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Smart card

A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card is a physical electronic authorization device, used to control access to a resource. It is a plastic credit card-sized card with an embedded integrated circuit chip. Many smart cards include a pattern of metal contacts to electrically connect to the internal chip. Others are contactless, some are both. Smart cards can provide personal identification, data storage, application processing. Applications include identification, mobile phones, public transit, computer security and healthcare. Smart cards may provide strong security authentication for single sign-on within organizations. Numerous nations have deployed smart cards throughout their populations; the universal integrated circuit card, or SIM card, is a type of smart card. As of 2015, 10.5 billion smart card IC chips are manufactured annually, including 5.44 billion SIM card IC chips. The basis for the smart card is the silicon integrated circuit chip, it was invented by Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor in 1959, was made possible by Mohamed M. Atalla's silicon surface passivation process and Jean Hoerni's planar process.

The invention of the silicon integrated circuit led to the idea of incorporating it onto a plastic card in the late 1960s. Smart cards have since used MOS integrated circuit chips, along with MOS memory technologies such as flash memory and EEPROM; the idea of incorporating an integrated circuit chip onto a plastic card was first introduced by two German engineers in the late 1960s, Helmut Gröttrup and Jürgen Dethloff. In February 1967, Gröttrup filed the patent DE1574074 in West Germany for a tamper-proof identification switch based on a semiconductor device, its primary use was intended to provide individual copy-protected keys for releasing the tapping process at unmanned gas stations. In September 1968, Helmut Gröttrup, together with Dethloff as an investor, filed further patents for this identification switch, first in Austria and in 1969 as subsequent applications in the United States, Great Britain, West Germany and other countries. Independently, Kunitaka Arimura of the Arimura Technology Institute in Japan developed a similar idea of incorporating an integrated circuit onto a plastic card, filed a smart card patent in March 1970.

The following year, Paul Castrucci of IBM filed an American patent titled "Information Card" in May 1971. In 1974 Roland Moreno patented a secured memory card dubbed the "smart card". In 1976, Jürgen Dethloff introduced the known element to identify gate user as of USP 4105156. In 1977, Michel Ugon from Honeywell Bull invented the first microprocessor smart card with two chips: one microprocessor and one memory, in 1978, he patented the self-programmable one-chip microcomputer that defines the necessary architecture to program the chip. Three years Motorola used this patent in its "CP8". At that time, Bull had 1,200 patents related to smart cards. In 2001, Bull sold its CP8 division together with its patents to Schlumberger, who subsequently combined its own internal smart card department and CP8 to create Axalto. In 2006, Axalto and Gemplus, at the time the world's top two smart-card manufacturers and became Gemalto. In 2008, Dexa Systems spun off from Schlumberger and acquired Enterprise Security Services business, which included the smart-card solutions division responsible for deploying the first large-scale smart-card management systems based on public key infrastructure.

The first mass use of the cards was as a telephone card for payment in French payphones, starting in 1983. After the Télécarte, microchips were integrated into all French Carte Bleue debit cards in 1992. Customers inserted the card into the merchant's point-of-sale terminal typed the personal identification number, before the transaction was accepted. Only limited transactions are processed without a PIN. Smart-card-based "electronic purse" systems store funds on the card, so that readers do not need network connectivity, they entered European service in the mid-1990s. They have been common in Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Finland, UK, Denmark and Portugal. Private electronic purse systems have been deployed such as the Marines corps at Parris Island allowing small amount payments at the cafeteria. Since the 1990s, smart cards have been the subscriber identity modules used in GSM mobile-phone equipment. Mobile phones are used across the world, so smart cards have become common.

Europay MasterCard Visa -compliant cards and equipment are widespread with the deployment led by European countries. The United States started deploying the EMV technology in 2014, with the deployment still in progress in 2019. A country's national payment association, in coordination with MasterCard International, Visa International, American Express and Japan Credit Bureau, jointly plan and implement EMV systems. In 1993 several international payment companies agreed to develop smart-card specifications for debit and credit cards; the original brands were MasterCard and Europay. The first version of the EMV system was released in 1994. In 1998 the specifications became stable. EMVCo maintains these specifications. EMVco's purpose is to assure the various financial institutions and retailers that the specifications retain backward compatibility wi

Polydore Beaufaux

Polydore Beaufaux was a Belgian painter. He favored Biblical scenes and genre pieces. From 1844 to 1850, he studied at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. In 1857, he won the Prix de Rome for painting, he used his prize money to make a study trip from 1859 to 1863, visiting France and Italy, where he did a portrait of Pope Pius IX. The following year, he became a Professor at the Academy, where he taught a course entitled "Painting from Life". Léon Abry, Gerard Portielje and Edouard de Jans are among his best-known students, he exhibited at the Paris Salon. In 1889, he made a trip to England left Antwerp to settle in Wavre. A year he became paralyzed in his hands and could no longer paint. Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon, Vol. 8, München-Leipzig, 1994. Léon Maret. Le peintre Polydore Beaufaux 1829—1905 Prix de Rome. — S.l. 1967. — 45 pp. Arcadja Auctions: Polydore Beaufaux Repro-Tableaux: Portrait of Leopold I

Milan Mišík

Milan Mišík was Slovak geologist and university professor. He excelled as an expert in microfacies analysis, sedimentology, petrography of sedimentary rocks, but in paleogeography and structural geology and tectonics, his best known scientific works were dealing with exotic conglomerates. Born into a family of teachers in Skalica on November 3, 1928, he graduated from high school in Bratislava in 1947. In 1951, he completed his studies in geology and geography at Comenius University, Faculty of Natural Sciences in Bratislava, he worked at the Department of Geology and paleontology from 1951—1960 as an assistant to professor Dimitrij Andrusov, from 1960 to 1970 as an associated professor. From 1963—1965, Mišík taught at the University of Havana, from 1966 to 1970, he served as the head of the Department of Geology and paleontology where he lectured on the regional Geology of the Western Carpathians, petrography of sedimentary rocks, historical geology and stratigraphy. In 1970 he was appointed professor of geology.

From 1981—1983 he taught geology at the Algerian University in Constantine. He contributed to the development of the Faculty of natural sciences of Comenius University and the development of teaching methodology, participated in the preparation of geology experts and researchers, he was devoted to these research activities into high age and published his last monograph at the age of 81. He died on May 2011 in Bratislava, his funeral took place on May 11 in the Bratislava crematorium Urnový háj. His scientific research was focused on the microfacial and stratigraphic investigation of the Mesozoic rocks of Western Carpathians, sedimentary petrography of carbonate rocks and Mesozoic paleogeography, he published 34 popular science articles. His best known works are the monographs on Microfacies of Mesozoic and Tertiary limestones of Western Carpathians which met with a positive international response and laid the foundations of modern microfacial analysis in Slovakia, he was the author of the guide Geological Excursion to Slovakia and an editor of the textbook Stratigraphical and historical geology.

He authored entry about the geology of Slovakia in Springer's Encyclopedia of European and Asian regional geology. From 2003 to 2009, together with D. Reháková, he published a series of monographs about carbonate sedimentary rocks of the Western Carpathians, he was an author of the popular science book Relay of science, to bring scientific research to the general public. During his scientific career he led numerous domestic scientific projects VEGA and KEGA. Collaborated in international UNESCO IGCP projects. Among the most important works of Milan Mišík these monographs are considered: Microfacies of the Mesozoic and Tertiary limestones of the West Carpathians. Geology of Czechoslovak Carpathians. In Geography of Czechoslovakia. Part I Geological Excursion to Slovakia. Stratigraphic and historical geology. Exotic conglomerates in flysch sequences: Examples from the West Carpathians. In: M. Rakús, J. Dercourt, A. R. M. Nairn: Evolution of the Northern margin of Tethys. Relay of science. Slovakia. In: E. M. Moores and R. W. Fairbridge: Encyclopedia of European and Asian regional geology.

Psefitic rocks of the Western Carpathians. Dolomites, dolomitizátion, dedolomitization in rocks of the Western Carpathians. Limestones of Slovakia – Part I

Balch Park

Balch Park is a county park in the southern Sierra Nevada mountains of California that features a grove of Giant Sequoia trees. It has archaeological sites relating to the early Native Americans of the area, to the late 19th- and early 20th-century logging industry that cut down many of the big trees in the area. Balch Park is known for its grove of Giant Sequoia trees that rivals the better known groves of nearby Sequoia National Park and Kings Canyon National Park. Two of the more impressive trees in the park are the Lady Alice Alice tree, the Allen Russell Tree, the 33rd largest Sequoia in the world and the largest tree in Balch Park. There is the Hollow Log, a fallen Giant Sequoia, used as a dwelling and a warehouse. Just outside the park is the Genesis Tree, the 7th largest tree in the world, the Adam Tree, the 20th largest tree; the area once supported several lumber mills, though many of the larger trees in the surrounding forest were logged, the trees at Balch Park were spared due to the efforts of conservation minded individuals, some of whom hoped to save the trees for future generations, some of whom looked to profit from the trees as tourist attractions.

A small museum near the entrance to the park has exhibits dedicated to the logging history of the area, a nature trail that begins at the museum winds through several of the larger trees. Three large ponds within the park are popular fishing destinations, are among some of the better known attractions in the area. One of these ponds, the Hedrick pond near the north edge of the park, was associated with an old lumber mill, two others nearer the museum were dammed by the park authority in 1958 and made to resemble mill ponds; the Park has some unique archaeological sites including the "Indian Bathtubs", which are large basins in the granite bedrock near the ponds. These features have a controversial origin; because they are associated with Indian bedrock mortar holes that are known to be man-made, some argue a man-made origin for the bathtubs whereas others insist that the bathtubs are natural features resulting from complex erosion processes. Some have suggested that the bathtubs were created by alien visitors from outer space.

John J. Doyle in the mid-1880s acquired a 160 acres parcel in the area that corresponds today to Balch Park. Doyle established a resort that he called "Summer Home", with the intent of selling up to 125 lots to be developed with cabins. However, the lot sales never took place, Doyle sold out in 1906 to the Mt. Whitney Power Company, which had plans to log the site for lumber to build a flume to carry water to a proposed power plant project. Once again no development or logging took place, the Mt. Whitney company sold the project, with it the land and trees, in 1923 to the San Joaquin Light and Power Company; the president of San Joaquin Light and Power, Allan C. Balch decided against logging the trees and donated the property in 1930 to Tulare County for a park to be named after him and his wife. After the Mountain Home State Demonstration Forest was set up in 1946, there was an attempt to transfer the park to State control. However, this was prevented by the terms of the original donation, Balch Park today remains under control of Tulare County.

Mountain Home Grove The Story of Balch Park Tulare County Parks

Prithu Baskota

Prithu Baskota is a Nepalese cricketer. All-rounder Prithu is a right-arm off break bowler, he made his debut for Nepal against Maldives in November 2010. He represents the APF Club of the National League and GoldenGate International College, which plays in the SPA Cup. Baskota was selected as part of Nepal's fourteen man squad for the 2012 World Twenty20 Qualifier in the United Arab Emirates, making his Twenty20 debut during the tournament against Hong Kong, he made eight further appearances during the tournament, with his final appearance coming against Papua New Guinea. He scored 83 runs in his nine matches, which came at an average of 20.75, with a high score of 36 not out. With the ball, he took 2 wickets. Nepal finished the tournament in seventh place, therefore failing to qualify for the 2012 World Twenty20. In 2012, he was selected as part of the Nepal Under-19s squad for the Under-19 World Cup in Australia, making six Youth One Day International appearances during the tournament. In August 2012, he was selected in Nepal's fourteen man squad for the World Cricket League Division Four in Malaysia.

He played for Upchurch Cricket Club, a cricket club in England, in Kent Cricket League Division 2 in July 2015. He scored an unbeaten 146 runs off 125 balls in a match against Gravesend Cricket Club and picked up 2 wickets, he was subsequently selected in Nepal's squad for the 2015–17 ICC World Cricket League Championship's matches against Scotland. The following list illustrates all the matches in which Baskota has won the man of the match award while representing Nepal in international series/tournaments. Prithu Baskota on ESPNcricinfo Prithu Baskota on CricketArchive

Chronic neutrophilic leukemia

Chronic neutrophilic leukemia is a rare myeloproliferative neoplasm that features a persistent neutrophilia in peripheral blood, myeloid hyperplasia in bone marrow, hepatosplenomegaly, the absence of the Philadelphia chromosome or a BCR/ABL fusion gene. The most common clinical finding is hepatosplenomegaly. Pruritus and mucocutaneous bleeding are seen; the cause of CNL is unknown. An association between CNL and multiple myeloma has been suggested based on the observation of myeloma in 20% of CNL cases. However, a clonal genetic abnormality has not been detected in these myeloma-associated cases of CNL, raising the possibility that the neutrophilia is a reaction due to the neoplastic myeloma cells; the postulated cell of origin is a marrow-derived stem cell. The majority of cases have not had detectable cytogenetic abnormalities. Most the Philadelphia chromosome and other BCR/ABL fusion genes are not detected. Peripheral blood neutrophilia with myeloid precursors comprising less than 5% of leukocytes.

Peripheral blood, bone marrow and liver are most common, but any organ or tissue can be infiltrated by neutrophils. On both the bone marrow aspirate and the core biopsy, a hypercellular marrow with an increased myeloid:erythroid ratio of 20:1 or greater. Myelocytes and neutrophils are increased, blasts and promyelocytes are not increased. Due to the myeloproliferative nature of the disease, an increase in megakaryocytes and erythroid precursors may be observed, but dyspoiesis in not seen in any cell lineage. Reticulin fibrosis is rare. There is a reported association between CNL and multiple myeloma, so the bone marrow biopsy may show evidence of a plasma cell dyscrasia with increased numbers of atypical plasma cells. Splenic infiltrates are found only in the red pulp. Hepatic infiltrates can be found in portal triad regions, or both. No distinct immunophenotype abnormality for CNL has been described. See OHSU 2013 findings of gene CSF3R, mutation p. T6181 This is a rare disease, with less than 100 cases reported.

Of these cases, an equal male:female ratio was observed, with cases seen in older adults