In baseball statistics, slugging percentage is a measure of the batting productivity of a hitter. It is calculated as total bases divided by at bats, through the following formula, where AB is the number of at bats for a given player, 1B, 2B, 3B, HR are the number of singles, doubles and home runs, respectively: S L G = + + + A B Unlike batting average, slugging percentage gives more weight to extra-base hits such as doubles and home runs, relative to singles. Walks are excluded from this calculation, as a plate appearance that ends in a walk is not counted as an at bat; the name is a misnomer, as the statistic is not a percentage but a scale of measure whose computed value is a number from 0 to 4. The statistic gives a double twice the value of a single, a triple three times the value, a home run four times. A slugging percentage is always expressed as a decimal to three decimal places, is spoken as if multiplied by 1000. For example, a slugging percentage of.589 would be spoken as "five eighty nine."
In 2018, the mean average SLG among all teams in Major League Baseball was.409. For example, in 1920, Babe Ruth played his first season for the New York Yankees. In 458 at bats, Ruth had 172 hits, comprising 73 singles, 36 doubles, 9 triples, 54 home runs, which brings the total base count to + + + = 388, his total number of bases divided by his total at-bats is.847 which constitutes his slugging percentage for the season. This set a record for Ruth which stood until 2001 when Barry Bonds achieved 411 bases in 476 at-bats bringing his slugging percentage to.863, unmatched since. Long after it was first invented, slugging percentage gained new significance when baseball analysts realized that it combined with on-base percentage to form a good measure of a player's overall offensive production. A predecessor metric was developed by Branch Rickey in 1954. Rickey, in Life magazine, suggested that combining OBP with what he called "extra base power" would give a better indicator of player performance than typical Triple Crown stats.
EBP was a predecessor to slugging percentage. Allen Barra and George Ignatin were early adopters in combining the two modern-day statistics, multiplying them together to form what is now known as "SLOB". Bill James applied this principle to his runs created formula several years essentially multiplying SLOB × At-Bats to create the formula: RC = × + In 1984, Pete Palmer and John Thorn developed the most widespread means of combining slugging and on-base percentage: On-base plus slugging, a simple addition of the two values; because it is easy to calculate, OPS has been used with increased frequency in recent years as a shorthand form to evaluate contributions as a batter. In a 2015 article, Bryan Grosnick made the point that "on base" and "slugging" may not be comparable enough to be added together. "On base" has a theoretical maximum of 1.000 whereas "slugging" has a theoretical maximum of 4.000. The actual numbers don't show as big a difference, with Grosnick listing.350 as a good "on base" and.430 as a good "slugging."
He goes on to say that OPS has the advantages of simplicity and availability and further states, "you'll get it 75% right, at least." The maximum numerically possible slugging percentage is 4.000. A number of MLB players have momentarily had a 4.000 career slugging percentage by homering in their first major league at-bat. List of Major League Baseball career slugging percentage leaders Moneyball Sabermetrics Slugging Percentage Calculator
Frogger's Adventures: The Rescue is an action-adventure video game released in 2003 by Konami Computer Entertainment Hawaii. It is based on the original 1981 Frogger arcade game, contains similar hop-and-dodge style gameplay. A young Frog named Frogger is relaxing inside his home in Firefly Swamp when a spaceship crashes in his yard, injuring his friend and guardian Lumpy; the driver of the ship turns out to be Beauty Frog of F. I. R. S. T.. Frogger becomes a member of F. I. R. S. T. and goes on missions to exotic locations to rescue many of Beauty Frog's friends, including Doctor Frog, needed to heal Lumpy. He rescues his girlfriend Lily, kidnapped by T. R. I. P; the game contains hop-and-dodge style gameplay similar to that of the original arcade game. Frogger, can perform many moves that he could not in the original. Frogger can perform a "super hop" which allows him to jump over the space in front of him, as well as being able to move footholds and sections of certain walls with his tongue. Frogger can rotate left and right.
Story mode is the main mode of play, is for one player only. The player helps him explore challenging levels. There are seven different worlds in Story Mode; each world contains four levels. The first three levels of each world have the simple objective of reaching a goal at the end. In the fourth level of each world, Frogger must defeat a boss; the seven worlds are as follows: Firefly Swamp is Frogger's home. Enemies include insects such as bees and ants, as well as a giant catfish that appears once in level one and again as the boss. In this world Frogger is trying to rescue Mechanic Frog; this world takes place in a busy metropolis. The enemies consist of robots, but briefly include cars, when Frogger has to cross a busy street; the first level takes place at ground level. In the boss level, Frogger uses a moving platform to travel to the top of another building, where he fights a large robot hovering in the air. At the end of this world, Frogger saves doctor Frog, about to be executed by T. R. I.
P. Frogger travels to Molten Island in a F. I. R. S. T. Helicopter to save Army Frog; the entire island is nearly covered in molten lava, which Frogger must stay above by hopping on rocks and conveyor belts. The enemies include eagles, lava monsters, balls of fire; the boss for this area is a robotic dragon. Frogger defeats the dragon by stepping on switches to fill bottles; when F. I. R. S. T. Learns that T. R. I. P. has taken a girl frog as a hostage to the Forgotten Island. The Forgotten Island includes many prehistoric creatures, such as dinosaurs and Pterodactyls. While the creatures of the Forgotten Island are enemies to Frogger, Apatosaurus uses his long neck to lift Frogger into the trees and Pterodactyl allows Frogger to ride on his back. Level 3 contains parts which are similar to the original arcade game except Frogger must dodge velociraptors instead of cars; the boss, arguably the most difficult in the game, is a Tyrannosaurus rex. T. R. I. P.'s hostage turns out to be Frogger's girlfriend, the key to an Ultimate Weapon.
They take Lily to the Egyptian pyramids, F. I. R. S. T. Follows; the world begins in ruins beside a pyramid. In the next two levels Frogger ascends an actual pyramid. Enemies include living mummies and moving statues. Puzzles in which Frogger must reflect a beam of light off of mirrors to make it hit a certain spot on the wall reoccur in this area; the boss is the statue of a Pharaoh, magically brought to life. T. R. I. P. Escapes again with Lily to the Sunken Temple, where the Ultimate Weapon is located; this temple is underwater, yet inside Frogger can hop on ancient ruins with water below him, without being submerged in it. The temple was created by an advanced ancient civilization. Most of the enemies are robotic; the boss is a giant robotic creature with five arms. Its body remains stationary while its arms shoot projectiles at Frogger. Once again T. R. I. P escapes with this time to outer space; the Ultimate Weapon is launched to space with Lily inside, T. R. I. P. Intends to send it back to earth to cause mass destruction.
Frogger makes his way to the Ultimate Weapon. All of the enemies are robots; the boss is a giant robotic Frog, the main T. R. I. P. Robot. Frogger rescues Lily, who stops the weapon from destroying earth. Multiplayer mode contains nine mini-games. Only one game is available, but a new one becomes unlocked when Frogger completes the training level, each time he completes all the levels in a world. In multiplayer mode players are allowed to play as Frogger and Beauty Frog, along with other F. I. R. S. T. Agents Ranger Frog and Ninja Frog; the game received mixed reviews. Gamespot gave it a 6.3 out of 10 saying that although it doesn't try anything new, it's still a solid game. IGN gave it a 5.5 out of 10 saying either. They criticized the lack of challenge when it came to the poor controls; the game sold around half a million copies across its three platforms. Frogger's Adventures: The Rescue at MobyGames
Hubert Benoit was a 20th-century French psychotherapist whose work foreshadowed subsequent developments in integral psychology and integral spirituality. His special interest and contribution lay in developing a pioneering form of psychotherapy which integrated a psychoanalytic perspective with insights derived from Eastern spiritual disciplines, in particular from Ch'an and Zen Buddhism, he stressed the part played by the spiritual ignorance of Western culture in the emergence and persistence of much underlying distress. He used concepts derived from psychoanalysis to explain the defences against this fundamental unease, emphasised the importance of an analytic, preparatory phase, while warning against what he regarded as the psychoanalytic overemphasis on specific causal precursors of symptomatology, he demonstrated parallels between the experience of psychoanalysis. He constructed an account in contemporary psychological terms of the crucial Zen concept of satori and its emergence in the individual.
Hubert Benoit was born in Nancy on 21 March 1904 and died in Paris on 28 October 1992. He trained as a doctor in Paris, where he qualified in 1935 and subsequently specialised in surgery until 1944. In 1944 he sustained severe injuries during the Allied bombardment of Saint-Lô after the Normandy landings, he underwent several operations over the next four years, but was left with a paralysed right hand and could no longer work as a surgeon, During his long convalescence, he extended his pre-existing interest in psychoanalysis and in Oriental spirituality. In his introduction to Métaphysique et Psychanalyse he expressed his conviction that a higher truth existed, attainable:'When I was about 30, through the works of René Guénon in particular, I developed an awareness and appreciation of the validity of evidence attainable through the intellect. I came to realise that there is an impersonal and non-individual kind of truth which exists beyond the systems of thought produced by individual philosophers.
It became clear to me that each one of us had to re-discover this truth as a concrete, lived reality, that this was to be achieved through inner work. This was work which the individual alone could carry out'. Benoit's studies led him to the Taoism as well as Zen Buddhism, he was acquainted with the work of Gurdjieff. Benoit began his work in Paris as a psychotherapist in 1952, his Métaphysique et Psychanalyse had been published in 1949 and his best known book on Zen Buddhism, La Doctrine Suprême was published in two volumes in 1951 and 1952. In 1952 he published Le Non-Mental Selon La Pensée Zen, his translation of The Zen Doctrine of No-Mind by D. T. Suzuki.. Despite this association with Zen Buddhism, Benoit preferred to speak of Ch'an rather than Zen Buddhism, considering that the original Chinese version presented a purer form of the teaching.. In his work he stressed the significance of establishing a metaphysical framework within which an intellectual understanding of the human predicament could develop.
He wrote:'Dr Suzuki has said that Zen "detests any form of intellectualism"... But my impression is that enlightenment for the Westerner does require some intellectual input, though kept within strict limits; the ultimate viewpoint, that of reality, is inexpressible. But rational explanation is needed to coax Westerners to the edge of this gap. Zen says, for example,: "There is nothing complicated to do: seeing directly into one's nature is enough." It took me years of reflection before I began to see how this advice could be given substance and put into practice in our inner life.' Four of Benoit's books were translated into English between 1955 and 1987, the first of these being The Supreme Doctrine. His last major work, Lâcher Prise, was published in English in 1962. After an interval of 25 years, Benoit summarised his views in De La Réalisation Intérieure, to which he added a fourth section in 1984; the first English version was published in 1987. Two of his books, La Doctrine Suprême and De la Réalisation remain in print in English.
Pierson precedes his account of Benoit's approach with the following comment: "...although his The Supreme Doctrine was read and appreciated in many countries, problems with the translation of his more comprehensive and conclusive work, Let Go!, must have cost him most of his English-speaking readers." Benoit was brought to the attention of the English-speaking world by Aldous Huxley, a leading exponent of the Perennial Philosophy in the middle decades of the 20th century. Huxley corresponded with Benoit and in 1950 published a translation of Notes in Regard to a Technique of Timeless Realization He had read Métaphysique et Psychanalyse and wrote to Benoit:'A book like yours foreshadows the arrival, at last, of a true science of the Psychology of man', he provided the preface to the first edition of Benoit's best known book, The Supreme Doctrine, concluding:'This is a book that should be read by everyone who aspires to know who he is and what he can do to acquire such self-knowledge'. When Huxley's library was destroyed by fire in 1961, The Supreme Doctrine was among the books that he singled out for replacement Huxley promoted Benoit's pioneering attempt to integrate Zen and other Eastern teachings into a Western frame of reference, others followed suit.
According to Tim Barrett, Professor of East Asian History at the Sch