as well as Nike Golf, Nike Pro, Nike+, Air Jordan, Nike Blazers, Air Force 1, Nike Dunk, Air Max, Nike Skateboarding, Nike CR7, subsidiaries including Brand Jordan, Hurley International and Converse.
Nike owned Bauer Hockey from 1995 to 2008, owned Cole Haan and Umbro. In addition to manufacturing sportswear and equipment, the company operates retail stores under the Niketown name. Nike sponsors many high-profile athletes and sports teams around the world, with the recognized trademarks of "Just Do It" and the Swoosh logo. Nike known as Blue Ribbon Sports, was founded by University of Oregon track athlete Phil Knight and his coach, Bill Bowerman, on January 25, 1964; the company operated in Eugene as a distributor for Japanese shoe maker Onitsuka Tiger, making most sales at track meets out of Knight's automobile. According to Otis Davis, a student athlete whom Bowerman coached at the University of Oregon, who went on to win two gold medals at the 1960 Summer Olympics, Bowerman made the first pair of Nike shoes for him, contradicting a claim that they were made for Phil Knight. Says Davis, "I told Tom Brokaw that I was the first. I don't care. Bill Bowerman made the first pair of shoes for me.
People don't believe me. In fact, I didn't like the way. There was no support and they were too tight, but I saw Bowerman make them from the waffle iron, they were mine". In 1964, in its first year in business, BRS sold 1,300 pairs of Japanese running shoes grossing $8,000. By 1965 the fledgling company had acquired a full-time employee, sales had reached $20,000. In 1966, BRS opened its first retail store, located at 3107 Pico Boulevard in Santa Monica, California next to a beauty salon, so its employees no longer needed to sell inventory from the back of their cars. In 1967, due to increasing sales, BRS expanded retail and distribution operations on the East Coast, in Wellesley, Massachusetts. By 1971, the relationship between BRS and Onitsuka Tiger was nearing an end. BRS prepared to launch its own line of footwear, which would bear the Swoosh newly designed by Carolyn Davidson; the Swoosh was first used by Nike on June 18, 1971, was registered with the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office on January 22, 1974.
In 1976, the company hired John Brown and Partners, based in Seattle, as its first advertising agency. The following year, the agency created the first "brand ad" for Nike, called "There is no finish line", in which no Nike product was shown. By 1980, Nike had attained a 50% market share in the U. S. athletic shoe market, the company went public in December of that year. Together and Wieden+Kennedy have created many print and television advertisements, Wieden+Kennedy remains Nike's primary ad agency, it was agency co-founder Dan Wieden who coined the now-famous slogan "Just Do It" for a 1988 Nike ad campaign, chosen by Advertising Age as one of the top five ad slogans of the 20th century and enshrined in the Smithsonian Institution. Walt Stack was featured in Nike's first "Just Do It" advertisement, which debuted on July 1, 1988. Wieden credits the inspiration for the slogan to "Let's do it", the last words spoken by Gary Gilmore before he was executed. Throughout the 1980s, Nike expanded its product line to encompass many sports and regions throughout the world.
In 1990, Nike moved into its eight-building World Headquarters campus in Oregon. The first Nike retail store, dubbed Niketown, opened in downtown Portland in November of that year. Phil Knight announced in mid-2015 that he would step down as chairman of Nike in 2016, he stepped down from all duties with the company on June 30, 2016. In a company public announcement on March 15, 2018, Parker said Trevor Edwards, a top Nike executive, seen as a potential successor to the chief executive, was relinquishing his position as Nike's brand president and would retire in August. Nike has acquired several apparel and footwear companies over the course of its history, some of which have since been sold, its first acquisition was the upscale footwear company Cole Haan in 1988, followed by the purchase of Bauer Hockey in 1994. In 2002, Nike bought surf apparel company Hurley International from founder Bob Hurley. In 2003, Nike paid US$309 million to acquire Converse, makers of the Chuck Taylor All-Stars line of sneakers.
The company acquired Starter in 2004 and Umbro, known as the manufacturers of the England national football team's kit, in 2008. In order to refocus on its core business lines, Nike began divesting of some of its subsidiaries in the 2000s, it sold Starter in 2007 and Bauer Hockey in 2008. The company sold Umbro in 2012 and Cole Haan in 2013. As
Persuasion is an umbrella term of influence. Persuasion can attempt to influence a person's beliefs, intentions, motivations, or behaviors. In business, persuasion is a process aimed at changing a person's attitude or behavior toward some event, object, or other person, by using written, spoken words or visual tools to convey information, feelings, or reasoning, or a combination thereof. Persuasion is an used tool in the pursuit of personal gain, such as election campaigning, giving a sales pitch, or in trial advocacy. Persuasion can be interpreted as using one's personal or positional resources to change people's behaviors or attitudes. Systematic persuasion is the process through which attitudes or beliefs are leveraged by appeals to logic and reason. Heuristic persuasion on the other hand is the process through which attitudes or beliefs are leveraged by appeals to habit or emotion. Persuasion began with the Greeks, who emphasized rhetoric and elocution as the highest standard for a successful politician.
All trials were held in front of the Assembly, both the prosecution and the defense rested, as they do today, on the persuasiveness of the speaker. Rhetoric was the ability to find the available means of persuasion in any instance; the Greek philosopher Aristotle listed four reasons why one should learn the art of persuasion: truth and justice are perfect. Aristotle's rhetorical proofs: ethos logos pathos Humans attempt to explain the actions of others through either dispositional attribution or situational attribution. Dispositional attribution referred to as internal attribution, attempts to point to a person's traits, motives, or dispositions as a cause or explanation for their actions. A citizen criticizing a president by saying the nation is lacking economic progress and health because the president is either lazy or lacking in economic intuition is utilizing a dispositional attribution. Situational attribution referred to as external attribution, attempts to point to the context around the person and factors of his surroundings things that are out of his control.
A citizen claiming that a lack of economic progress is not a fault of the president but rather the fact that he inherited a poor economy from the previous president is situational attribution. Fundamental attribution error occurs when people wrongly attribute either a shortcoming or accomplishment to internal factors, disregarding any external factors. In general, people tend to make dispositional attributions more than situational attributions when trying to explain or understand a person's behavior; this happens when we are much more focused on the individual because we do not know much about their situation or context. When trying to persuade others to like us or another person, we tend to explain positive behaviors and accomplishments with dispositional attribution, but our own negative behaviors and shortcomings with situational attributions; the theory of planned behaviour is the foremost theory of behaviour change. It has support from meta-analyses. Theories, by nature however, prioritise internal validity, over external validity.
They are coherent and therefore make for an and reappropriated story. On the other hand, they will correspond more poorly with the evidence, mechanics of reality, than a straightforward itemisation of the behaviour change interventions by their individual efficacy; these behaviour change interventions have been categorised by behaviour scientists. A mutually exclusive, comprehensively exhaustive translation of this taxonomy, in decreasing order of effectiveness are: positive and negative consequences offering/removing incentives, offering/removing threats/punishments, changing exposure to cues for the behaviour, prompts/cues, goal-setting, emotional/health/social/environmental/regret consequences, self-monitoring of the behaviour and outcomes of behaviour, mental rehearsal of successful performance, self-talk, focus on past success, comparison of outcomes via persuasive argument, pros/cons and comparative imaging of future outcomes, identification of self as role model, self-affirmation, cognitive dissonance, antecedentsA typical instantiations of these techniques in therapy isexposure / response prevention for OCD.
Conditioning plays a huge part in the concept of persuasion. It is more about leading someone into taking certain actions of their own, rather than giving direct commands. In advertisements for example, this is done by attempting to connect a positive emotion to a brand/product logo; this is done by creating commercials that make people laugh, using a sexual undertone, inserting uplifting images and/or music etc. and ending the commercial with a brand/product logo. Great examples of this are professional athletes, they are paid to connect themselves to things. The important thing for the advertiser is to establish a connection to the consumer; this conditioning is thought to affect how people view certain products, knowing that most purchases are made on the basis of emotion. Just like you sometimes recall a memory from a certain smell or sound, the objective of some ads is to bring back
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them. The plant is part of the genus Nicotiana and of the Solanaceae family. While more than 70 species of tobacco are known, the chief commercial crop is N. tabacum. The more potent variant N. rustica is used around the world. Tobacco contains the alkaloid nicotine, a stimulant, harmala alkaloids. Dried tobacco leaves are used for smoking in cigarettes, pipe tobacco, flavored shisha tobacco, they can be consumed as snuff, chewing tobacco, dipping tobacco and snus. Tobacco use is a risk factor for many diseases. In 2008, the World Health Organization named tobacco as the world's single greatest preventable cause of death; the English word "tobacco" originates from the Spanish and Portuguese word "tabaco". The precise origin of this word is disputed, but it is thought to have derived at least in part, from Taino, the Arawakan language of the Caribbean. In Taino, it was said to mean either a roll of tobacco leaves or to tabago, a kind of L-shaped pipe used for sniffing tobacco smoke.
However coincidentally, similar words in Spanish and Italian were used from 1410 to define medicinal herbs believed to have originated from the Arabic طُبّاق ṭubbāq, a word dating to the 9th century, as a name for various herbs. Tobacco has long been used in the Americas, with some cultivation sites in Mexico dating back to 1400–1000 BC. Many Native American tribes have traditionally used tobacco. Eastern North American tribes carried tobacco in pouches as a accepted trade item, as well as smoking it, both and ceremonially, such as to seal a peace treaty or trade agreement. In some populations, tobacco is seen as a gift from the Creator, with the ceremonial tobacco smoke carrying one's thoughts and prayers to the Creator. Following the arrival of the Europeans to the Americas, tobacco became popular as a trade item. Hernández de Boncalo, Spanish chronicler of the Indies, was the first European to bring tobacco seeds to the Old World in 1559 following orders of King Philip II of Spain; these seeds were planted in the outskirts of Toledo, more in an area known as "Los Cigarrales" named after the continuous plagues of cicadas.
Before the development of the lighter Virginia and white burley strains of tobacco, the smoke was too harsh to be inhaled. Small quantities were smoked at a time, using a pipe like the midwakh or kiseru or smoking newly invented waterpipes such as the bong or the hookah. Tobacco became so popular that the English colony of Jamestown used it as currency and began exporting it as a cash crop; the alleged benefits of tobacco account for its considerable success. The astronomer Thomas Harriot, who accompanied Sir Richard Grenville on his 1585 expedition to Roanoke Island, explains that the plant "openeth all the pores and passages of the body" so that the natives’ "bodies are notably preserved in health, know not many grievous diseases, wherewithal we in England are times afflicted." Tobacco smoking and snuffing became a major industry in Europe and its colonies by 1700. Tobacco has been a major cash crop in Cuba and in other parts of the Caribbean since the 18th century. Cuban cigars are world-famous.
In the late 19th century, cigarettes became popular. James Bonsack created a machine that automated cigarette production; this increase in production allowed tremendous growth in the tobacco industry until the health revelations of the late-20th century. Following the scientific revelations of the mid-20th century, tobacco became condemned as a health hazard, became encompassed as a cause for cancer, as well as other respiratory and circulatory diseases. In the United States, this led to the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement, which settled the lawsuit in exchange for a combination of yearly payments to the states and voluntary restrictions on advertising and marketing of tobacco products. In the 1970s, Brown & Williamson cross-bred a strain of tobacco to produce Y1; this strain of tobacco contained an unusually high amount of nicotine, nearly doubling its content from 3.2-3.5% to 6.5%. In the 1990s, this prompted the Food and Drug Administration to use this strain as evidence that tobacco companies were intentionally manipulating the nicotine content of cigarettes.
In 2003, in response to growth of tobacco use in developing countries, the World Health Organization rallied 168 countries to sign the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The convention is designed to push for effective legislation and its enforcement in all countries to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco; this led to the development of tobacco cessation products. Many species of tobacco are in the genus of herbs Nicotiana, it is part of the nightshade family indigenous to North and South America, south west Africa, the South Pacific. Most nightshades contain varying amounts of a powerful neurotoxin to insects. However, tobaccos tend to contain a much higher concentration of nicotine than the others. Unlike many other Solanaceae species, they do not contain tropane alkaloids, which are poisonous to humans and other animals. Despite containing enough nicotine and other compounds such as germacrene and anabasine and other piperidine alkaloids to deter most herbivores, a number of such animals have evolved
False advertising is the use of false, misleading, or unproven information to advertise products to consumers. The advertising does not disclose its source. One form of false advertising is to claim that a product has a health benefit or contains vitamins or minerals that it in fact does not. Many governments use regulations to control false advertising. A false advertisement can further be classified as deceptive if the advertiser deliberately misleads the consumer, as opposed to making an honest mistake. Used in cosmetic and weight loss commercials, these adverts portray false and unobtainable results to the consumer and give a false impression of the product's true capabilities. If retouching is not discovered or fixed, a company can be at a competitive advantage with consumers purchasing their more effective product, thus leaving competitors at a loss. Advertisers for weight loss products may employ athletes who are recovering from injuries for "before and after" demonstrations. An ad may skim over important information.
The ad's claims may be technically true, but the ad does not include information that a reasonable person would consider relevant. For example, TV advertisements for prescription drugs may technically fulfill a regulatory requirement by displaying side-effects in a small font at the end of the ad, or have a "speed-talker" list them; this practice was prevalent in the United States in the recent past. Hidden fees can be a way for companies to trick the unwary consumer into paying excess fees on a product, advertised at a specific price as a way to increase profit without raising the price on the actual item. A common form of hidden fees and surcharges is "fine print" in advertising. Another way to hide fees, used is to not include "shipping fees" into the price of goods online; this makes. Many hotels charge mandatory "resort fees" that are not included in the advertised base price of the room. Manipulation of measurement units and standards can be described as a seller deceiving customers by informing them with facts that either are not true or are using a standard or standards that wouldn't be used or understood which results in the customer being misinformed or confused.
Some products are sold with fillers, which increase the legal weight of the product with something that costs the producer little compared to what the consumer thinks that he or she is buying. Food is an example of this, where meat is injected with broth or brine, or TV dinners are filled with gravy or other sauce instead of meat. Malt and ham have been used as filler in peanut butter. There are non-meat fillers which may look starchy in their makeup. One example is known as a cereal binder and contains some combination of flours and oatmeal; some products may have a large container where most of the space is empty, leading the consumer to believe that the total amount of food is greater than it is. The words “Diet, low fat, sugar-free and good for you” are labels they may see every day and they associate these labels with products that will aid a healthy lifestyle, it seems advertisers are aware of their needs to live longer and live well so they are adapting their products in accordance with this.
It is suggested. Therefore, by highlighting certain contents or ingredients is misleading consumers into thinking they are buying healthy when in fact they are not. Many large food companies are going to court after using misleading tactics like these: Using a tick panel above the nutritional label and using large, bold font and brighter colors. Highlighting one healthy ingredient on the front of the packet with a big tick next to it. Using words like healthy and natural which are weasel claims – words that contradict the claims that may follow it; these are used words where the meaning can be overlooked by consumers. Using words like help on the product labeling, misleading consumers into thinking it ‘will’ help. However, this is not always the case. There has been an increase in the number of large organizations going to court over misleading claims, stating that products are ‘school canteen approved’ or ‘all natural,’ hence claiming their products are healthy or only uses natural ingredients, but this is not always the case.
Many advertisements for supplements or medicine include "This product is not intended to diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.", as any product, intended to diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease must undergo FDA testing and approval, very expensive. Puffing or puffery is the act of exaggerating a product's worth through the use of meaningless unsubstantiated terms, based on opinion rather than fact, in some cases through the manipulation of data. Examples of this include many superlatives and statements such as “greatest of all time”, “best in town” and “out of this world” or a restaurant claiming it had "the world’s best tasting food". Puffing is not an illegal form of false advertising and can be looked at as a humorous way to grab and attract the attention of the consumer. Puffing may be able to be used as a defense against charges of deceptive advertising when it is formatted as an opinion rather than a fact. However, it can be used as a defense for misleading or deceptive advertising.
For example, claims like ‘Top Quality’ can have regulatory and legal consequences and can be looked at as illegal misrepresentation, if not supported through the products capabilities. Many terms have imprecise meanings. Depending on the jurisdiction, "o
As an act of protest, occupation is a strategy used by social movements and other forms of collective social action in order to take and hold public and symbolic spaces, critical infrastructure such as entrances to train stations, shopping centers, university buildings and parks. Opposed to a military occupation which attempts to subdue a conquered country, a protest occupation is a means to resist the status quo and advocate a change in public policy. Occupation attempts to use space as an instrument in order to achieve political and economic change, to construct counter-spaces in which protesters express their desire to participate in the production and re-imagination of urban space; this is connected to the right to the city, the right to inhabit and be in the city as well as to redefine the city in ways that challenge the demands of capitalist accumulation. That is to make public spaces more valuable to the citizens in contrast to favoring the interests of corporate and financial capital.
Unlike other forms of protest like demonstrations and rallies, occupation is defined by an extended temporality and is located in specific places. In many cases local governments declare occupations illegal because protesters seek to control space over a prolonged time, thus occupations are in conflict with political authorities and forces of established order the police. These confrontations in particular attract media attention. Occupation, as a means of achieving change, emerged from worker struggles that sought everything from higher wages to the abolition of capitalism. Called a sit-down strike, it is a form of civil disobedience in which an organized group of workers employed at a factory or other centralized location, take possession of the workplace by "sitting down" at their stations preventing their employers from replacing them with strikebreakers or, in some cases, moving production to other locations; the recovered factories in Argentina is an example of workplace occupations moving beyond addressing workplace grievances, to demanding a change in ownership of the means of production.
The Industrial Workers of the World were the first American union to use it, while the United Auto Workers staged successful sit-down strikes in the 1930s, most famously in the Flint Sit-Down Strike of 1936-1937. Sit-down strikes were declared illegal by the US supreme court, but are still used by unions such as the UMWA in the Pittston strike, the workers at the Republic Windows and Doors factory in Chicago; the Occupy Wall Street movement, inspired amongst others by the Arab Spring and the Indignados movement of Spain, started a global movement in which the occupation of public spaces is a key tactic. During these protests in 2011, the tactic of occupation was used in a new way as protesters wanted to remain indefinitely until they were heard, resisting police and government officials who wanted to evict them. In contrast to earlier protest encampments these occupations mobilized more people during a longer time period in more cities; this gained them worldwide attention. 2018 UCU Strike Solidarity Occupations.
Student occupations took place on over 20 UK university campuses and the UUK London Offices in support of the 4-week UCU national strike over a pensions dispute. Some occupations lasted for over a month and continued after the strike had ended, calling for an end to the neo-liberalisation and marketisation of higher education and in support of the rights of low-income workers at universities such as cleaners and security guards. 2015 Occupy LSE, a six-week occupation against the neoliberalisation of LSE and the UK Higher Education system. 2015 University of Amsterdam Bungehuis and Maagdenhuis Occupations, a protest against budget cuts and for more democracy in the University. 2014 Hong Kong protests, an occupation protest for universal suffrage in Hong Kong in 2014 The occupation of the Legislative Yuan of Republic of China in 2014 as part of the Sunflower Student Movement. The several massive occupations of improductive land in Brazil by the largest mass movement of the world, the Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra, from 1973 up to now.
The 2011–2012 Spanish protests The occupation of the Wisconsin State Capitol in Madison, Wisconsin in February 2011 as part of the 2011 Wisconsin protests over labor rights, a precursor to the Occupy Wall Street movement. Occupy Wall Street, which helped spawn the worldwide Occupy movement, still ongoing Tahrir Square during the 2011 Egyptian revolution The occupation of some university buildings in the UK in November 2010 and early 2011 in response to cuts by the coalition Conservative-Liberal Democrat government including those to public services, welfare handouts and all levels of education; the tent city known as "Democracy Village" erected in Parliament Square in London, in 2010. The wave of Student Occupations at universities in the UK in early 2009; the occupations of university buildings during the 2009 California college tuition hike protests. The flux of student occupations at universities in New York City over the 2008-9 year, including NYU and The New School; the February 2008 occupation of Symphony Way by the Symphony Way Pavement Dwellers after the largest home invasion in South Africa's history.
Residents occupied the main thoroughfare for 9 months. The occupation of Oaxaca City for 150 days during the 2006 Oaxaca protests; the Cedar Revolution The Wild Lily student movement The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. The Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp in England which began protesting the placement of nuclear-armed cruise missiles in 1981; the American Indian Movement occupation at Wounded Knee, South Dakota The 1969 occupati
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced by Gaelic-language placenames. In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001; the highest percentages of Gaelic speakers were in the Outer Hebrides. There are revival efforts, the number of speakers of the language under age 20 did not decrease between the 2001 and 2011 censuses. Outside Scotland, Canadian Gaelic is spoken in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Scottish Gaelic is not an official language of either the United Kingdom. However, it is classed as an indigenous language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, which the British government has ratified, the Gaelic Language Act 2005 established a language development body, Bòrd na Gàidhlig.
Aside from "Scottish Gaelic", the language may be referred to as "Gaelic", pronounced or in English. "Gaelic" may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic is distinct from Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the early modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, with Gaelic being called Scottis. From the late 15th century, however, it became common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a separate language from Irish, so the word Erse in reference to Scottish Gaelic is no longer used. Gaelic was believed to have been brought to Scotland, in the 4th–5th centuries CE, by settlers from Ireland who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast in present-day Argyll.:551:66 However, archaeologist Dr Ewan Campbell has argued that there is no archaeological or placename evidence of a migration or takeover.
This view of the medieval accounts is shared by other historians. Regardless of how it came to be spoken in the region, Gaelic in Scotland was confined to Dál Riata until the eighth century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. By 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct replaced by Gaelic.:238–244 An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, where Pictish was more supplanted by Norse rather than by Gaelic. During the reign of Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the kingdom of Alba rather than as the kingdom of the Picts. However, though the Pictish language did not disappear a process of Gaelicisation was under way during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become Gaelicised Scots, Pictish identity was forgotten. In 1018, after the conquest of the Lothians by the Kingdom of Scotland, Gaelic reached its social, cultural and geographic zenith.:16–18 Colloquial speech in Scotland had been developing independently of that in Ireland since the eighth century.
For the first time, the entire region of modern-day Scotland was called Scotia in Latin, Gaelic was the lingua Scotica.:276:554 In southern Scotland, Gaelic was strong in Galloway, adjoining areas to the north and west, West Lothian, parts of western Midlothian. It was spoken to a lesser degree in north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was widely spoken. Many historians mark the reign of King Malcom Canmore as the beginning of Gaelic's eclipse in Scotland, his wife Margaret of Wessex spoke no Gaelic, gave her children Anglo-Saxon rather than Gaelic names, brought many English bishops and monastics to Scotland.:19 When Malcolm and Margaret died in 1093, the Gaelic aristocracy rejected their anglicised sons and instead backed Malcolm's brother Donald Bàn. Donald had spent 17 years in Gaelic Ireland and his power base was in the Gaelic west of Scotland, he was the last Scottish monarch to be buried on Iona, the traditional burial place of the Gaelic Kings of Dàl Riada and the Kingdom of Alba.
However, during the reigns of Malcolm Canmore's sons, Alexander I and David I, Anglo-Norman names and practices spread throughout Scotland south of the Forth–Clyde line and along the northeastern coastal plain as far north as Moray. Norman French displaced Gaelic at court; the establishment of royal burghs throughout the same area under David I, attracted large numbers of foreigners speaking Old English. This was the beginning of Gaelic's status as a predominantly rural language in Scotland.:19-23 Clan chiefs in the northern and western parts of Scotland continued to support Gaelic bards who remained a central feature of court life there. The semi-independent Lordship of the Isles in the Hebrides and western coastal mainland remained Gaelic since the language's recovery there in the 12th century, providing a political foundation for cultural prestige down to the end of the 15th century.:553-6By the mid-14th century what came to be called Scots emerged as the official language of government and law.:139 Scotland's emergent nat
A boycott is an act of voluntary and intentional abstention from using, buying, or dealing with a person, organization, or country as an expression of protest for moral, political, or environmental reasons. The purpose of a boycott is to inflict some economic loss on the target, or to indicate a moral outrage, to try to compel the target to alter an objectionable behavior. Sometimes, a boycott can be a form of consumer activism, sometimes called moral purchasing; when a similar practice is legislated by a national government, it is known as a sanction. The word boycott entered the English language during the Irish "Land War" and derives from Captain Charles Boycott, the land agent of an absentee landlord, Lord Erne, who lived in Lough Mask House, near Ballinrobe in County Mayo, subject to social ostracism organized by the Irish Land League in 1880; as harvests had been poor that year, Lord Erne offered his tenants a ten percent reduction in their rents. In September of that year, protesting tenants demanded a twenty five percent reduction, which Lord Erne refused.
Boycott attempted to evict eleven tenants from the land. Charles Stewart Parnell, in a speech in Ennis prior to the events in Lough Mask, proposed that when dealing with tenants who take farms where another tenant was evicted, rather than resorting to violence, everyone in the locality should shun them. While Parnell's speech did not refer to land agents or landlords, the tactic was first applied to Boycott when the alarm was raised about the evictions. Despite the short-term economic hardship to those undertaking this action, Boycott soon found himself isolated – his workers stopped work in the fields and stables, as well as in his house. Local businessmen stopped trading with him, the local postman refused to deliver mail; the concerted action taken against him meant that Boycott was unable to hire anyone to harvest the crops in his charge. 50 Orangemen from Cavan and Monaghan volunteered to do the work. They were escorted to and from Claremorris by one thousand policemen and soldiers, despite the fact that the local Land League leaders had said that there would be no violence from them, in fact no violence happened.
This protection ended up costing far more. After the harvest, the "boycott" was continued. Within weeks Boycott's name was everywhere; the New-York Tribune reporter, James Redpath, first wrote of the boycott in the international press. The Irish author, George Moore, reported:'Like a comet the verb'boycott' appeared.' It was used by The Times in November 1880 as a term for organized isolation. According to an account in the book The Fall of Feudalism in Ireland by Michael Davitt, the term was promoted by Fr. John O'Malley of County Mayo to "signify ostracism applied to a landlord or agent like Boycott"; the Times first reported on November 20, 1880: "The people of New Pallas have resolved to'boycott' them and refused to supply them with food or drink." The Daily News wrote on December 13, 1880: "Already the stoutest-hearted are yielding on every side to the dread of being'Boycotted'." By January of the following year, the word was being used figuratively: "Dame Nature arose.... She'Boycotted' London from Kew to Mile End".
Girlcott is a portmanteau of boycott intended to focus on the rights or actions of women. The term was coined in 1968 by American track star Lacey O'Neal during the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City, in the context of protests by male African American athletes. Speaking for black women athletes, she advised that the group would not "girlcott" the Olympic Games, because female athletes were still focused on being recognized, it appeared in Time magazine in 1970, was used by retired tennis player Billie Jean King in reference to Wimbledon, to emphasize her argument regarding equal pay for women players. The term "girlcott" was revived in 2005 by women in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania protesting what they said were sexist and degrading T-shirt slogans on Abercrombie & Fitch merchandise. Although the term itself was not coined until 1880, the practice dates back to at least the 1790s, when supporters of the abolition of the slave trade in Britain advocated boycotting slave-produced sugar. Other instances include: the Iranian Tobacco Boycott, 1891 Civil Rights Movement boycotts the United Farm Workers union grape and lettuce boycotts the American boycott of British goods at the time of the American Revolution the 1905 Chinese boycott of American products to protest the extension of the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1902.
The Indian boycott of British goods organized by Mohandas Gandhi the successful Jewish boycott organised against Henry Ford in the USA, in the 1920s the boycott of Japanese products in China after the May Fourth Movement the Jewish anti-Nazi boycott of German goods in Lithuania, the US, Britain and Mandatory Palestine during 1933 the antisemitic boycott of Jewish-owned businesses in Nazi Germany during the 1930s the Arab League boycott of Israel and companies trading with Israel. The worldwide Boycott and Sanctions campaign led by Palestinian civil society against the State of Israel. During the 1973 oil crisis, the Arab countries enacted a crude oil embargo against the West. Other examples include the US-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, the Soviet-led boycott of the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, the movement that advocated "disinvestment" in South Africa during the 1980s in opposition to that country's apartheid regime; the first Olympic boycott was in the 1956 Summer Olympics with several countries boycotting the games for different reasons.
Iran has an informal Olympic boycott against participating against Israel, Ir