Aardman Animations, Ltd. is a British animation studio based in Bristol. Aardman is known for films made using stop-motion clay animation techniques those featuring Plasticine characters Wallace and Gromit. After some experimental computer animated short films during the late 1990s, beginning with Owzat, it entered the computer animation market with Flushed Away. Aardman films have made average $147 million per film. All of their stop motion films are among the highest-grossing stop-motion films, with their debut, Chicken Run, being their top-grossing film as well as the highest-grossing stop-motion film of all time. Aardman was founded in 1972 as a low-budget project by Peter Lord and David Sproxton, who wanted to realise their dream of producing an animated motion picture; the partnership provided animated sequences for the BBC series for deaf children Vision On. The company name originates from the name of their nerdish Superman character in that sequence. After creating a segment called "Greeblies" using clay animation, became what was the inspiration for creating Morph, a simple clay character.
Around the same time Lord and Sproxton made their first foray into adult animation with the shorts Down and Out and Confessions of a Foyer Girl, entries in the BBC's Animated Conversations series using real-life conversations as soundtracks. Aardman created the title sequence for The Great Egg Race and supplied animation for the multiple award-winning music video of Peter Gabriel's song "Sledgehammer", they produced the music video for the song "My Baby Just Cares For Me" by Nina Simone in 1987. Aardman produced a number of shorts for Channel 4, including the Conversation Pieces series; these five shorts worked in the same area as the Animated Conversations pieces, but were more sophisticated. Lord and Sproxton began hiring more animators at this point. Of the five Lip Synch shorts, two were directed by Lord, one by Barry Purves, one by Richard Goleszowski and one by Nick Park. In 1991, Park's short, Creature Comforts, was the first Aardman production to win an Academy Award. Park developed the clay modelled shorts featuring the adventures of Wallace and Gromit, a comical pair of friends: Wallace being a naive English inventor with a love of cheese, Gromit his best friend, the intelligent but silent dog.
These films include A Grand Day Out, The Wrong Trousers and A Close Shave, the latter two winning Academy Awards. In December 1997, Aardman and DreamWorks announced that their companies were teaming up to co-finance and distribute Chicken Run, Aardman's first feature film, in pre-production for a year. On 27 October 1999, Aardman and DreamWorks signed a $250 million deal to make an additional four films that were estimated to be completed during the next 12 years. Along with the deal their first project was titled The Tortoise and the Hare. Intended to be based on Aesop's fable and directed by Richard Goleszowski, it was put on hold two years because of script issues. On 23 June 2000, Chicken Run was released to a great financial success. In 2005, after ten years of absence and Gromit returned in Academy Award-winning Wallace & Gromit: The Curse of the Were-Rabbit; the following year Flushed Away, Aardman's first computer-animated feature, was released. On 1 October 2006, right before the release of Flushed Away, The New York Times reported that due to creative differences DreamWorks Animation and Aardman would not be extending their contract.
The deal was terminated on 30 January 2007. According to an Aardman spokesperson: "The business model of DreamWorks no longer suits Aardman and vice versa, but the split couldn't have been more amicable." Unofficial reasons for departure were weak performances of the last two movies, for which DreamWorks had to take writedowns, citing the article, "Aardman executives chafed at the creative control DreamWorks tried to exert with Flushed Away..." The studio had another film in development, Crood Awakening, announced in 2005, with John Cleese co-writing the screenplay. With the end of the partnership, the film's rights reverted to DreamWorks. On 10 October 2005, a serious fire at a storage facility used by Aardman and other Bristol-based companies destroyed over 30 years of props and scenery built by the Bristol-based Cod Steaks; this warehouse was used for storage of past projects and so did not prevent the production of their current projects at the time. In addition, the company's library of finished films was undamaged.
An electrical fault was determined to be the cause of the blaze. Referring to the 2004 South Asia earthquake and tsunami, Park was quoted as saying, "Even though it is a precious and nostalgic collection and valuable to the company, in light of other tragedies, today isn't a big deal."From 2006 to 2007, the Ghibli Museum in Mitaka, Japan, had an exhibit featuring the works of Aardman Studios. Sproxton and Lord visited the exhibit in May 2006 and met with animator Hayao Miyazaki during the visit. Miyazaki has long been a fan of Aardman Animations' works. In April 2007, Aardman signed and in 2010 renewed a three-year deal with Sony Pictures Entertainment to finance, co-produce, distribute feature films; the next year, Aardman released a new Wallace and Gromit short film, called A Matter of Loaf and Death. The first film made in partnership with Sony was the computer-animated Arthur Christmas, Aardman's first 3-D feature film. 2012 saw the release of The Pirates! In an Advent
Richard Oliver Postgate known as Oliver Postgate, was an English animator and writer. He was the writer of some of Britain's most popular children's television programmes. Pingwings, Pogles' Wood, Noggin the Nog, Ivor the Engine and Bagpuss, were all made by Smallfilms, the company he set up with Peter Firmin, were shown on the BBC between the 1950s and the 1980s, on ITV from 1959 to the present day. In a 1999 BBC poll Bagpuss was voted the most popular children's television programme of all time. Postgate was born in Hendon, England, into the Postgate family, as the younger son of journalist and writer Raymond Postgate and Daisy Lansbury, making him the cousin of actress Angela Lansbury and grandson of Labour politician, sometime leader, George Lansbury, his other grandfather was the Latin classicist John Percival Postgate. His brother was the microbiologist and writer John Postgate FRS. Postgate was educated at the private Woodstock School on Golders Green Road in Finchley in north-west London and Woodhouse Secondary School known from 1923 onwards as Woodhouse Grammar School in Finchley, followed by Dartington Hall School, a progressive private boarding school in Devon.
Postgate joined the Home Guard in 1942 while studying at Kingston College of Art, but when he became liable for military service during the Second World War the following year, he declared himself a conscientious objector, as his father had done during the First World War. He was refused recognition, he was sentenced to three months in Feltham Prison. This qualified him to return to the Appellate Tribunal, where he was granted exemption conditional upon working on the land or in social service, the unserved portion of his sentence being remitted, he worked on farms until the end of the war, when he went to occupied Germany, working for the Red Cross in social relief work. On return to the UK, from 1948 he attended drama school, but drifted through a number of different jobs, never finding his niche. In 1957 he was appointed a stage manager with Associated-Rediffusion, which held the ITV franchise for London. Attached to the children's programming section, he thought he could do better with the low budgets of the black and white television productions.
Postgate wrote Alexander The Mouse, a story about a mouse born to be king. Using an Irish-produced magnetic system – on which animated characters were attached to a painted background, photographed through a 45-degree mirror – he persuaded Peter Firmin, teaching at the Central School of Art, to create the background scenes. Postgate recalled they undertook around 26 of these programmes live-to-air, which were made harder by the production problems encountered by the use and restrictions of using magnets. After the success of Alexander the Mouse, Postgate agreed a deal to make the next series on film, for a budget of £175 per programme. Making a stop motion animation table in his bedroom, he wrote the Chinese story The Journey of Master Ho; this was intended for deaf children, a distinct advantage in that the production required no soundtrack which reduced the production costs. He engaged an honorary Chinese painter to produce the backgrounds, but as the painter was classical Chinese-trained he produced them in three-quarters view, rather than in the conventional Egyptian full-view manner used for flat animation under a camera.
This resulted in the Firmin-produced characters looking as though they were short in one leg, but the success of the production provided the foundation for Postgate with Firmin to start up his own company producing animated children's programmes. Setting up their business in a disused cowshed at Firmin's home in Blean near Canterbury, Kent and Firmin worked on children's animation programmes. Based on concepts which originated with Postgate, Firmin did the artwork and built the models, while Postgate wrote the scripts, did the stop motion filming and many of the voices. Smallfilms was therefore able to produce two minutes of film per day, ten times as much as a conventional animation studio, with Postgate moving the cardboard pieces himself, working his 16mm camera frame-by-frame with a home-made clicker; as Postgate voiced many of the productions, narrated WereBear stories, his distinctive voice became familiar to generations of children. They started in 1959 with Ivor the Engine, a series for ITV about a Welsh steam locomotive who wanted to sing in a choir, based on Postgate's wartime encounter with Welshman Denzyl Ellis, who used to be the fireman on the Royal Scot.
This was followed by Noggin the Nog for the BBC, which established Smallfilms as a reliable source to produce children's entertainment, when there were only two television channels in the UK. Postgate described the "gentlemanly and rather innocent" business thus: We would go to the BBC once a year, show them the films we'd made, they would say: "Yes, now what are you going to do next?" We would tell them, they would say: "That sounds fine, we'll mark it in for eighteen months from now", we would be given praise and encouragement and some money in advance, we'd just go away and do it. Postgate had strict views on story-line development, which resultantly restricted the length of each particular series development; when asked if the Clangers adventures were quite surreal sometimes, Postgate replied: They're surreal but logical. I have a strong prejudice against fantasy for it
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Blean is a village in the civil parish of St Cosmus and St Damian in the Blean, in the Canterbury district of Kent, England. The large parish and the suburban developed village within it: the latter is scattered along the road between Canterbury and Whitstable, in the middle of the Forest of Blean and the parish is woodland, much of, ancient woodland. According to Edward Hasted's 1800 county study, the village was once part of the king's ancient forest of Blean in the hundred of Westgate; the name Blean is the dative form of the Old English word ` blea'. Therefore the name of the parish means "the church of Saints Cosmas and Damian in the rough ground." In 1835, the Blean Union Workhouse, designed by William Edmunds, was built on four acres south of Herne Common. The design was based on Sir Francis Bond Head's Plan of a Rural Workhouse for 500 Persons, a publication of the Poor Law Commission. To keep costs down, no outside drains were added, the building was windowless. Discipline was severe.
A nine-year-old girl was once punished for a small offense by being forced to remain overnight in the mortuary with a corpse. The village has a druid woodland sculpture park, noted for its large sleeping dragon; the east of the village has a recreation ground used for sports. The parish church is about half a mile from the village centre, it is dedicated to St Cosmus and St Damian and emphasising some kind of descriptor of the land itself, has always been suffixed'in the Blean'. It is a 13th-century building and Grade II* listed, the second highest designation in the national grading scheme. Veering towards the north of the village's main street is a pub. Blean is part of the electoral ward of Blean Forest; the population of this ward at the 2011 census was 6,176. Blean's economy is tied to Canterbury and to a lesser extent, Whitstable. In television entertainment Smallfilms operates here the production company that created the animated series Ivor the Engine and the Clangers, at Peter Firmin's barn on the Blean farm.
The bay window of Firmin's house was featured in the opening sequence of Bagpuss. HMS Blean was named after the village's Blean Beagles hunt. According to Douglas Adams's humorous dictionary The Meaning of Liff, a "blean" is a "Scientific measure of luminosity: 1 glimmer = 100,000 bleans. Usherettes' torches are designed to produce between 2.5 and 4 bleans, enabling them to assist you in falling downstairs, treading on people or putting your hand into a Neapolitan tub when reaching for change". Parish Church of St Cosmus & St Damian in the Blean
Noggin the Nog
Noggin the Nog is a popular British children's character appearing in his own TV series and series of illustrated books, created by Oliver Postgate and Peter Firmin. The TV series is considered a cult classic from the golden age of British children's television. Noggin himself is a simple and unassuming King of the Northmen in a Viking-age setting, with various fantastic elements such as dragons, flying machines and talking birds. Peter Firmin is said to have come up with the name of Noggin after travelling on the London Underground and seeing Neasden station, which made him think "Noggin"; some of the original artwork for the series is on display at the Rupert Bear Museum. The appearance of the characters was influenced by Peter Firmin seeing the Lewis chessmen in the British Museum; the stories were based around the central character of Noggin, the rather simple but good-natured son of Knut, King of the Nogs, his queen Grunhilda. When King Knut dies, Noggin must find a queen to rule beside him or else forfeit the crown to his uncle, Nogbad the Bad.
Noggin meets and marries Nooka of the Nooks, becomes the new king. Noggin and Nooka have a son, who comes to the fore in storylines. Other regular characters include: Thor Nogson – Noggin's closest friend and Captain of the Royal Guard. Nogson portrays himself as "fierce", but is anything but fierce, he is unfailingly loyal, never hesitates to defend the honour of his king. Olaf the Lofty – An eccentric and arrogant, but well-meaning, inventor. Olaf's inventions work out as he intends them to, although his most notable success is the Flying Machine. Graculus – A big green bird who arrives as Nooka's messenger in the first episode. By chance they return to the place of his birth and meet his family, who unlike him are incapable of human speech. Grolliffe – A friendly ice dragon who Noggin befriends, who helps Noggin and his friends in a episode. Although the individual stories vary, any trouble encountered by the heroes is caused by Nogbad the Bad, who never gives up trying to claim Noggin's throne for himself.
Nogbad always loses in the end through the intervention of Noggin himself. The original television series was first broadcast, starting on 11 September 1959, by the BBC in the United Kingdom, continued to 1965. Twenty-one programmes were made in black and white, six in colour, each with a running time of ten minutes, by a company called Smallfilms; when the programme made a comeback in 1979 it was made in colour. The new series comprised one new two-part story and a colour remake of the second saga a six-parter, "Noggin and the Ice Dragon"; this colour series of Noggin the Nog ran until mid-1980. The level of stop-motion animation did not detract from the popularity of the series; the on-screen title is "The Saga of Noggin the Nog", since the stories were based on the principle of a Norse saga, episodes began with the words, "Listen to me and I will tell you the story of Noggin the Nog, as it was told in the days of old", or "In the lands of the North, where the Black Rocks stand guard against the cold sea, in the dark night, long, the Men of the Northlands sit by their great log fires and they tell a tale... and those tales they tell are the stories of a kind and wise king and his people.
Welcome to Northlands, a tribute to Noggin, King of the Nogs and the People of the Northlands." These opening lines were accompanied by Vernon Elliott's bassoon score. Visually, the series was inspired by the Lewis chessmen. A new series was rumoured in the late 1990s; the complete series was released on DVD in 2005, in a package that included DVD versions of the short story books. 1 The Saga of Noggin the Nog episode 1 – The King episode 2 – The Ship episode 3 – The Journey episode 4 – The Island episode 5 – Nogbad the Bad episode 6 – The King of the Nogs2 The Ice Dragon 1 – The Little Man 2 – The Journey 3 – The Hot Water Valley 4 – The Dragon 5 – The Treasure 6 – Nogbad the Bad3 The Flying Machine 1 – The Jar 2 – The Birds 3 – The City4 The Omruds 1 – The Great Invention 2 – Under the Hill 3 – The Challenge5 The Firecake 1 – The Crown of Flowers 2 – The Dream 3 – The Sorcerer's Sword6 Noggin and the Ice Dragon 7 Noggin and the Pie Narrated by Oliver Postgate. Character voices by Ronnie Stevens.
Stories by Oliver Postgate, Pictures by Peter Firmin. Music by Vernon Elliott. Various Noggin short stories were published, a visitor in one of them and the Moon Mouse, provided the basis for the characters in the popular Clangers TV series. All the books were written by Oliver Postgate, illustrated in full colour by Peter Firmin, published by Kaye & Ward. Edmund Ward Starting to Read books: Noggin The King Noggin and The Whale Noggin and The Dragon Nogbad Comes Back! Noggin and The Moon Mouse Nogbad and The Elephants Noggin and The Money Noggin and The Storks There was a standard book series published in the 1960s and 1970s consisting of 12 illustrated hardback books: King of the Nogs The Ice Dragon The Flying Machine The Omruds The Island The Firecake The Pie The Flowers The Game The Monster (
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
Perspective in the graphic arts is an approximate representation on a flat surface, of an image as it is seen by the eye. The two most characteristic features of perspective are that objects appear smaller as their distance from the observer increases. Italian Renaissance painters and architects including Filippo Brunelleschi, Paolo Uccello, Piero della Francesca and Luca Pacioli studied linear perspective, wrote treatises on it, incorporated it into their artworks, thus contributing to the mathematics of art. Linear perspective always works by representing the light that passes from a scene through an imaginary rectangle, to the viewer's eye, as if a viewer were looking through a window and painting what is seen directly onto the windowpane. If viewed from the same spot as the windowpane was painted, the painted image would be identical to what was seen through the unpainted window; each painted object in the scene is thus a flat, scaled down version of the object on the other side of the window.
Because each portion of the painted object lies on the straight line from the viewer's eye to the equivalent portion of the real object it represents, the viewer sees no difference between the painted scene on the windowpane and the view of the real scene. All perspective drawings assume. Objects are scaled relative to that viewer. An object is not scaled evenly: a circle appears as an ellipse and a square can appear as a trapezoid; this distortion is referred to as foreshortening. Perspective drawings have a horizon line, implied; this line, directly opposite the viewer's eye, represents objects infinitely far away. They have shrunk, to the infinitesimal thickness of a line, it is analogous to the Earth's horizon. Any perspective representation of a scene that includes parallel lines has one or more vanishing points in a perspective drawing. A one-point perspective drawing means that the drawing has a single vanishing point directly opposite the viewer's eye and on the horizon line. All lines parallel with the viewer's line of sight recede to the horizon towards this vanishing point.
This is the standard "receding railroad tracks" phenomenon. A two-point drawing would have lines parallel to two different angles. Any number of vanishing points are possible in a drawing, one for each set of parallel lines that are at an angle relative to the plane of the drawing. Perspectives consisting of many parallel lines are observed most when drawing architecture; because it is rare to have a scene consisting of lines parallel to the three Cartesian axes, it is rare to see perspectives in practice with only one, two, or three vanishing points. The earliest art paintings and drawings sized many objects and characters hierarchically according to their spiritual or thematic importance, not their distance from the viewer, did not use foreshortening; the most important figures are shown as the highest in a composition from hieratic motives, leading to the so-called "vertical perspective", common in the art of Ancient Egypt, where a group of "nearer" figures are shown below the larger figure or figures.
The only method to indicate the relative position of elements in the composition was by overlapping, of which much use is made in works like the Parthenon Marbles. Chinese artists made use of oblique perspective from the first or second century until the 18th century, it is not certain. Oblique projection is seen in Japanese art, such as in the Ukiyo-e paintings of Torii Kiyonaga. In the 18th century, Chinese artists began to combine oblique perspective with regular diminution of size of people and objects with distance. Systematic attempts to evolve a system of perspective are considered to have begun around the fifth century BC in the art of ancient Greece, as part of a developing interest in illusionism allied to theatrical scenery; this was detailed within Aristotle's Poetics as skenographia: using flat panels on a stage to give the illusion of depth. The philosophers Anaxagoras and Democritus worked out geometric theories of perspective for use with skenographia. Alcibiades had paintings in his house designed using skenographia, so this art was not confined to the stage.
Euclid's Optics introduced a mathematical theory of perspective, but there is some debate over the extent to which Euclid's perspective coincides with the modern mathematical definition. Various paintings and drawings from the Middle Ages show amateur attempts at projections of objects, where parallel lines are represented in isometric projection, or by nonparallel ones without a vanishing point. By the periods of antiquity, artists those in less popular traditions, were well aware that distant objects could be shown smaller than those close at hand for increased realism, but whether this convention was used in a work depended on many factors; some of the paintings found in the ruins o