Type C videotape
1 inch Type C is a professional reel-to-reel analog recording helical scan videotape format co-developed and introduced by Ampex and Sony in 1976. It became the replacement in the professional video and broadcast television industries for the then-incumbent 2 inch quadruplex videotape open-reel format, due to the smaller size, comparative ease of operation and higher video quality of 1 inch type C video tape recorder. 1 inch type C required less maintenance downtime than quadruplex videotape, the VTR did need the use of a TBC to provide a stable picture video signal. 1 inch Type C is capable of "trick-play" functions such as still and variable-speed playback, including slow motion. 2 inch quadruplex videotape machines lacked these capabilities, due to the segmented manner in which it recorded video tracks onto the magnetic tape. 1 inch Type C VTRs required much less maintenance than did 2 inch machines. 1 inch Type C records composite video at a high video quality, superior to contemporary color-under formats such as U-matic, of comparable quality to analog component video formats like Betacam and MII.
Both analog component formats were notoriously fussy and trouble-prone, so in practice Type C gave a stable, more reliable picture than the broadcast quality analog cassette-based videotape formats. Because television was broadcast as a composite signal, there was no real downside to Type C in television broadcasting and distribution. 1 inch tape gained numerous uses in television production including outside broadcasts where it was used for instant replays and creating programme titles. 1 inch machines were considerable smaller and more reliable than preceding two inch versions and were seen by operators as a major technological breakthrough. Due to this smaller size, it was possible for OB crews to transport and use multiple machines, allowing for much more complex editing to be done on site for use within the programme.. The quality and reliability of 1 inch Type C made it a mainstay in television and video production in television studios for 20 years, before being supplanted by more reliable digital videocassette formats like DVCAM, D-1, D-2, DVCPro.
1 inch Type C was widely used for the mastering of early LaserDisc titles. It was replaced in that role by the digital D-2 videocassette format in the late 1980s. VPR-2 1976, studio model VPR-20 1977, Portable VPR-2A studio model VPR-2B studio model VPR-80 studio model VPR-6 studio model SMC-60 slow Motion system VPR-3 studio model, with air system like AVR-1 XVR-80 wideband VTR VPR-5 portable made in jointly with Nagra MR2 studio model BVH-1000 1979 studio model BVH-1100 with Dynamic head Tracking- DT, with digital TBC Model BVT-2000 BVH-500 portable BVH-2000 studio model BVH-2180 3-hour record / play capability BVH-2500 Delta Time VTR BVH-2800/2 VTR With PCM Audio BVH-2830 VTR with PCM Audio and 3-hour record / play capability BVH-3000 Studio model BVH-3100 Studio model without sync channel record / play capability HR-200 Studio model HR-230 2 and 3 hour Record/Play Studio model HR-100 portable model, 42 pounds TT-7000 Studio VTR TH-100 was a re-badged Sony BVH-1000. TH-200A was a re-badged Sony BVH-1100A.
TH-50 was re-badged Sony portable. TR-800 was an RCA engineered and built VTR why it has the "TR-" designation, as all the RCA Quad recorders did. While the TR-800 was developed by RCA, the scanner assembly and upper drum could be replaced with Sony BVH-1100A parts. In 1983, RCA turned to Ampex for supply of Helical VTRs. TH-400 was a re-badged Ampex VPR-80 TH-900 was a re-badged Ampex VPR-3 TH-700 was a re-badged Ampex VPR-6 TT-7000 Кадр-103СЦ, 1985 studio model with DSP Type A videotape Type B videotape Ampex 2 inch helical VTR Discussion and demonstration of 1 inch tape in outside broadcast use and comparison with 2 inch machines Demonstration of use of 1 inch tape to create captions in OB production Information on a 1 inch Type C VTR, the Ampex VPR-1. VPR-2 labguysworld.com Ampex VPR Sony BVH-3100 on YouTube Ampex/Nagra VPR-5」 NTSC 1-inch type-C portable VTR on YouTube Labguy checks out his Ampex Nagra VPR-5 on YouTube YouTube.com Ampex VPR 3 on YouTube Close-up of the Ampex VPR 3 in operation on YouTube History of Ampex on YouTube Video editing and post-production: a professional guide, page 45, By Gary H. Anderson lionlamb.us Ampex List montreuxsounds.com Sony "C"
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
Noh, derived from the Sino-Japanese word for "skill" or "talent", is a major form of classical Japanese musical drama, performed since the 14th century. Developed by Kan'ami and his son Zeami, it is the oldest major theatre art, still performed today. Traditionally, a Noh program includes five Noh plays with comedic kyōgen plays in between. An okina play may be presented in the beginning at New Year and other special occasions. Nō together with Kyōgen is part of Nōgaku theatre. Noh is based on tales from traditional literature with a supernatural being transformed into human form as a hero narrating a story. Noh integrates masks and various props in a dance-based performance, requiring trained actors and musicians. Emotions are conveyed by stylized conventional gestures while the iconic masks represent the roles such as ghosts, women and the elderly. Written in ancient Japanese language, the text "vividly describes the ordinary people of the twelfth to sixteenth centuries". Having a strong emphasis on tradition rather than innovation, Noh is codified and regulated by the iemoto system.
The word Noh is a borrowing from Middle Chinese nong 能, means "skill", "craft", or "talent" in the field of performing arts in this context. The word Noh may be used alone or with gaku to form the word nōgaku. Noh is a classical tradition, valued by many today; when used alone, Noh refers to the historical genre of theatre originated from sarugaku in the mid 14th century and continues to be performed today. Noh and kyōgen "originated in the 8th century. At the time, the term sangaku referred to various types of performance featuring acrobats and dance as well as comic sketches, its subsequent adaptation to Japanese society led to its assimilation of other traditional art forms."Various performing art elements in sangaku as well as elements of dengaku, shirabyōshi, gagaku evolved into Noh and kyōgen. Studies on genealogy of the Noh actors in 14th century indicate they were members of families specialized in performing arts. Sociological research by Yukio Hattori reveals that the Konparu School, arguably the oldest school of Noh, is a descendant of Mimashi, the performer who introduced gigaku, now-extinct masked drama-dance performance, into Japan from Kudara Kingdom in 612.
Another theory by Shinhachirō Matsumoto suggests Noh originated from outcastes struggling to claim higher social status by catering to those in power, namely the new ruling samurai class of the time. The transferral of the shogunate from Kamakura to Kyoto at the beginning of Muromachi period marked the increasing power of the samurai class and strengthened the relationship between the shogunate and the court; as Noh became the shōgun's favorite art form, Noh was able to become a courtly art form through this newly formed relationship. In 14th century, with strong support and patronage from shōgun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, Zeami was able to establish Noh as the most prominent theatre art form of the time. Kan'ami Kiyotsugu and his son Zeami Motokiyo brought Noh to what is its present-day form during the Muromachi period. Kan'ami was a renowned actor with great versatility fulfilling roles from graceful women and 12-year-old boys to strong adult males; when Kan'ami first presented his work to 17-year-old Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, Zeami was a child actor in his play, around age 12.
Yoshimitsu fell in love with Zeami and his position of favor at court caused Noh to be performed for Yoshimitsu thereafter. During the Edo period Noh continued to be aristocratic art form supported by the shōgun, the feudal lords, as well as wealthy and sophisticated commoners. While kabuki and joruri popular to the middle class focused on new and experimental entertainment, Noh strived to preserve its established high standards and historic authenticity and remained unchanged throughout the era. To capture the essence of performances given by great masters, every detail in movements and positions was reproduced by others resulting in an slow, ceremonial tempo over time; the fall of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1868 and the formation of a new modernized government resulted in the end of financial support by the government, the entire field of Noh experienced major financial crisis. Shortly after the Meiji Restoration both the number of Noh performers and Noh stages diminished; the support from the imperial government was regained due to Noh's appeal to foreign diplomats.
The companies that remained active throughout the Meiji era significantly broadened Noh's reach by catering to the general public, performing at theatres in major cities such as Tokyo and Osaka. In 1957 the Japanese Government designated nōgaku as an Important Intangible Cultural Property, which affords a degree of legal protection to the tradition as well as its most accomplished practitioners; the National Noh Theatre founded by the government in 1983 stages regular performances and organizes courses to train actors in the leading roles of nōgaku. Noh was inscribed in 2008 on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Human
GoPro, Inc. is an American technology company founded in 2002 by Nick Woodman. It develops its own mobile apps and video-editing software. Founded as Woodman Labs, the company focused on the connected sports genre, developing its line of action cameras and video editing software, it developed a quadcopter drone, released in October 2016. In January 2018, Karma was discontinued and the company hired JPMorgan Chase to pursue options of selling the company. However, a month the CEO denied this. GoPro has continued its business in manufacturing action cameras; the company was founded by Nick Woodman in 2002. He was motivated by a 2002 surfing trip to Australia in which he was hoping to capture quality action photos, but could not because amateur photographers could not get close enough or buy quality equipment at reasonable prices. The'GoPro' name came about as Woodman and his surfing friends all aspired to become professional surfers as'going pro' was the ultimate goal and the only way to be filmed on the water at that time.
The camera range was branded'Hero' as their aim was to capture close-up action shots that made the subject look like a hero. Woodman raised a portion of his initial capital by selling bead and shell belts for under US$20 from his VW van and fashionable camera straps, he received over $230,000 from his parents to invest in the business. In 2004, the company sold its first camera system. Digital still and video cameras were introduced; as of 2014, a fixed-lens HD video camera with a wide 170-degree lens was available. On June 4, 2014, the company announced the appointment of former Microsoft executive Tony Bates as President reporting directly to Woodman. In January 2016, GoPro partnered with Periscope for live streaming. After growing the number of employees by more than 500 in 2015, the company responded to weak sales in the fourth quarter by cutting about 7% of its workforce in January 2016. In November 2016, the company announced it was laying off an additional 200 employees in an effort to reduce costs.
The company announced that President Tony Bates would be stepping down at the end of 2016. 270 more employees were laid off in March 2017, 250 additional layoffs followed in January 2018, bringing the company's workforce to "just under 1,000"At its peak, a share of GoPro was valued at $86, but on March 26, 2018, only $4.81. On March 30, 2011, GoPro acquired CineForm; the acquisition included the CineForm 444 video codec used in the film Slumdog Millionaire. The company claimed that the codec "makes HD and 3D editing faster and more convenient without sacrificing image quality", it was incorporated in the company's 3D Hero System shortly after the acquisition. In March 2013, GoPro issued a DMCA takedown notice to website DigitalRev.com, which had posted a review of its product, citing trademark use as a breach of copyright. This notice was retracted 10 days citing "erroneous enforcement". On February 29, 2016, GoPro spent $105 million and acquired two start-ups, namely and Vemory, for their video editing tools Replay and Splice.
On February 7, 2014, GoPro submitted a confidential filing for an initial public offering with the Securities and Exchange Commission. On May 19, 2014, GoPro filed its S-1 with the SEC without specifying the number of shares or their price; the company stated that they hoped to raise at least $100 million through the sale of shares, using the money to pay off debt in full and "to acquire or invest in complementary businesses, technologies or assets". They said that they planned to list on the NASDAQ stock exchange using the symbol'GPRO.'The expected price range was $21 to $24 a share. At the IPO price the company was valued at $2.95 billion. 1.5 percent of those shares were allotted to LOYAL3, a technology platform that allows small investors to participate. One reason for GoPro's decision to go public was the potential to become a media company to generate additional revenue from the content its cameras create. Woodman worked on his first camera for two years after founding the company introducing the GoPro 35mm HERO in September 2004 at San Diego's Action Sports Retailer trade show.
In its first year GoPro sold $150,000 worth of products. In 2006 the company introduced its first Digital HERO, with 10 second video capability, generated $800,000 in revenue; the following year GoPro sales quadrupled to $3.4 million. In 2014, the company was selling the HERO3+ in editions of different colors, it was capable of supporting 4K UHD video and 12 MP still photographs. The HERO4 was introduced on 24 September 2014. On September 28th 2017, GoPro released the Hero 6 camera, which claims improved stabilization over the Hero 5 models and is capable of capturing 4K video in 60 FPS. On July 11, 2018, GoPro announced that it had sold more than 30 million HERO cameras since inception; the GoPro Karma was GoPro's consumer drone, until its discontinuation in January 2018. In 2014, GoPro entered into discussions with DJI for a private label model built with the GoPro branding. After the failure of these negotiations, GoPro entered into an agreement with 3D Robotics for a similar partnership based on 3DR's flight controllers.
3DR failed to meet their agreed upon timelines. As a result, GoPro took full control of the development process in mid-2015. Scheduled to be released early 2016, the GoPro Karma project was delayed several times before the GoPro Karma was announced with an introduction date of October 23, 2016. The
A point-and-shoot camera known as a compact camera and sometimes abbreviated to P&S, is a still camera designed for simple operation. Most use focus free lenses or autofocus for focusing, automatic systems for setting the exposure options, have flash units built in. Point-and-shoots are by far the best selling type of separate camera, as distinct from camera phones, they are popular for vernacular photography by people who do not consider themselves photographers but want easy-to-use cameras for snapshots of vacations, parties and other events. Point-and-shoot camera sales declined after about 2010. To overcome market shrinkage, compact camera manufacturers began making higher end versions and with a stylish metal body. Most superzoom compact cameras have between 30x and 60x optical zoom, although some have further zoom and weigh less than 300 grams, much less than bridge cameras and DSLRs. Most of these compact cameras use small 1/2.3" image sensors, but since 2008 a few non-interchangeable lens compact cameras use a larger sensor such as 1" and APS-C, such as the Fujifilm X100 series, or full frame format such as the Sony Cyber-shot DSC-RX1 series.
They prioritize intelligent Auto, but some high end point-and-shoot cameras have PASM on the mode dial, raw image format, hot shoe. None have lens mounts. Point-and-shoot cameras are distinguished from single-lens reflex cameras in several respects: point-and-shoot film cameras, many digital ones, use a viewfinder; the image that the photographer sees is not the same image that passes through the primary lens of the camera. Rather, the image in the viewfinder passes through a separate lens. SLRs, on the other hand, have only one lens, a mirror diverts the image from the lens into the viewfinder. With this mechanism, pictures cannot be previewed on the LCD screens of most digital SLRs; some manufacturers have found a way around this limitation by splitting the image into two just before reaching the viewfinder eyepiece. One image goes into the viewfinder and the other goes into a low resolution image sensor to allow light metering or previewing on the LCD, or both. Digital cameras share one advantage of the SLR design, as the camera's display image comes through the lens, not a separate viewfinder.
Mirrorless Interchangeable Lens Cameras lack a mirror but in many ways can be used the same as DSLRs. Many smaller digital point-and-shoots of the 2010s use only the screen. With SLR cameras, it is important that the image in the viewfinder be the same image recorded by the film or sensor, so that the effect of the add-on lenses and filters can be seen by the photographer. Point-and-shoot cameras don't have such add-on devices, hence no need. Small cameras, including digital ones, encourage the occurrence of photographic orbs — unexpected circular artifacts that occur in flash photography — where the short distance between the lens and the built-in flash decreases the angle of light reflection to the lens; the resulting retroreflection makes dust particles visible. The lowest-end point-and-shoot film cameras can be reloaded; these cameras have focus-free lenses, with fixed apertures. They may not have a light meter. Most have a wheel or lever for advancing the film and cocking the shutter, a crank for returning the film to the canister for unloading.
Because of the fixed apertures, models with flash have no way of controlling the exposure from the flash. Therefore, flash pictures have to be taken within a narrow range of distance from the subject. Advanced models have variable apertures, they all have light meters. They use electric motors to rewind the film, they are much more versatile than the low-end models. They are likely to have zoom lenses, more advanced auto-focus systems, exposure systems with manual controls, larger apertures and sharper lenses, they may have special lamps or pre-flash systems designed to reduce red eye in flash pictures of people. Compact superzoom cameras or travel zoom cameras have zoom up to 30x, still shorter zoom than current bridge cameras, but more compact than bulky DSLR-shape bridge cameras, both use 1/2.3" sensor. According to the NPD Group, up to end of November 2011 point-and-shoot cameras took 44 percent of photos, down from 52 percent in 2010, while camera-equipped smartphones took 27 percent of photos in 2011, up from 17 percent.
Unit total sales of all types of point-and-shoot cameras declined by 17 percent year on year, but increased by 16 percent for cameras having optical zoom greater than 10x. At the end of 2012, more than one brand offered point-and-shoot cameras with 24x optical superzoom as compensation of sales decline and in years longer zooms became commonplace. Point-and-shoot camera sales dropped by about 40 percent in 2013 for inexpensive cameras. Fujifilm and Olympus stopped development of low-end point-and-shoot cameras and focused on mid and high-end cameras at higher prices. Shipment dropped to 12 million units in 2016, only one-tenth of the peak reached in 2008, the year after Apple introduced its iPhone. Most film-based point-and-shoots made. In the 1980s, 35mm was seen as a "professional" format due to the relative difficulty of loading and rewinding the film versus cartridge based formats such as 110 or disc film; the key innovations that made 35mm point-and-shoot cameras possible were automatic film loading and automatic advance and rewind.
Advanced Photo System film
A video server is a computer-based device, dedicated to delivering video. Video servers are used in a number of applications, have additional functions and capabilities that address the needs of particular applications. For example, video servers used in security and inspection applications are designed to capture video from one or more cameras and deliver the video via a computer network. In video production and broadcast applications, a video server may have the ability to record and play recorded video, to deliver a large number of video streams simultaneously. In TV broadcast industries, a server is a device used to store broadcast quality images and allows several users to edit stories using the images they contain simultaneously; the video server can be used in a number of contexts, some of which include: News: providing short news video clips as part of a news broadcast as seen on networks. Production: enhance live events with instant replays and slow motion and highlights Instruction: delivering course material in video format.
Public Access: delivering city specific information to residents over a cable system. Surveillance: deliver real-time video images of protected site. Entertainment: deliver anything used for entertainment, it can be gaming, movie trailers, or movies. A professional-grade video server performs recording and playout of multiple video streams without any degradation of the video signal. Broadcast quality video servers store hundreds of hours of compressed audio and video, play out multiple and synchronised simultaneous streams of video by, offer quality interfaces such as SDI for digital video and XLR for balanced analog audio, AES/EBU digital audio and Time Code. A genlock input is provided to provide a means of synchronizing with the house reference clock, thereby avoiding the need for timebase correction or frame synchronizers. Video servers offer some type of control interface allowing them to be driven by broadcast automation systems that incorporate sophisticated broadcast programming applications.
Popular protocols include the 9-Pin Protocol. They can optionally allow direct to disk recording using the same codec, used in various post-production video editing software packages to prevent any wasted time in transcoding. A video server can do the following: Ingest of different sources: video cameras, satellite data feeds, disk drives and other video servers; this can be done in different codecs. Temporary or definitive storage of these video feeds. Maintain a clear structure of all stored media with appropriate metadata to allow fast search: name, rating, time code, etc. video editing of the different clips Transfer those clips to other video servers or playout directly Generally, they have several bi directional channels for video and audio. A perfect synchronisation is necessary between those channels to manage the feeds. In some surveillance and inspection applications, IP video servers are employed which convert analog video signals into IP video streams; these IP video servers can stream digitized video over IP networks in the same way that an IP Camera can.
Because an IP Video server uses IP protocols, it can stream video over any IP-compatible network, including via a modem for access over a phone or ISDN connection. With the use of a video server attached to an analog camera, the video from an existing surveillance system can be converted and networked into a new IP surveillance system. In the video security industry a video server is a device to which one or more video sources can be attached. Video servers are used to give existing analog systems network connectivity. Video servers are transmission/ telemetry / monitoring devices. Viewing in some cases supplied software; these products allow the upload of images to the internet or direct viewing from the internet. In order to upload to the internet an account with an ISP may be required. Phone apps that send direct security video feed to smartphones from security video servers are another recent security video server application innovation; this allows smartphone users to view security video server feed from anywhere they can use their smartphone.
Broadcast automation and playout Centralcasting Media server
Samsung Galaxy S6
The Samsung Galaxy S6, Samsung Galaxy S6 Edge, Samsung Galaxy S6 Edge+ are Android smartphones manufactured and marketed by Samsung Electronics. The S6 line serves as a successor to the Galaxy S5; the S6 and S6 Edge smartphones were unveiled in the first "Samsung Unpacked 2015" event at the Mobile World Congress on March 1, 2015, while the bigger S6 Edge+ was unveiled together with the Samsung Galaxy Note 5 in the second "Samsung Unpacked 2015" event at New York on August 13, 2015. Alongside the S6, Samsung unveiled the S6 Edge, a variant whose screen is wrapped along the sides of the device; the Galaxy S6 and S6 Edge were first released on April 10, 2015 while the S6 Edge+ was released on August 21, 2015. Although the overall design of the Galaxy S6 still features some similarities to prior models, the construction of the device itself was revamped, with a metal unibody frame and glass backing instead of plastic; the devices introduced an improved camera, a streamlined user interface, support for major wireless charging standards and support for a mobile payments platform that allows the device to emulate the magnetic strip from a credit card.
The S6 features other hardware improvements as well, including a 1,440 x 2,560 pixels display, a new in-house system-on-chip that utilizes a 14 nm FinFET manufacturing process, an improved fingerprint scanner. The Galaxy S6, S6 Edge and S6 Edge+ received positive reviews from critics, who praised the devices' upgraded build quality over prior models, along with improvements to their displays, performance and other changes. However, Samsung's decision to remove the ability to expand their storage or remove the battery was panned as being alienating to power users, the S6 Edge was panned for not making enough use of its curved display to justify its increased cost over the standard Samsung Galaxy S6 which resulted in the release of the bigger S6 Edge+ on. Rumors surrounding the Galaxy S5's successor began to surface in January 2015, it was reported that Samsung would be using an in-house Exynos system-on-chip rather than the Qualcomm Snapdragon 810 on the S6 due to concerns surrounding overheating.
That month, Qualcomm affirmed in an earnings report that its products would not be included in " large customer's flagship device". Fellow competitor LG Electronics disputed the allegations surrounding the 810. In early-February 2015, Bloomberg News reported that the S6 was to have a metal body, was to be produced in a normal version, a version with a screen curved along the left and right sides of the device to the Galaxy Note Edge; the S6's design was teased in a promotional webpage released by T-Mobile US on 22 February 2015, which showed a curved body and carried the tagline "Six Appeal". Samsung unveiled the Galaxy S6 and S6 Edge during the first Samsung Unpacked 2015 event at Mobile World Congress on 1 March 2015, for a release on 10 April 2015 in 20 countries. In Japan, the S6 and S6 Edge are marketed under the Galaxy brand, with most references to Samsung removed; the Galaxy S6 models are designed to address criticisms and feedback received from prior models, target the majority of users.
As part of these goals, a number of features and capabilities seen on the Galaxy S5 were removed, such as its waterproofing and USB 3.0 port. The S6's new design approach is the culmination of a shift in practices that began with 2014's Galaxy Alpha, the first Galaxy smartphone to feature metal as part of its construction. A new reflective coating was designed in-house to give the devices' backings a "jewel-like" appearance; the device's software was simplified. Additionally, the Galaxy S6's battery is no longer user-replaceable; the Galaxy S6 line retains similarities in design to previous models, but now uses a unibody frame made of aluminium alloy 6013 with a glass backing, a curved bezel with chamfered sides to improve grip, the speaker grille was moved to the bottom. The devices are available in "White Pearl", "Black Sapphire", "Gold Platinum" color finishes; the S6 carries some regressions in its design over the S5. Both use non-removable batteries; the Galaxy S6 line supports both the Power Matters Alliance wireless charging standards.
The Galaxy S6 line is powered by a 64-bit Exynos 7 Octa 7420 system-on-chip, consisting of four 2.1 GHz Cortex-A57 cores, four 1.5 GHz Cortex-A53 cores, 3 GB of LPDDR4 RAM for the S6 and S6 Edge while 4 GB of LPDDR4 for the S6 Edge+. The processor is Samsung's first to use a 14 nm FinFET manufacturing process, whic