Slovene Istria is a region in southwest of Slovenia. It comprises the northern part of the Istrian peninsula, it is part of the wider geographical-historical region known as the Slovene Littoral, its largest urban center is Koper. Other large settlements are Izola and Portorož; the whole region has around 120 settlements. In its coastal area, both the Slovene and Italian languages are official; the Slovene Riviera is located in Slovene Istria. The Istrian peninsula was known to Romans as the terra magica, its name is derived from the Histri, an Illyrian tribe who, as accounted by the geographer Strabo, lived in the region. Romans described them as pirates who were hard to conquer due to the difficulty of navigating their territory. After two military campaigns, Roman legions subdued them in 177 BC. A lot of remains of ancient harbours and settlements still remain today in Ankaran, Izola and Piran. With the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476, Istria was conquered by the Byzantines. With the end of the 6th century, Carantanians arrived and built their first permanent settlement around the year 700.
During Byzantine rule, it was shortly ruled by Avars. Istria was annexed by the Lombards in 751 and by the Avars in 774, it came under Frankish rule during the reign of Charlemagne, when his son Carloman conquered the peninsula in 789, was incorporated into the Carolingian March of Friuli. In 952 King Otto I of Germany ceded Istria together with the vast March of Verona and Aquileia to the Dukes of Bavaria. From 976 Verona was ruled by the Dukes of Carinthia, until in 1040 King Henry III established the separate March of Istria, which thereafter successively was controlled by various noble dynasties such as the Bavarian House of Andechs. In 1208/09 it fell to the Patriarchs of Aquileia, while large parts of the estates were held by the comital House of Gorizia. From 1267 the Republic of Venice annexed the Istrian coast, aided by the strong presence of the autochthonous romance-speaking communities; the coastal area somewhat reflowered, but the venetian government enmity with Austria and the Ottoman empire limited the relations with the hinterland.
After Napoleon's triumph in Padania, the Treaty of Campo Formio in 1797 gave most of Venetian Republic and all of the peninsula to the Habsburg. Between 1805 and 1813, it was under French rule, first as part of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy as a province within the Illyrian Provinces. In 1813, it became part of the Austrian Empire, which unified the whole peninsula under a single administration with the capital in Pazin. In 1860, Istria became an autonomous province within the Austrian Littoral, with its own Provincial diet. What is today Slovenian Istria was divided among the administrative district of Koper and Volosko: the former extended to the present-day municipalities of Koper and Piran, while the latter extended to the present-day municipality of Hrpelje-Kozina. After World War I, according to the peace Treaty of Rapallo, in 1920 Istria became part of Italy. Fascism and Nazi occupation spoiled ethnic relations. After World War II, Istria was assigned to Yugoslavia; as a consequence, between 1945 and 1954, an estimated 350,000 ethnic Italians left the Slovenian Istria in the so-called Istrian exodus, together with several thousand Slovenes.
Between 1947 and 1954, Slovenian Istria was divided between the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia and the Free Territory of Trieste. After the abolition of the Free Territory in 1954, the region became part of the People's Republic of Slovenia within Yugoslavia. Between the 1950s and 1970s, the region experienced profound changes. A significant portion of the rural population moved to the coastal towns, which remained semi-deserted after the Istrian Exodus; the local Italian population shrank in number. Many villages were depopulated. Koper developed in an important portal town, one of the major centres of Slovenian economy; the 43 kilometers long coastline of Slovenian Istria has numerous peninsulas and bays such as Piran peninsula and Gulf of Piran, Gulf of Koper and Ankaran peninsula on, at the same time one of only two nature reserves on Slovenian coast, the other one being the Strunjan reserve. In the Strunjan reserve lies the only coastal cliff in Slovenia, at the same time the only cliff in Trieste Bay.
The inner part of the region is more hilly, with various types of landscape, including the most known karst landscape in the Karst region. The most important water-flows in Slovenian Istria are the Rižana rivers. Slovenian Istria is the second most prosperous region in Slovenia after Central Slovenia; the two most important economic branches are transport and tourism, followed by services and industry. The Port of Koper is the only international port in Slovenia and one of the largest in the Adriatic Sea, it is considered as one of the strategically most important firms in Slovenian economy. Tourism is one of the main industries on the Slovenian coast in Portorož, Izola and Sečovlje, where the most important historical monument is the Venetian Gothic Mediterranean town of Piran; the neighboring town of Portorož is a popular modern tourist resort, offering entertainment in gambling tourism. The former fishermen town of Izola has been transformed into a popular tourist destination.
Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca
The Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca was a crown land of the Habsburg dynasty within the Austrian Littoral on the Adriatic Sea, in what is now a multilingual border area of Italy and Slovenia. It was named for its two major urban centers and Gradisca d'Isonzo; the province stretched along the Soča/Isonzo River, from its source at Mt. Jalovec in the Julian Alps down to the Gulf of Trieste near Monfalcone. In the northwest, the Predil Pass led to the Duchy of Carinthia, in the northeast Mts. Mangart and Triglav marked the border with the Duchy of Carniola. In the west, Mts. Kanin and Matajur stood on the border with the Friulian region, which until the 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio was part of the Republic of Venice, from 1815 onwards belonged to the Austrian Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia and to the re-established Kingdom of Italy from 1866. In the south the province bordered on the territory of the Imperial Free City of Trieste and the Margraviate of Istria; the medieval County of Görz had been acquired by the Austrian Habsburgs in 1500, when the last Meinhardiner count Leonhard died without heir.
Habsburg suzerainty was interrupted by the Venetians in 1508/09, before Görz was incorporated into the Inner Austrian territories of the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1647 Emperor Ferdinand III elevated the Görz town of Gradisca to an immediate county for the descendants of privy councillor Prince Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg. After the princely House of Eggenberg had become extinct, Gradisca was re-unified with Gorizia in 1754, creating the County of Gorizia and Gradisca. During the Napoleonic Wars and Gradisca fell under French rule. In 1805, all of its territories on the right bank of the Isonzo river were assigned to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy; the majority of its territory remained part of the Austrian Empire until 1809, when it was incorporated into the Illyrian Provinces under direct domination of the French Empire. In 1813, Austrian rule was restored; the county was re-established in its former borders, including the former enclaves of Monfalcone and Grado, under Venetian control before 1797.
However, in 1816 the county was combined with the Duchies of Carniola and Carinthia, the Imperial Free City of Trieste, the March of Istria and its associated islands to form a wider administrative unit named the Kingdom of Illyria, with the capital in Laibach. In 1849, the Kingdom of Illyria was dissolved, the Austrian Littoral was formed, comprising the County of Gorizia and Gradisca and Istria. In 1861, the territory of the County gained autonomy as the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca, a crown land within Austria-Hungary; the County had its own provincial parliament and enjoyed a large degree of self-government, although it was formally subjected to an Imperial Governor with the seat in Trieste, who carried out the government supervision for the whole territory of the Austrian Littoral. In 1915, Italy entered World War I against Austria-Hungary; the western part of the county was devastated by the Battles of the Isonzo, fought between the two armies. In August 1916, Gorizia was occupied by Italian troops for the first time in its history, but in November 1917 the Austro-Hungarian Army threw the Italian forces back in the Battle of Caporetto.
Large numbers of the population were interned in civil camps around Austria-Hungary and Italy, while half of the province's territory laid in ruins. In Spring 1918, two mass political movements emerged in the county, demanding larger autonomy within a federalized Habsburg Monarchy; the Slovenes demanded the union with other South Slavic peoples into a sovereign Yugoslav state, while the Friulians demanded special autonomy for the western part of the region, where they were the majority. The two movements did not clash; the only open issue was the town of Gorizia, claimed by the Friulians. An underground movement, known as Italia irredenta, demanded the unification of Gorizia with Italy. With the dissolution of Austria-Hungary in late October 1918, a short interim period followed, in which no movement was able to establish its authority. In November 1918, the whole territory of the county was occupied by the Italian military which suppressed all political movements challenging her claims on the region.
In November 1918, the county was abolished and incorporated in the provisional administrative region of Julian March. With the treaties of Rapallo and Saint Germain-en-Laye of 1920, the whole territory of the county became an integral part of the Kingdom of Italy; the former Habsburg policy favouring local autonomies was replaced by a strict centralism. The Province of Gorizia was established, which had little self-government compared to the old county; the borders of the new province were partially changed. The new province included some areas of the former Austrian Duchy of Carniola that were assigned to Italy by the Peace Treaty. On the other hand, most of the territory in the Karst region, which had belonged to the County of Gorizia and Gradisca, was incorporated in the Province of Trieste, while the district of Cervignano was included in the Province of Udine. In 1924, the Province of Gorizia was abolished and i
Carinthia Slovene Carinthia or Slovenian Carinthia, is a traditional region in northern Slovenia. The term refers to the small southeasternmost area of the former Duchy of Carinthia, which after World War I was allocated to the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes according to the 1919 Treaty of Saint-Germain, it has no distinct centre, but a local centre in each of the three central river valleys among the forested mountains. Since the entry of Slovenia into the European Union in May 2004, much effort has been made to re-integrate Carinthia as a cultural and economic unit; the historic region has no official status as an administrative district within Slovenia, although the association with an informal province is quite common. The region lies in the Karawanks mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps and comprises two spatially divided areas: the Meža Valley down to the confluence with the Drava valley, including the municipalities of Črna na Koroškem, Mežica and Ravne na Koroškem, Dravograd.
The Municipality of Jezersko south of the Seeberg Saddle mountain pass. All these municipalities border on the Austrian state of Carinthia in the north. In 2005, the Carinthia Statistical Region was established, which covers a larger area of about 1,041 km2, parts of which encompass a number of adjacent municipalities belonging to the traditional region of Styria like the town of Slovenj Gradec in the Mislinja Valley or Muta and Radlje down the Drava River, though not Jezersko, part of the Upper Carniola Statistical Region; the landscape of Carinthia is diverse, with predominance of hilly and mountainous relief, in the Pleistocene transformed by glaciers. The climate is an alpine climate, a transitional continental climate. An important element is temperature inversion. Over two thirds of Carinthia is covered by forest and the percentage is still increasing; the predominant tree species are beech and spruce. The lower areas have been polluted by lead due to a lead mine. Despite this, Carinthia is home to much game and alpine animal species above the timberline, like at Mount Peca or Mount Raduha.
The Drava River is home to many fish. The name derives from the early mediæval Slavic principality of Carantania, whose territory stretched from the present-day Austrian state of Carinthia down to the Styrian lands on the Sava river; the area was part of the Imperial Carinthian duchy established in 976 and ruled by the House of Habsburg from 1335, which in 1867 became a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary. Upon the Austrian defeat in World War I, the newly established Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes in 1919 occupied southern Carinthia; the Meža Valley, the area around Dravograd and Jezersko, which are today the territory of Slovenia, were split off without a referendum, while in the occupied region north and west of this, on 10 October 1920 the voters in the Carinthian Plebiscite determined that those parts should become part of the newly founded First Austrian Republic. During the 1941 Balkan Campaign of World War II, the area was annexed by Nazi Germany and put under the administration of the Reichsgau of Carinthia, led by Friedrich Rainer.
Upon the German Instrument of Surrender in May 1945, Yugoslav Partisans entered the region, killing numerous alleged collaborators in what became known in the context of the Bleiburg repatriations. The area around Dravograd and Prevalje is the site of several mass graves. After the war, the region formed part of the Yugoslav Socialist Republic of Slovenia, it became part of independent Slovenia after the Breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991; the Carinthia Statistical Region had 73,754 inhabitants in 2008, with an uneven settlement and young population. Nonetheless, due to low birth rate and shorter life span, the number of inhabitants is decreasing; the biggest employer is the processing industry. Many people are commuters, working in Ljubljana, Maribor and Austria. In 2008, there was high unemployment, 10.5% in the mining town of Črna na Koroškem and 11.8 in Ravne na Koroškem, known for its steel industry. Other large settlements are the mining towns Mežica and Prevalje, Dravograd along the Maribor-Klagenfurt railway, Slovenj Gradec, the administrative centre of the Mislinja Valley and a cultural centre, Muta with a metal industry based on its blacksmith tradition, Radlje ob Dravi, a lively business and commercial centre.
In the 1990s, the lead and zinc mine in the Meža Valley, the most industrialized valley of the region, the lead smelter in Žerjav were closed down. The only factory in the area around the mine still operating is a manufacturer of batteries. Metal Ravne, the steel mill at Ravne, one of the largest employers in the Duchy of Carinthia in the 19th century, managed to survive and now specializes in alloy steel and machinery components. There are five hydroelectric plants in the Carinthian stretch of the Drava Valley, with a total capacity of about 60 megawatts, metal products are produced in different places. After the shut-down of the zinc mine, the poor environmental situation in the narrow Meža Valley with its centuries-long lead and zinc ore exploitation has been improving. However, the entire area of the Slovene Carinthia continues to suffer from severe damage to its forests. In some areas, up to 40% of the trees are damaged due to heavy sulfur dioxide emissions from the Šoštanj Power Plant and the iron works in Ravne.
Despite the pollution of the Meža and Drava rivers, water supply has never been a problem. Clean water is abundant due to the mo
Styria Slovenian Styria or Lower Styria, is a traditional region in northeastern Slovenia, comprising the southern third of the former Duchy of Styria. The population of Styria in its historical boundaries amounts to around 705,000 inhabitants, or 34.5% of the population of Slovenia. The largest city is Maribor. In the 19th century the Styrian duchy, which existed as a distinct political-administrative entity from 1180 to 1918, used to be divided into three traditional regions: Upper Styria and Central Styria, as well as Lower Styria, stretching from the Mur River and the Slovene Hills in the north down to the Sava. Upper and central, predominantly German-speaking, today form the Austrian state of Styria; the southern third, lower Styria predominantly Slovene-speaking, became part of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes after World War I. After World War II, it became part of the predecessor of modern Slovenia, the Socialist Republic of Slovenia. Although used interchangeably at times, the term "Southern Styria" refers to the southern districts within the Austrian state of Styria, whereas the term "Lower Styria" refers to the northeastern region of Styria within Slovenia.
In the Middle Ages, the Lower Styrian lands were ruled by several immediate dynasties like the Counts of Celje, whose large possessions were not incorporated by the Habsburg dukes until the 15th century. The Austrian rulers had the estates developed benefitting the Lower Styrian towns and its predominantly German-Speaking citizens. According to the last Austro-Hungarian census of 1910, Lower Styria had around 498,000 inhabitants, of which around 82% were Slovene and around 18% German speakers. In 1918, after the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy following World War I, the Duchy of Styria was divided between the newly established states of German Austria and the Yugoslav State of Slovenes and Serbs. In early November 1918, Rudolf Maister, a Slovene major of the former Austro-Hungarian Army, with about 4,000 local volunteers occupied Lower Styria and the town of Maribor and claimed it for Yugoslavia. After a short fight with German-Austrian paramilitary units, the current border was established, acknowledged by the provisional Styrian assembly at Graz.
By December 1918, all of Lower Styria was de facto included in the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. A protest by German-speaking Marburg citizens resulted in the Marburg Bloody Sunday, when 13 people were killed and about 60 wounded. Confirmed by the 1919 Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the border between Yugoslav and Austrian Styria followed the ethnic-linguistic dividing line between Slovenes and ethnic Germans. Several Slovene-speaking villages around Leutschach, Spielberg and Bad Radkersburg remained in Austria. On the other hand, several predominantly German-speaking towns remained in Yugoslavia Maribor and Celje. According to the 1921 Yugoslav census, some 22,500 ethnic Germans lived in Yugoslav Styria, they represented around 4.5% of the overall population of the region, around 57% of all ethnic Germans in Slovenia. In 1931, this number dropped to around 12,500 or 2.3% of the regional population, around 45% of all ethnic Germans in Slovenia. In 1922, the County of Maribor was formed, comprising most of the territory of Slovene Styria, plus the Prekmurje and the Medjimurje regions.
After the coup d'etat of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia in January 1929, the counties were abolished and replaced with nine Banates. Following the reorganization implemeted by the Yugoslav constitution of 1931, Slovene Styria was incorporated in the newly established Drava Banovina, more or less identical with Slovenia, with Ljubljana as its capital city. In April 1941, Nazi Germany invaded Slovene Styria was annexed to the Third Reich. A policy of violent Germanization was introduced. Public use of Slovene language was prohibited, all Slovene associations were dissolved. Members of all professional and intellectual groups, including many clergymen, were expelled. Between April 1941 and May 1942, around 80,000 Slovenes were expelled from Lower Styria, or resettled to other parts of the Reich; as a reaction, a resistance movement developed. Many areas of Lower Styria witnessed fierce fighting between German troops and Slovene partisan units. After World War II, Yugoslav authority over the region was established and Slovene Styria became an integral part of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia.
According to prior decisions made by the Anti-Fascist Council of the People's Liberation of Yugoslavia, an expulsion of the remaining ethnic German population was carried out, regardless of their links to the Nazi regime. Between the 1950s and 1970s, many areas of the region underwent rapid industrializations. Towns like Maribor and Velenje became among the most important industrial centers of Slovenia and Yugoslavia. Lower Styria has no official status as an administrative or statistical unit within Slovenia, although it is considered a traditional region; the bulk of Lower Styria is subdivided between the Drava Statistical Region with its seat in Maribor, the Savinja Statistical Region with its seat in Celje. Smaller areas of Lower Styria are included in: The Mura Statistical Region: the subregion called Prlekija, with the municipalities of Apače, G
The Habsburg Monarchy – Habsburg Empire, Austrian Monarchy or Danube Monarchy – is an unofficial umbrella term among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1526 and 1780 and by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918. The Monarchy was a typical composite state composed of territories within and outside the Holy Roman Empire, united only in the person of the monarch; the dynastic capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611. From 1804 to 1867 the Habsburg Monarchy was formally unified as the Austrian Empire, from 1867 to 1918 as the Austro-Hungarian Empire; the head of the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg was elected Holy Roman Emperor: from 1452 until the Empire's dissolution in 1806, Charles VII of Bavaria was the only Holy Roman Emperor, not Habsburg ruler of Austria. The two entities were never coterminous, as the Habsburg Monarchy covered many lands beyond the Holy Roman Empire, most of the Empire was ruled by other dynasties.
This Austrian Habsburg Monarchy must not be confused with the House of Habsburg, existing since the 11th century, whose vast domains were split up in 1521 between this "junior" Austrian branch and the "senior" Spanish branch. The monarchy had no official name. Instead, various names included: Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Empire Habsburg/Austrian Hereditary Lands Austrian Monarchy Danubian Monarchy The Habsburg family originated with the Habsburg Castle in modern Switzerland, after 1279 came to rule in Austria; the Habsburg family grew to European prominence with the marriage and adoption treaty by Emperor Maximilian I at the First Congress of Vienna in 1515, the subsequent death of adopted Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia in 1526. Following the death of Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia in the Battle of Mohács against the Turks, his brother-in-law Archduke Ferdinand of Austria was elected the next King of Bohemia and Hungary. Names of the territory that became Austria-Hungary: Habsburg monarchy: This was an unofficial umbrella term, but frequent, name during that time.
The entity had no official name. Austrian Empire: This was the official name. Note that the German version is Kaisertum Österreich, i.e. the English translation empire refers to a territory ruled by an emperor, not just to a "widespreading domain". Austria-Hungary: This name was used in the international relations, though the official name was Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. An unofficial popular name was the Danubian Monarchy often used was the term Doppel-Monarchie meaning two states under one crowned ruler. Crownlands or crown lands: This is the name of all the individual parts of the Austrian Empire, of Austria-Hungary from 1867 on; the Kingdom of Hungary was not considered a "crownland" after the establishment of Austria-Hungary 1867, so that the "crownlands" became identical with what was called the Kingdoms and Lands represented in the Imperial Council. The Hungarian parts of the Empire were called "Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen" or "Lands of Holy Stephen's Crown"; the Bohemian Lands were called "Lands of the St. Wenceslaus' Crown".
Names of some smaller territories: Austrian lands or "Archduchies of Austria" – Lands up and below the Enns: This is the historical name of the parts of the Archduchy of Austria that became the present-day Republic of Austria on 12 November 1918. Modern day Austria is a semi-federal republic of nine states that are: Lower Austria, Upper Austria, Styria, Carinthia and Burgenland and the Capital of Vienna, a state of its own. Burgenland came to Austria in 1921 from Hungary. Salzburg became Austrian in 1816 after the Napoleonic wars. Vienna, Austria's capital became a state 1 January 1922, after being residence and capital of the Austrian Empire for the Habsburg monarchs for centuries. Upper and Lower Austria were split into "Austria above the Enns" and "Austria below the Enns". Upper Austria was enlarged after the Treaty of Teschen following the "War of the Bavarian Succession" by the so-called Innviertel part of Bavaria. Hereditary Lands or German Hereditary Lands or Austrian Hereditary Lands: In a narrower sense these were the "original" Habsburg Austrian territories, i.e. the Austrian lands and Carniola.
In a wider sense the Lands of the Bohemian Crown were included in the Hereditary lands. The term was replaced by the term "Crownlands" in the 1849 March Constitution, but it was used afterwards; the Er