Slum clearance, slum eviction or slum removal is an urban renewal strategy used to transform low income settlements with poor reputation into another type of development or housing. This has long been a strategy for redeveloping urban communities; the Housing Act of 1937 encouraged similar strategies in the United States. But not always, these programs were paired with public housing or other assistance programs for the displaced communities. Slum clearance is still practiced today in a number of different situations. During major international events like conferences and sporting competitions, governments have been known to forcefully clear low income housing areas, as a strategy to impress the international attention in an attempt to reduce the visibility of the host city's apparent poverty. Other attempts at slum clearance have been subject to other motivations, such as repressing political opposition or attempts to keep certain communities in check. Zimbabwe's Operation Murambatsvina was criticized by the international community, including a scathing report from the UN which noted human rights abuses alongside poor design of the program, estimated to displace at least 700,000 slum dwellers.
Critics argue. Poor families including children and working adults, need a place to live when adequate low income housing is not providing otherwise. Moreover, slums are sites of informal economies that provide jobs and livelihoods not otherwise available in the community. Slum clearance removes the slum, but it does not remove the causes that create and maintain the slum. Plans to remove slums in a number of non-Western contexts have proven ineffective without sufficient housing and other support for the displaced communities; some communities have opted for slum upgrading, as an alternative solution: improving the quality of services and infrastructure to match the community developed in the slum
Felix Jeffrey Farrell is an American former competition swimmer, Olympic champion, former world record-holder in multiple relay events. Farrell won a gold medal in the men's 100-meter freestyle at the 1959 Pan American Games in Chicago. In 1960, six days after having an appendectomy, Farrell qualified at the U. S. Olympic Trials, he competed at the 1960 Olympic Games in Rome, where he received gold medals as a member of the winning U. S. teams in the 4×100-meter medley relay and the 4×200-meter freestyle relay. Farrell is a multiple United States Masters Swimming world-record holder, has held the fastest national times in his age group in dozens of events over past decades, he was photographed for and featured in ESPN's "The Body" issue in 2010. Farrell was inducted into the International Swimming Hall of Fame in 1968, the International Masters Swimming Hall of Fame in 2011, he is the only swimmer to be inducted in both halls. Farrell is still swimming recreationally, he was setting world records for Masters Swimming up until 2011.
He has written a book about his Olympic experiences titled My Olympic Story, Rome 1960. He lives in Santa Barbara, California with his wife, he has one grandchild. He continues to sell real estate with Coldwell Banker in the Santa Barbara Area. List of members of the International Swimming Hall of Fame List of Olympic medalists in swimming List of Yale University people World record progression 4 × 100 metres freestyle relay World record progression 4 × 100 metres medley relay World record progression 4 × 200 metres freestyle relay Jeff Farrell – Biography at VintageTeamPress.com Evans, Hilary. "Jeff Farrell". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Archived from the original on 2011-05-19. Jeff Farrell – Honor Swimmer profile at International Swimming Hall of Fame
Royal Air Force Bovingdon or more RAF Bovingdon is a former Royal Air Force station located near the village of Bovingdon, 2.5 miles south of Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire and 2.5 miles southeast of Berkhamsted, England. During the Second World War, the airfield was used by the Royal Air Force and the United States Army Air Forces Eighth Air Force, it was assigned USAAF designation Station 112, station code "BV" changed to "BZ". Bovingdon was built in 1941/42 as a standard Class; the main NE/SW runway was 1,634 yards /4902 feet long and the two secondary runways were 1,433 yd /4299 feet long each. Over 30 dispersal hardstandings were built. On 15 June 1942, No. 7 Group, RAF Bomber Command took up residence at Bovingdon. Operational missions were flown in June and July by the RAF until the field was turned over to the USAAF in August. USAAF Station Units assigned to RAF Bovingdon were: 1st Combat Crew Replacement Group11th Combat Crew Replacement Unit328th Service Group 347th Service Squadron.
General Eisenhower's personal B-17 was housed on the base. During World War II, several film stars were assigned at one time or another to the base, including Clark Gable, James Stewart and William Holden. Among famous wartime visitors were Bob Hope, Frances Langford, Mrs Eleanor Roosevelt, Glenn Miller. A unique mission undertaken at Bovingdon was the training of United States journalists to cover the air war over Occupied Europe. A group of military journalists underwent training in February 1943 to fly high-altitude missions in bombers, to shoot the flexible machine guns, as well as parachute and life support training as aircrew; the group of journalists flew on a combat mission over Wilhelmshaven, Germany on 26 February 1943 to attack the German Naval submarine pens there. The mission saw heavy losses for the USAAF, the aircraft of Andy Rooney of the Stars and Stripes was damaged by flak and Robert Post of the New York Times was killed in action when his B-24 exploded; this ended the training of journalists to fly along with Eighth Air Force bomber crews.
Other journalists who underwent this training included Walter Cronkite, James Denton Scott, Homer Bigart, William Wade and Gladwin Hill. The first USAAF tenant at Bovingdon was the 92nd Bombardment Group, being deployed from Sarasota AAF, Florida; the group was known as "Fame's Favorite Few", it was assigned to the 4th Combat Wing at RAF Thurleigh. The group tail code was a "Triangle B", its operational squadrons were: 325th Bombardment Squadron 326th Bombardment Squadron 327th Bombardment Squadron 407th Bombardment Squadron The 92nd flew a few two combat missions in September and October 1942 was assigned the role of a Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress Combat Crew Replacement Unit. In January 1943, the 92nd was transferred to RAF Alconbury where it was reformed as an operational combat group. Although the 92nd Bomb Group departed for Alconbury, the 326th Bomb Squadron of the 92nd remained at Bovingdon to form the core of 11th Combat Crew Replacement Unit; the training was performed on the B-17E aircraft, most combat crews of 8th Air Force bombing units for the balance of the war received their introduction before moving on to their operational bases.
Although based at Bovingdon, the 326th remained under the operational control of the 92nd at Alconbury until May 1943. In September 1944 the 11th CCRU was disbanded and Bovingdon became the base for the European Air Transport Service. Many thousands of Americans returned to the States via the air terminal. At the end of the war, Bovingdon was returned to RAF control on 15 April 1947; the British Ministry of Civil Aviation obtained the airfield for civilian airline use. On 15 September 1949, Bovingdon was the start point for a successful record air speed attempt by a de Havilland Hornet to and from Gibraltar; because of its elevation, Bovingdon was clear when Heathrow Airport and RAF Northolt were fog-bound and, during the winter months Bovingdon was used by British European Airways. British Overseas Airways Corporation used Bovingdon as a maintenance facility and numerous other independent aircraft operators used the former technical site during the postwar years. During the 1950s both civilian and military organizations used Bovingdon.
The proximity of the USAF Third Air Force Headquarters at RAF South Ruislip and HQ RAF Fighter Command at Bentley Priory made Bovingdon the ideal location for service aircraft. The USAF returned to Bovingdon on 25 May 1951, with the establishment of the 7531st Air Base Squadron. Douglas C-47 Skytrains were assigned to the unit, however many transitory USAF planes used the airfield routinely. In addition, the RAF operated the Fighter Command Communications Squadron on the base. In October 1962, the USAF departed from Bovingdon. During the 60s, RAF Transport Command operated Anson, Devon and latterly Basset aircraft from Bovingdon. In the 1960s the base was home to the last flight of Anson Mk 21 aircraft, descended from a World War II design; the Air Training Corps 617 Gliding School operated from Bovingdon between 1968 and 1970, the last flight by a milita