Black tie is a semi-formal Western dress code for evening events, originating in British and American conventions for attire in the 19th century. In British English, the dress code is referred to synecdochically by its principal element for men, the dinner suit or dinner jacket. In American English, the equivalent term, tuxedo, is common; the dinner suit is a black, midnight blue or white two- or three-piece suit, distinguished by satin or grosgrain jacket lapels and similar stripes along the outseam of the trousers. It is worn with a white dress shirt with standing or turndown collar and link cuffs, a black bow tie an evening waist coat or a cummerbund, black patent leather dress shoes or court pumps. Accessories may include bowler, or boater hat. For women, an evening gown or other fashionable evening attire may be worn; the dinner jacket evolved in late 19th century out of the smoking jacket – 19th century informal evening wear without tails designated for more comfortable tobacco smoking – following the first documented example in 1865 of the Prince of Wales King Edward VII.
Thus in many non-English languages, it is known as a "smoking". In American English, its synonym "tuxedo" was derived from the town of Tuxedo Park in New York State, where it was first introduced in 1886 following the example of Europeans. Traditionally worn only for events after 6 p.m. black tie is less formal than white tie but more formal than informal or business dress. As semi-formal, black tie are worn for dinner parties and sometimes to balls and weddings, although etiquette experts discourage wearing of black tie for weddings. Traditional semi-formal day wear. Supplementary semi-formal alternatives may be accepted for black tie: military uniform, religious clothing, folk costumes, etc. Dinner jacket in the context of menswear first appeared in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland around 1887 and in the United States of America around 1889. In the 1960s it became associated in the United States with colored jackets specifically. Tuxedo in the context of menswear originated in the US around 1888.
It was named after Tuxedo Park, a Hudson Valley enclave for New York's social elite where it was seen in its early years. The term was capitalized until the 1930s and traditionally referred only to a white jacket; when the jacket was paired with its own unique trousers and accessories in the 1900s the term began to be associated with the entire suit. In French, Catalan, German, Russian, Spanish and other European languages the style is referred to with the pseudo-anglicism smoking; this generic colloquialism is a false friend deriving from its similarity with the 19th century smoking jacket. In French the dress code may be called "cravate noire," a term, sometimes adopted directly into English; the suit with accompanying accessories is sometimes nicknamed a monkey suit and, since 1918, soup and fish - a term derived from the sort of food thought to be served at black tie dinners. In the 1860s, the increasing popularity of outdoor activities among the middle and upper classes of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland led to a corresponding increase in the popularity of the casual lounge suit as a country alternative to the more formal day wear frock coat, traditionally worn in town.
Men sought a similar alternative to the formal evening tailcoat worn every evening. The earliest record of a tailless coat being worn with evening wear is a 1865 midnight blue smoking jacket in silk with matching trousers ordered by the Prince of Wales from Savile Row tailors Henry Poole & Co; the smoking jacket was tailored for use at the Prince's informal country estate. Henry Poole never saw his design become known as a dinner jacket or cross the Atlantic and be called a tuxedo over there. Other accounts of the Prince's experimentation appear around 1885 variously referring to "a garment of many colours, such as was worn by our ancestors" and "short garments coming down to the waist and made on the model of the military men's jackets"; the garment as we know it was first described around the same time and associated with Cowes, a seaside resort in southern England and centre of British yachting, associated with the Prince. It was intended for warm weather use but soon spread to informal or stag winter occasions.
As it was an evening tailcoat substitute, it was worn with all the same accoutrements as the tailcoat, including the trousers. As such, in these early days, black tie was considered informal wear. In the following decades of the Victorian era, the style became known as a dinner jacket: a fashionable, formal alternative for the tailcoat which men of the upper classes wore every evening, thus it was worn with the standard accompaniments for the evening tailcoat at the time: matching trousers, white or black waistcoat, white bow tie, white detachable wing-collar formal shirt and black formal shoes. Lapels were faced or edged in silk or satin in varying widths. In comparison with full dress, etiquette guides declared dinner jacket inappropriate for wear in mixed company, meaning together with ladies. During the Edwardian era, the practice of wearing a black waistcoat and black bow tie with a dinner jacket became the convention, esta
Full dress uniform
Full dress uniform, sometimes called dress uniform, is the most formal type of military uniform, reserved for parades, official receptions, other special occasions of the most formal level, including private ones such as marriages and funerals. Full dress uniforms goes with order insignias and full size medals. In Western dress codes, full dress uniform is a permitted supplementary alternative corresponding to the civilian white tie for evening wear or morning dress for day wear - sometimes collectively called full dress - although military uniforms are the same for day and evening wear. Design may depend on branch of service branch. Although full dress uniforms are brightly coloured and ornamented with gold braids, lampasses, etc. most originated as practical uniforms that, with the adoption of more practical uniforms, were relegated to ceremonial functions. Before World War I, most armies of the world retained uniforms of this type that were more colourful and elaborate than the ordinary duty, or the active service dress uniform.
"Full dress uniform" is applied in order to distinguish from semi-formal mess dress uniforms, as well as informal service dress uniforms. Yet, full dress uniform is sometimes called dress uniform. Although many services use the term dress generically for uniforms, allowing it to refer to more modern service dress uniforms with suitable modifiers; therefore the term dress uniform without prefix refers to full dress uniform as described in this article. The British and United States armies were dependent upon voluntary recruiting and found that a smart dress served to attract recruits and improve morale amongst those serving; the British regimental system fostered numerous distinctions amongst different units. However, this was not limited to volunteer armies, with conscript armies of continental Europe retaining many of the colourful features that had evolved during the nineteenth century, for reasons of national and unit pride. Thus, in 1913 most French soldiers wore red trousers and kepis as part of their full dress, the majority of British foot regiments retained the scarlet tunics for parade and off duty, the German Army was characterised by Prussian blue, the Russian by dark green, the Austro-Hungary Army by a wide range of differing facing colours dating back to the 18th century.
There were exceptions to each of these rules distinguishing unique units. This included the German cuirassiers; the U. S. Army with its "dress blues" was an exception, with cavalry and infantry being distinguished only by the different branch colors. After World War I most full dress uniforms disappeared. Many of the regimes that had taken a particular pride in the retention of colorful traditional uniforms had been overthrown and their republican, fascist, or communist successors had little incentive to retain old glories. Elsewhere cost and disillusion with the "peacock" aspects of old fashioned soldiering had a similar effect, except for ceremonial guard units and such limited exceptions as officers' evening or off-duty uniforms. Modern armies are characterised by simple and drably coloured dress for ceremonial occasion, with the exceptions noted above; however a general trend towards replacing conscript armies with long serving professionals has had, as a side effect, a reversion to dress uniforms that combine smartness with some traditional features.
Thus the U. S. Army announced in 2006 that uniforms of modern cut but in the traditional dark and light blue colours will become universal issue, replacing the previous grey/green service dress; the French Army has, with the abolition of conscription, reintroduced kepis, fringed epaulettes and sashes in traditional colours to wear with camouflage "trellis" or light beige parade dress. The British Army with its strong regimental traditions has retained a wide range of special features and dress items to distinguish individual units, in spite of recent amalgamations. Although there still exist official patterns for full dress uniforms for each regiment or corps within the British Army, this uniform is issued at public expense, except for units which are on public duties, such as the Guards Division, Regimental Bands and Corps of Drums, which are bought from the Regiment's allowance. In the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic, the Argentine Federal Police, Argentine National Gendarmrie and Naval Prefecture, dress uniforms are worn during military and civil occasions for the military bands and colour guards.
They are a reminder of the military and law enforcement history of Argentina during the early years of nationhood and the wars of independence that the country was a part. The Argentine Army's full dress uniform is green with a visor cap, sword set and scabbard, long green pants, a black belt, black shoes or boots. However, several regiments within the Argentine Army are authorized full dress uniforms, which originate from the 19th century, including the Regiment of Patricians, the Regiment of Mounted Grenadiers, the 1st Artillery Regiment in the Buenos Aires Garrison; the Argentine Navy dress uniform is a navy blue polo shirt with a visor cap for officers and senior ratings and sailor caps for junior ratings and sleeve rank marks, a sword set and scabbard for officers, blue long pants, a belt and black leather shoes or boots. Marines wear peaked c
White tie called full evening dress or a dress suit, is the most formal in traditional evening Western dress codes. For men, it consists of a black dress tailcoat worn over a white starched shirt, marcella waistcoat and the eponymous white bow tie worn around a standing wingtip collar. High-waisted black trousers and patent leather oxford or optionally court shoes complete the outfit. Orders insignia and medals can be worn. Acceptable accessories include a top hat, white gloves, a white scarf, a pocket watch and a boutonnière. Women wear full length ball or evening gowns and, jewellery, tiaras, a small handbag and evening gloves; the dress code's origins can be traced back to the end of the 18th century, when high society men began abandoning breeches, lacy dress shirts and richly decorated justaucorps coats for more austere cutaway tailcoats in dark colours, a look inspired by the country gentleman and their frocks and riding coats. By early 19th century Regency era, fashionable dandies like Beau Brummell popularised this more minimalist style, favouring dark blue or black tailcoats with trousers, plain white dress shirts and shorter waistcoats.
By the 1840s the black and white had become the standard colours for evening wear for upper class men. Despite the emergence of the shorter dinner jacket in the 1880s as a less formal but more comfortable alternative, full evening dress tailcoats remained the staple. Around the turn of the 20th century, white bow ties and waistcoats became the standard for full evening dress, known as white tie, contrasting with black bow ties and waistcoats for the dinner jacket, an ensemble which became known as black tie. From around mid-20th century onwards, white tie was replaced by black tie as default evening wear for more formal events. By the 21st century white tie had become rare. White tie nowadays tends to be reserved for special, traditional ceremonies, such as state dinners and audiences, in addition to balls and galas such as the Vienna Opera Ball in Austria, the Nobel Prize banquet in Stockholm, Mardi Gras balls in New Orleans, the Al Smith Memorial Dinner in New York. White tie still occurs at traditional weddings and church celebrations, at certain societies, as well as around some traditional European universities and colleges.
Throughout the Early Modern period, western European male courtiers and aristocrats donned elaborate clothing at ceremonies and dinners: coats and lacy shirts and breeches formed the backbone of their most formal attire. As the 18th century drew to a close, high society began adopting more austere clothing which drew inspiration from the dark hues and simpler designs adopted by country gentlemen. By the end of the 18th century, two forms of tail coat were in common use by upper class men in Britain and continental Europe: the more formal dress coat and the less formal morning coat, which curved back from the front to the tails. From around 1815, a knee-length garment called the frock coat became popular and was established, along with the morning coat, as smart daywear in Victorian England; the dress coat, became reserved for wear in the evening. The dandy Beau Brummell adopted a minimalistic approach to evening wear—a white waistcoat, dark blue tailcoat, black pantaloons and striped stockings.
Although Brummell felt black an ugly colour for evening dress coats, it was adopted by other dandies, like Charles Baudelaire, black and white had become the standard colours by the 1840s. Over the course of the 19th century, the monotone colour scheme became a codified standard for evening events after 6 p.m. in upper class circles. The styles evolved and evening dress consisted of a black dress coat and trousers, white or black waistcoat, a bow tie by the 1870s; the dinner jacket emerged as a less formal and more comfortable alternative to full evening dress in the 1880s and, by the early 20th century, full evening dress meant wearing a white waistcoat and tie with a black tailcoat and trousers, the tuxedo incorporated a black bow tie and waistcoat: white tie had become distinct from black tie. Despite its growing popularity, the dinner jacket remained the reserve of family dinners and gentlemen's clubs during the late Victorian period. By the turn of the 20th century, full evening dress consisted of a black tailcoat made of heavy fabric weighing 16-18 oz per yard.
Its lapels were medium width and the white shirt worn beneath it had a starched, stiff front, fastened with pearl or black studs and either a winged collar or a type called a "poke", consisting of a high band with a slight curve at the front. After World War I, the dinner jacket became more popular in the US, informal variations sprang up, like the soft, turn-down collar shirt and the double-breasted jacket. According to The Delineator, the years after World War I saw white tie "almost abandoned", but it did still have a place: the American etiquette writer Emily Post stated in 1922 that "A gentleman must always be in full dress, tail coat, white waistcoat, white tie and white gloves" when at the opera, yet she called the tuxedo "essential" for any gentleman, writing that "It is worn every evening and nearly everywhere, whereas the tail coat is necessary only at balls, formal dinners, in a box at the opera."It continued to evolve. White tie was worn with slim-cut trousers in the early 1920s.
The Duke of Windsor wore a midnight blue tailcoat, trousers and w
Business casual is an ambiguously defined dress code adopted by some white-collar workplaces in Western countries, comprising more casual wear than informal wear, but less casual than smart casual. Widespread acceptance of business casual attire was preceded by Casual Fridays which originated California, United States, in the 1990s, in turn inspired by the Hawaiian 1960s casual custom of Aloha Friday. There is no agreed definition of "business casual". One definition of business casual states that it includes khaki pants and skirts, as well as short-sleeved polo shirts and long-sleeved shirts, but excludes jeans, tennis shoes, tight or short skirts, T-shirts, sweatshirts. Another source, an American university careers service, states that business casual consists of neutral colors more towards the dark shades of black, navy, but can include white and off white, reminds that the clothing should be pressed and have clean, crisp seams; the "Dress for Success" advice from the University of Toronto sums up business casual as "a classic, clean cut, put together look where a full suit is not required," which means slacks, khakis, or skirts.
The Canadian university ends with the warning that "it is not clothing you would wear to a club or for athletic purposes.... Don’t let the word casual mislead you. You still need to look professional."Another author wrote in the Financial Times that "Ordinarily business casual for guys seems clear. It is a pair of chinos, a blazer and a good shirt, no tie."A BBC article suggested that a "safe global standard" consists of "a button down shirt," "jackets or blazers, khaki or gray slacks, leather shoes." It warned, that great variation exists between countries and regions within countries. A U. S. menswear retailer advises men to wear a collared shirt, navy blazer, brown shoes, while making sure to look "clean and well-groomed."A contributor to Forbes asked her Facebook friends to define business casual, found a more casual apparent consensus not forcibly including a jacket: "For men: trousers/khakis and a shirt with a collar. For women: trousers/knee-length skirt and a blouse or shirt with a collar.
No jeans. No athletic wear." A response to, "I disagree. No khakis." She states that "there’s a lack of consensus in what defines a business casual wardrobe. All most people know is they don’t want to see too much of a colleague’s body, including feet." Dress code Western dress codes Casual wear Smart casual Casual Friday Workwear Sportswear Building your career wardrobe
Formal wear, formal attire or full dress is the traditional Western dress code category applicable for the most formal occasions, such as weddings, confirmations, funerals and Christmas traditions, in addition to certain audiences and horse racing events. Formal attire is traditionally divided into formal evening attire. Permitted other alternatives, are the most formal versions of ceremonial dresses, full dress uniforms, religious clothing, national costumes, most frock coats. In addition, formal attire may be instructed to be worn with official medals. With background in the 19th century, the protocol indicating men's formal attire have remained unchanged since the early 20th century, remains observed so in certain settings influenced by Western culture: notably around Europe, the Americas, Australia, as well as Japan. For women, although fundamental customs for ball gowns apply, changes in fashion have been more dynamic. Optional conventional headgear for men is the top hat, for women picture hats etc. of a range of interpretations.
"Formal attire" being the most formal dress code, it is followed by semi-formal attire, equivalently based around daytime stroller, evening black tie i.e. dinner suit, evening gown for women. The lounge suit and cocktail dress in turn only comes after this level, associated with informal attire. Notably, if a level of flexibility is indicated, the host tend to wear the most formal interpretation of that dress code in order to save guests the embarrassment of out-dressing. Since the most formal versions of national costumes are permitted as exceptions to the uniformity in Western formal dress code, since most cultures have at least intuitively applied some equivalent level of formality, the versatile framework of Western formal dress codes open to amalgation of international and local customs have influenced its competitiveness as international standard. From these social conventions derive in turn the variants worn on related occasions of varying solemnity, such as formal political and academic events, as well as certain parties including award ceremonies, high school proms, dance events, fraternal orders, etc.
The dress codes counted as formal wear are the formal dress codes of morning dress for daytime and white tie for evenings. Although some consider strollers for daytime and black tie for the evening as formal, they are traditionally considered semi-formal attires, sartorially speaking below in formality level; the clothes dictated by these dress codes. For many uniforms, the official clothing is unisex. Examples of this are court dress, academic dress, military full dress uniform. Morning dress is the daytime formal dress code, consisting chiefly for men of a morning coat and striped trousers, an appropriate dress for women; the required clothing for men, in the evening, is the following: Formal trousers, with stripes on leg seams White piqué front or plain stiff-fronted shirt with a detachable wing collar, cuff links and shirt studs White piqué bow tie White piqué vest A tailcoat Black patent leather court shoes AccessoriesWomen wear a variety of dresses. See ball gowns, evening gowns, wedding dresses.
Business attire for women has a developmental history of its own and looks different from formal dress for social occasions. Many invitations to white tie events, like the last published edition of the British Lord Chamberlain's Guide to Dress at Court, explictely state that national costume or national dress may be substituted for white tie. In general, each of the supplementary alternatives apply for both day attire, evening attire. Including court dresses, diplomatic uniforms, academic dresses. Prior to World War II formal style of military dress referred to as full dress uniform, was restricted to the British, British Empire and United States armed forces. In the U. S. Army, evening mess uniform, in either blue or white, is considered the appropriate military uniform for white-tie occasions; the blue mess and white mess uniforms are black tie equivalents, although the Army Service Uniform with bow tie are accepted for non-commissioned officers and newly commissioned officers. For white tie occasions, of which there are none in the United States outside the national capital region for U.
S. Army, an officer must wear a wing-collar shirt with white vest. For black tie occasions, officers must wear a turndown collar with black cummerbund; the only outer coat prescribed for both black- and white-tie events is the army blue cape with branch color lining. Certain clergy wear, in place of white tie outfits, a cassock with ferraiolone, a light-weight ankle-length cape intended to be worn indoors; the colour and fabric of the ferraiolone is determined by the rank of the cleric and can be scarlet watered silk, purple silk, black silk or black wool. For outerwear the black cape known as a choir cape, is most traditional, it is a long black woollen cloak fastened with a clasp at the neck and has a hood. Cardinals and bishops may wear a black plush hat or, less formally, a biretta. In practice, the
Smart Casual (album)
Smart Casual is the debut album from Kids in Glass Houses, recorded during late 2007 at Long Wave Studios with Romesh Dodangoda. The album contains songs the band have written since the release of their five-track EP "E-Pocalypse!", three tracks from the EP. The lead single from the album is "Easy Tiger" and was released on 10 March 2008, it was released as a digital download, on a limited pressing of 2000 vinyl. The music video for the single received considerable plays on music channels. "Give Me What I Want" was released as a single on 19 May, followed by "Saturday" on 11 August. The album charted at number 29 on the week of its release; the song "Girls" is used as the theme song for Totally Calum Best: The Best Is Yet To Come. The song "Raise Hell" was known as "My Def Posse" and still referred to by some fans. A Special Edition release included a bonus DVD. All tracks written by Aled Phillips, Iain Mahanty, Joel Fisher, Andrew Shay and Philip Jenkins unless otherwise stated. All lyrics by Aled Phillips.
Aled Phillips - lead vocals, lyrics Iain Mahanty - lead guitar, backing vocals Joel Fisher - rhythm guitar Andrew Shay - bass guitar Phil Jenkins - drums, percussion
The cassock or soutane is an item of Christian clerical clothing used by the clergy of Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican and Reformed churches, among others. "Ankle-length garment" is the literal meaning of the corresponding Latin term, vestis talaris. It is related to the habit, traditionally worn by nuns and friars; the cassock derives from the tunic that in ancient Rome was worn underneath the toga and the chiton, worn beneath the himation in ancient Greece. In religious services, it has traditionally been worn underneath vestments, such as the alb. In the West, the cassock is little used today except for religious services, save for clergy in traditionalist Catholic orders such as the Society of Saint Pius X, the Priestly Fraternity of Saint Peter, the Institute of Christ the King Sovereign Priest, the Canons Regular of Saint John Cantius, the Congregation of Mary Immaculate Queen who continue to wear the cassock as their standard clerical attire. However, in many countries it was the normal everyday wear of the clergy until the second half of the 20th century, when it was replaced in those countries by a conventional suit, distinguished from lay dress by being black and by incorporating a clerical collar.
The word cassock comes from Middle French casaque. In turn, the Old French word may come from Turkish kazak, an allusion to their typical riding coat, or from Persian کژاغند kazhāgand – کژ kazh + آغند āgand; the name was specially applied to the dress worn by soldiers and horsemen, to the long garment worn in civil life by both men and women. As an ecclesiastical term the word cassock came into use somewhat late, being mentioned in canon 74 of 1604; the word soutane is a French-derived word, coming from Italian sottana, derived in turn from Latin subtana, the adjectival form of subtus. The cassock comes in a number of cuts, though no particular symbolism attaches to these. A Roman cassock has a series of buttons down the front. In some English-speaking countries these buttons may be ornamental, with a concealed fly-front buttoning, known as a Chesterfield front, used to fasten the garment. A French cassock has buttons sewn to the sleeves after the manner of a suit, a broader skirt. An Ambrosian cassock has a series of only five buttons with a sash on the waist.
A Jesuit cassock, in lieu of buttons, has a fly fastened with hooks at the collar and is bound at the waist with a cincture knotted on the right side. The ordinary Roman cassock worn by Roman Catholic clerics is black except in tropical countries, where because of the heat it is white and without shoulder cape. Coloured piping and buttons are added in accordance with rank: black for priests, purple for chaplains of His Holiness; the 1969 Instruction on the dress of prelates stated that for all of them cardinals, the dress for ordinary use may be a simple black cassock without coloured trim. A band cincture or sash, known as a fascia, may be worn with the cassock; the Instruction on the dress of prelates specifies that the two ends that hang down by the side have silk fringes, abolishing the sash with tassels. A black faille fascia is worn by priests and major seminarians, while a purple faille fascia is used by bishops, protonotaries apostolic, honorary prelates, chaplains of His Holiness, when wearing a cassock with coloured trim.
A black watered-silk fascia is permitted for priests attached to the papal household, a purple watered-silk fascia for bishops attached to the papal household, a scarlet watered-silk fascia for cardinals. The Pope wears a white watered-silk fascia, sometimes with his coat of arms on the ends. In choir dress, chaplains of His Holiness wear their purple-trimmed black cassocks with a cotta, but bishops, protonotaries apostolic, honorary prelates use cassocks that are purple with scarlet trim, while those of cardinals are scarlet with scarlet trim. Cardinals have the additional distinction of having both choir cassock sleeves and the fascia made of scarlet watered-silk; the cut of the choir cassock is still a Roman-cut or French-cut Roman cassock. In the past, a cardinal's cassock was made of watered silk, with a train that could be fastened at the back of the cassock; this train was abolished by the motu proprio Valde solliciti of Pope Pius XII with effect from 1 January 1953. With the same motu proprio, the Pope ordered that the violet cassock be made of wool, not silk, in February 1965, under Pope Paul VI, a circular of the Sacred Ceremonial Congregation abolished the use of watered silk for the red cassock.
An elbow-length shoulder cape, open in front, is sometimes worn with the cassock, either fixed to it or detachable. It is known as a pellegrina, it is distinct from the mozzetta, buttoned in front and is worn over a rochet. The general rule of the Roman Catholic Church is that the pellegrina may be worn with the cassock by cardinals and bishops. In 1850, the year in which he restored the Catholic hierarchy in England and Wales, Pope Pius IX was understood to grant to all priests there th