In the 18th century and most of the 19th, a sloop-of-war in the Royal Navy was a warship with a single gun deck that carried up to eighteen guns. The rating system covered all vessels above. In technical terms the more specialised bomb vessels and fireships were classed as sloops-of-war, in practice these were employed in the sloop role when not carrying out their specialized functions. In World War I and World War II, the Royal Navy reused the term "sloop" for specialized convoy-defence vessels, including the Flower class of World War I and the successful Black Swan class of World War II, with anti-aircraft and anti-submarine capability. A sloop-of-war was quite different from a civilian or mercantile sloop, a general term for a single-masted vessel rigged in a way that would today be called a gaff cutter, though some sloops of that type did serve in the 18th century British Royal Navy on the Great Lakes of North America. In the first half of the 18th century, most naval sloops were two-masted vessels carrying a ketch or a snow rig.
A ketch had main and mizzen masts but no foremast, while a snow had a foremast, a main mast and a mizzen abaft the lower main mast. The first three-masted sloops appeared during the 1740s, from the mid-1750s most new sloops were built with a three-masted rig; the third sail the ability to back sail. In the 1770s, the two-masted sloop re-appeared in a new guise as the brig sloop, the successor to the former snow sloops. Brig sloops had two masts. In the Napoleonic period, Britain built huge numbers of brig sloops of the Cruizer class and the Cherokee class; the brig rig was economical of manpower and, when armed with carronades, they had the highest ratio of firepower to tonnage of any ships in the Royal Navy. The carronades used much less manpower than the long guns used to arm frigates; the Cruizer class were used as cheaper and more economical substitutes for frigates, in situations where the frigates' high cruising endurance was not essential. A carronade-armed brig, would be at the mercy of a frigate armed with long guns, so long as the frigate manoeuvered to exploit its superiority of range.
The other limitation of brig sloops as opposed to post ships and frigates was their restricted stowage for water and provisions, which made them less suitable for long-range cruising. However, their shallower draught made them excellent raiders against coastal shipping and shore installations; the Royal Navy made extensive use of the Bermuda sloop, both as a cruiser against French privateers and smugglers, as its standard advice vessels, carrying communications, vital persons and materials, performing reconnaissance duties for the fleets. Bermuda sloops were found with mixtures of gaff and square rig, or a Bermuda rig, they were built with up to three masts. The single masted ships, with their huge sails, the tremendous wind energy they harnessed, were demanding to sail, required large, experienced crews; the Royal Navy favoured multi-masted versions as it was perennially short of sailors, at the end of the 18th century, such personnel as it had in the Western Atlantic, received insufficient training.
The longer decks of the multi-masted vessels had the advantage of allowing more guns to be carried. A sloop-of-war was smaller than a sailing frigate and was outside the rating system. In general, a sloop-of-war would be under the command of a master and commander rather than a post captain, although in day-to-day use at sea the commanding officer of any naval vessels would be addressed as "captain". A ship sloop was the equivalent of the smaller corvette of the French Navy; the name corvette was subsequently applied to British vessels, but not until the 1830s. American usage, while similar to British terminology into the beginning of the 19th century diverged. By about 1825 the United States Navy used "sloop-of-war" to designate a flush-deck ship-rigged warship with all armament on the gundeck; the Americans occasionally used the French term corvette. In the Royal Navy, the sloop evolved into an unrated vessel with a single gun deck and three masts, two square rigged and the aftermost fore-and-aft rigged.
Steam sloops had a transverse division of their lateral coal bunkers in order that the lower division could be emptied first, to maintain a level of protection afforded by the coal in the upper bunker division along the waterline. During the War of 1812 sloops of war in the service of the United States Navy performed well against their Royal Navy equivalents; the American ships had the advantage of being ship
Falling Swinger is the seventh studio album by Australian singer-songwriter Stephen Cummings. The album was released in August 1994; the album was listed was in Australian Rolling Stone Magazine's list of "100 Essential Australian albums". Shaun Carney from Australian Rolling Stone gave the album 4 out of 5 saying "Cummings has, during the past 10 years, made several great, if underappreciated, albums; this could well be his best." Adding "Without doubt, the album, produced by Steve Kilbey, is a bold departure for. Kilbey appears to have viewed Cummings' talent as being something lighter than air and has loosened the performer's moorings; this has enabled Cummings to drift upwards, into a world of soundscapes, transforming his approach to songs and singing and allowing him to shuck off the last discernible traces of his influences. Falling Swinger sees Cummings as a man liberated from his age. Jon Casimir from Sydney Morning Herald said "This is the best album Stephen Cummings has made. It's the best local album of 1994.
Falling Swinger is a drifting, dreamy travelogue, a collection of realised, intoxicating visions." Adding "Produced by The Church's Steve Kilbey, it displays a revitalised and realigned Cummings, bursting with creativity". Toby Creswell from Juice magazine said "...the tunes range from raw confessions to cooked commercial pop... sublime, Cummings at his best."
Phyllis Webb, is a Canadian poet and radio broadcaster. The Canadian Encyclopedia describes her as "a writer of stature in Canadian letters", calls her work "brilliantly crafted, formal in its energies and humane in its concern". Born in Victoria, British Columbia, she attended the University of British Columbia and McGill University. In 1949 she ran as a candidate for the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation in the 1949 British Columbia general election, the youngest person to do so, her poetry was published in 1954 in Trio, an anthology of poems by Eli Mandel, Gael Turnbull, Webb published by Raymond Souster's Contact Press. In 1957 Webb won a grant. Webb has worked as a writer and broadcaster for the CBC, where in 1965 she created, with William A. Young, the radio program Ideas. From 1967 to 1969, Webb was its executive producer. In 1967, she travelled to the Soviet Union, carrying out research on the Russian Revolution of 1917 and on the anarchist Peter Kropotkin, much of which appears in her serial poem "The Kropotkin Poems".
Webb has taught creative writing at the University of British Columbia, the University of Victoria, the Banff Centre, was writer-in-residence at the University of Alberta 1980-1981. She lives on British Columbia. In 1980 Webb was awarded a prize of CA$2,300 by fellow Canadian poets in recognition of her book Wilson's Bowl, overlooked for a Governor General's Award nomination that year. Webb won the Governor General's Literary Award for 1982, for The Vision Tree, she won Canada Council Senior Arts Awards in 1981 and 1987. She became an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1992. Trio: First Poems by Gael Turnbull, Phyllis Webb, Eli Mandel. Toronto: Contact Press, 1954. Your Right Eye. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1956. In a Garden of the Pitti Palace. Vancouver: Pica Press, 1961; the Sea is Also a Garden: Poems. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1962. Naked Poems. Vancouver: Periwinkle Press, 1965. For Fyodor. Toronto: M. Ondaatje, 1973. Broadside Poems. Vancouver, British Columbia: Slug Press, 1979-1982. Wilson’s Bowl.
Toronto: Coach House Press, 1980. The Bowl. Lantzville, BC: Island Magazine, 1981. Selected Broadsides. Charlotte Town, PEI.: Island Magazine, 1981-1982. Talking. Dunvegan, ON.: Quadrant Editions, 1982. Sunday Water: Thirteen Anti-Ghazals. Lantzville, BC: Island Writing Series, 1982. Prison Report. Vancouver: Slug Press, 1982. Water and Light: Ghazals and Anti- Ghazals: Poems. Toronto: Coach House Press, 1984. Eschatology of Spring. Salt Spring Island, BC: Salt Spring Island Voice of Women, 1984. Pepper Tree: For Breyten Breytenbach. Toronto: Imprimerie dromadaire, 1986. Nine Poets Printed = 9 Poets Printed. Toronto: Imprimerie dromadaire, 1986-1988. Hanging Fire. Toronto: Coach House Press, 1990. Grape Vine. Vancouver: Slug Press, 1992. Four Swans in Fulford Harbour. Salt Spring Island, BC: Other Tongue Press, 1999. Hulcoop, John, ed. Selected Poems, 1954-1965. Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1971. Thesen, Sharon, ed. Selected Poems: the Vision Tree. Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1982. Butling, Pauline, ed. Seeing in the Dark: the Poetry of Phyllis Webb.
Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1997. Nothing but Brush Strokes: Selected Prose. Edmonton, AB: NeWest, 1995. “Radio Talks: From the Phyllis Webb Papers, National Library.” West Coast Line 25.3: 95-102. The Griffin Poetry Prize Anthology: A Selection of the 2004 Shortlist. Toronto: House of Anansi Press, 2004. Except where otherwise noted, bibliographical information courtesy Brock University. Alex. Toronto: CBC Pub. 1966. Canadian Poets I. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 1966. Phyllis Webb: The Question as an Instrument of Torture. Toronto: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 1971. Phyllis Webb: Poetry and Psychobiography. 1993. Fall Equinox Reading at the Literary Storefront. Tape #4, Mona Fertig, Phyllis Webb, David Frith, Robert Tyhurst & Lakshmi Gill. Vancouver: s.n. 1981. Phyllis Webb. Burnaby, BC: SFU Art Gallery, 1981. Except where otherwise noted, sound/video information courtesy Brock University. Butling, Pauline. "Seeing in the Dark: The Poetry of Phyllis Webb." Waterloo, Ont: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1997.
Collis, Steve. Phyllis Webb and the Common Good: Poetry, Abstraction. Vancouver, BC: Talon, 2007. Cash, Gwen. “Portrait of a Poet: Victoria's Phyllis Webb.” B. C. Magazine 6 April 1957: 17. Fagan, Cary. “The Articulate Anger of Phyllis Webb.” Books In Canada 20.1: 21-23. Frey, Cecelia. “Phyllis Webb: An Annotated Bibliography.” The Annotated Bibliography of Canada's Major Authors. Eds. Robert Lecker and Jack David. Vol.6. Toronto: ECW, 1985. 489-98. Hulcoop, John. “Phyllis Webb and the Priestess of Motion.” Canadian Literature 32: 29-39. Kamboureli, Smaro. “Seeking Shape, Seeking Meaning: An interview with Phyllis Webb.” West Coast Line 25.3: 21-41. Knight, Lorna. “Oh for the Carp of a Critic: Research in the Phyllis Webb Papers.” West Coast Line 26.2: 120-127. Macfarlane, Julian. Rev. of Selected Poems, by Phyllis Webb. The Capilano Review 1: 53-58. Munton, Ann. “Excerpt from an Interview with Phyllis Webb.” West Coast Line 25.3: 81-85. Potvin, Liza. "Phyllis Webb: The Voice That Breaks" Sujir, Leila. “Addressing a Presence: An Interview with Phyllis Webb.”