Small office/home office

Small office/home office refers to the category of business or cottage industry that involves from 1 to 10 workers. In New Zealand, the Ministry of Business and Employment defines a small office as 6 to 19 employees and a micro office as 1-5. Before the 19th century, the spread of the industrial revolution around the globe, nearly all offices were small offices and/or home offices, with only a few exceptions. Most businesses were small, the paperwork that accompanied them was limited; the industrial revolution aggregated workers to mass-produce goods. In most circumstances, the white collar counterpart—office work—was aggregated as well in large buildings in cities or densely populated suburban areas. Beginning in the mid-1980s, the advent of the personal computer and fax machine, plus breakthroughs in telecommunications, created opportunities for office workers to decentralize. Decentralization was perceived as benefiting employers in terms of lower overheads and greater productivity. Many consultants and the members of such professions like lawyers, real estate agents, surveyors in small and medium-sized towns operate from home offices.

Several ranges of products, such as the armoire desk and all-in-one printer, are designed for the SOHO market. A number of books and magazines have been published and marketed at this type of office; these range from general advice texts to specific guidebooks on such challenges as setting up a small PBX for the office telephones. Technology has created a demand for larger businesses to employ individuals who work from home. Sometimes these people remain as independent businesspersons, sometimes they become employees of a larger company; the small office home office has undergone a transformation since its advent as the internet has enabled anyone working from a home office to compete globally. Technology has made this possible through email, the World-Wide Web, e-commerce, videoconferencing, remote desktop software, webinar systems, telephone connections by VOIP. Due to the increase in small and home offices, web services and standard business software have been created to directly assist smaller businesses in standard business practice In many countries a home office can be claimed as a tax deduction only if office space and supplies are not provided by a corporate office.

Basset, Brian. Bless This Home Office... With tax credits: An Adam Compilation. Kansas City: Andrews McMeel Publishing. Johnson, Karen K. ed.. Ortho's All About Home Offices. DesMoines, Iowa: Ortho Publishing Group. Manroe, Candace Ord; the Home Office: Setting Up, Furnishing and Decorating Your Own Work Space. Michael Friedman Publishing Group Inc. Zimmerman, Neal. Home Workspace Idea Book. Taunton Press


Critolaus of Phaselis was a Greek philosopher of the Peripatetic school. He was one of three philosophers sent to Rome in 155 BC, where their doctrines fascinated the citizens, but scared the more conservative statesmen. None of his writings survive, he was interested in rhetoric and ethics, considered pleasure to be an evil. He maintained the Aristotelian doctrine of the eternity of the world, of the human race in general, directing his arguments against the Stoics, he was born in Phaselis, a Greek colony in Lycia, c. 200 BC, studied philosophy at Athens under Aristo of Ceos, became one of the leaders of the Peripatetic school by his eminence as an orator, a scholar and a moralist. There has been considerable discussion as to whether he was the immediate successor of Aristo, but the evidence is confused; the great reputation which Critolaus enjoyed at Athens, as a philosopher, an orator, a statesman, induced the Athenians to send him to Rome in 155 BC, together with Carneades and Diogenes the Stoic, to obtain a remission of the fine of 500 talents which the Romans had imposed upon Athens for the destruction of Oropus.

They were successful in the object. Not only the Roman youth, but the most illustrious men in the state, such as Scipio Africanus, Laelius and others, came to listen to their discourses; the novelty of their doctrines seemed to the Romans of the old school to be fraught with such danger to the morals of the citizens, that Cato induced the senate to send them away from Rome as as possible. Gellius describes his arguments as "elegant and polished". We have no further information respecting the life of Critolaus, he lived upwards of eighty-two years, but died c. 118 BC. By the time Licinius Crassus arrived at Athens c. 111 BC, he found Critolaus' pupil Diodorus of Tyre at the head of the Peripatetic school. Critolaus seems to have paid particular attention to Rhetoric, though he considered it, like Aristotle, not as an art, but rather as a matter of practice. Cicero speaks in high terms of his eloquence. Next to Rhetoric, Critolaus seems to have given his chief attention to the study of moral philosophy, to have made some additions to Aristotle's system.

In general, he deviated little from the philosophy of the founder of the Peripatetic school, though in some respects he went beyond his predecessors. For example, he held that pleasure is an evil, maintained that the soul consists of aether; the end of existence was to him the general perfection of the natural life, including the goods of the soul and the body, external goods. Cicero says in the Tusculanae Quaestiones that the goods of the soul outweighed for him the other goods. Further, he defended against the Stoics the Peripatetic doctrine of the eternity of the world and the indestructibility of the human race. There is no observed change in the natural order of things. Just as it is absurd to suppose that humans are earth-born, so the possibility of their ultimate destruction is inconceivable; the world, as the manifestation of eternal order, must itself be immortal. A Critolaus is mentioned by Plutarch as the author of a work on Epirus, of another entitled Phenomena. Whether the historian is the same as the Peripatetic philosopher, cannot be determined.

A grammarian Critolaus is mentioned in the Etymologicum Magnum. Dorandi, Tiziano. "Chapter 2: Chronology". In Algra, Keimpe; the Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 50. ISBN 9780521250283; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Critolaus". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7. Cambridge University Press. P. 471

Eros Bagnara

Eros Bagnara is a former Italian professional footballer who plays for Italian Prima Categoria club Edo Mestre RSM. Born in Treviso, Bagnara started his career at hometown club Treviso, he played for its under-20 team since 2002–03 season. Follow the promotion of the first team to Serie B, the U-20 team changed to play in Campionato Nazionale Primavera. In January 2004 he was signed by Serie A club Internazionale; the team finished as the runner-up of Primavera League. He was the fourth striker of the team, behind Isah Eliakwu, Riccardo Meggiorini and Federico Piovaccari. Bagnara only scored 4 goals in the league group stage, but with only 6 league appearances, made Bagnara was one of the most effective scorer of the team along with Eliakwu. Bagnara played twice in the playoffs with 1 goal. Inter did not excised the option to buy Bagnara in 2004. Bagnara was loaned to a Serie D team from a nearby town from Treviso. In mid-2005 Serie C1 club Fermana borrowed Bagnara; that season Treviso promoted to no room for Bagnara.

In his first professional season, Bagnara scored 3 goals in the first half and 1 goal for Novara in the second half. That season Fermana folded, while Novara finished in the mid-table in the same group. Bagnara remained in the city of Novara for 2006–07 Serie C1 after the loan was renewed in August. Again Bagnara only able to score once. In mid-2007 Bagnara was sold to Serie C2 club Pizzighettone in a co-ownership deal, for a peppercorn of €500. Team-mate Giovanni Martina went to the town of Pizzighettone in the same deal. Bagnara scored 7 goals in Italian fourth tier, ahead team-mate Michele Piccolo but behind Marcello Campolonghi. However, the team relegated and Treviso gave up the remain 50% registration rights to Pizzighettone. Bagnara left the club in order returned to Veneto for dilettanti club Città di Jesolo for 2008–09 season, despite Pizzighettone was re-admitted due to number of teams were expelled from the professional league. Bagnara returned to professional league again in 2009–10 Lega Pro Seconda Divisione for FeralpiSalò on a free transfer.

In October 2010 Bagnara joined Sant'Angelo Lodigiano, an Eccellenza Lombardy team. He was released again in summer 2011. In 2011 -- 12 season Bagnara played for Pro Roncade, a Prima Categoria team located in Veneto. Eros Bagnara at Profile