Smarties are a colour-varied sugar-coated chocolate confectionery. They have been manufactured since 1937 by H. I. Rowntree & Company in the UK, are produced by Nestlé. Smarties are oblate spheroids with a major axis of about 12 mm, they come in eight colours: red, yellow, blue, mauve and brown, although the blue variety was temporarily replaced by a white variety in some countries, while an alternative natural colouring dye of the blue colour was being researched. Smarties are not distributed in the United States, where the rights to the name belong to the Smarties Candy Company, which manufactures its own hard tablet sweet under the registered trademark name Smarties. A similar product has been produced by Kneisl company in Holešov, since 1907. Several years the name Lentilky was used and registered by Philipp Kneisl, founder of the Holešov factory renamed to Sfinx. Subsequently, it was produced prevalently in Holešov as well within Czechoslovakia, afterwards in separated the Czech Republic, as Lentilky under the Sfinx or Orion brand, which fall under Nestlé since 1992.
This name is used in some Latin American countries. Rowntree's of York, have been making "Chocolate Beans" since at least 1882; the product was renamed "Smarties Chocolate Beans" in 1937. Rowntree's was forced to drop the words "chocolate beans" in 1937 due to trading standards requirements so adopted the "Milk Chocolate in a Crisp Sugar Shell"; the sweet was rebranded as "Smarties". Smarties in the UK were traditionally sold in cylindrical cardboard tubes, capped with a colourful plastic lid having a letter of the alphabet on it; the purpose of this, according to a Rowntree's spokesperson in the 1980s, was for them to be useful as a teaching aid to encourage young children to recognise the letters. Over the last 25 years, Nestlé and Rowntree's have manufactured five billion Smarties lids; some lids are rare and are now regarded as collectors' items. In February 2005, the Smarties tube was replaced with a hexagonal design; the rationale behind changing the design was, according to Nestlé, to make the brand "fresh and appealing" to youngsters.
The new lid still features a letter like the old plastic lids, but it is in the form of a "what is a?" Question similar to those asked on the TV show Blockbusters, the answer for which can be read when the lid is open, next to the hole giving access to the rest of the tube. The hexagonal box is made of one piece of card, diecut folded and glued; the hexagon can be stacked in many layers without the pile collapsing, an advantage at the point of sale. The last 100 tubes to leave the factory in York had a certificate inside them. Smarties are no longer manufactured in York. Outside Europe, Nestlé's largest production facility for Smarties is in Canada, where Nestlé has been manufacturing products since 1918. Canadian-made Smarties have a noticeably thicker shell than their European variants. In 1998, Nestle obtained a trademark for a tubular Smarties package, it sued Master Foods in Denmark, marketing M&M minis in a similar package. The Supreme Court of Denmark ruled that a basic geometrical shape could not be trademarked and ordered the trademark to be removed from the trademark register.
In one of the earlier ranges of colours there was a light-brown Smartie. This was replaced in 1988 by the blue Smartie. Before 1958, dark-brown Smarties had a plain-chocolate centre, while light-brown ones were coffee-flavoured; the orange Smarties contained orange-flavoured chocolate, however these days the orange flavour is added to the shell only. In 2006 it was announced that Nestlé were removing all artificial colourings from Smarties in the United Kingdom. Nestlé decided to replace all synthetic dyes with natural ones, unable to source a natural blue dye, removed blue Smarties from circulation and replaced them with white ones. In February 2008, blue smarties were reintroduced using natural blue dye derived from the cyanobacterium spirulina instead of the controversial Brilliant Blue FCF. Artificial colouring was removed from Smarties on the Canadian market in March 2009; the new range included all the colours except blue. Blue Smarties were re-added in May 2010. Red Smarties were dyed with cochineal, a derivative of the product made by extracting colour from female cochineal beetles.
A pigment extracted from red cabbage is now used in the United Kingdom. For the purposes of assessing an "active learning approach to epidemiology and critical appraisal" a mock randomised controlled trial tested the hypothesis that red Smarties could increase happiness. Based on a trial with 117 participants in four settings in Australia and Malaysia, red Smarties eaters were no happier than yellow Smarties eaters. Smarties are sold in the form of chocolate bars and eggs with fragments of Smarties in them, chocolate-and-vanilla ice cream with Smarties pieces in it known as Smarties Fusion. A variant on Smarties ice cream is the Smarties McFlurry, sold by McDonald's, it was discontinued temporarily in 2012, brought back in early 2014 but withdrawn
International or global psychology is an emerging branch of psychology that focuses on the worldwide enterprise of psychology in terms of communication and networking, cross-cultural comparison, scholarship and pedagogy. The terms international psychology, global psychology, transnational psychology, cross-cultural psychology are used interchangeably, but their purposes are subtly and different: Global means worldwide, international means across and between nations, transnational means to transcend the nation-state, cross-cultural means across cultures. In contrast, the term “multicultural” is more used to refer to ethnic and other cultural differences existing within a given nation rather than to global or international comparisons. International psychology is concerned with the emergence and practice of psychology in different parts of the world, it advocates committed involvement in worldwide and regional psychology and policy-making organizations such as the International Union of Psychological Science, the International Association of Applied Psychology, the International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology, the International Council of Psychologists, the European Federation of Psychologists’ Associations, the Sociedad Interamericana de Psicología, the founded Pan-African Psychological Union, others.
In addition, there exist more than 100 international psychology organizations each focusing on a specific subdiscipline. The goal is to establish psychology as a global discipline that in its theories, research practices and ethical aspirations is focused on the psychological study of humanity as a whole while avoiding as much as possible ethnocentric biases and preoccupations. For an annotated bibliography on international psychology that covers 156 publications, see Takooshian, Gielen and Velayo. In contrast, the term global psychology is more used to refer to the worldwide investigation of global issues and phenomena from a psychological and psychocultural point of view. Examples include the investigation of subjective well being and treatment of mental health problems, the psychological dimensions of family systems, gender roles and gender-typed behavior, childrearing practices and emotional functioning, international attitudes, value systems, intergroup conflicts, threats to the natural environment, societal transformation and national development, the struggles of disempowered groups as seen in a global perspective.
Cross-cultural psychology may be defined as the relativistic study of behavior and mental processes in different cultures, whereas cultural psychology takes a comparative approach. Cross-cultural psychology aims to compare the psychological phenomena between cultures and looks for patterns and culture-specific differentiation. An example would be the investigation of child-rearing practices and their psychological consequences between distinctly different groups. Cultural psychology focuses on the relationship between psychology and culture within a culture and how it affects individual human functioning. Both cultural and cross-cultural psychology constitute important elements of global psychology. Cross-cultural psychology emerged during the 1960s-1970s as a separate field of study with a definite identity; the Oxford English Dictionary defines global as, “…pertaining to or involving the world, worldwide” and international as, “Existing, occurring, or carried on between nations…Agreed on by many nations.
At present the term international psychology is in wider use although Stevens and Gielen prefer the term global psychology, to underline the global nature of psychological phenomena and problems together with their scientific investigation and efforts to ameliorate them. More the emergence and intensification of an international psychology movement is part and parcel of the broader process of globalization in the scientific, technological, sociocultural and ecological spheres, it reflects and makes use of the global flow of information and peoples. In addition, globalization in psychology has led to the de facto use of English as the predominant means of communication so that academics in many parts of the world are now expected to read and publish in English-language journals. Kurtis, Adams and Else-Quest have proposed a transnational psychology in order to counter the Western bias in the field of psychology. Transnational psychology applies transnational feminist lenses, developed through interdisciplinary work in postcolonial and feminist studies, to the field of psychology to study and address the impact of colonization and globalization.
This approach uses a context-sensitive cultural psychology lens to reconsider, de-naturalize, de-universalize psychological science. Kurtis and Adams suggested that people in the non-Western, "Majority World", should be viewed as resources for revising traditional psychological science. In addition, Bhatia believes t
Shopping for Fangs is a 1997 American-Canada film directed by Quentin Lee and Justin Lin and starring Radmar Agana Jao. Housewife Katherine loses her cell phone as a result. Lesbian waitress Trinh sends pictures. Katherine's husband works with a man by the name of Phil. Payroll clerk Phil, confused about his sexuality, thinks that he is transforming into a werewolf because his hair grows so that he has to shave every hour, he gorges on raw meat, is uninjured after being struck by a car. Radmar Jao as Phil Jeanne Chin as Katherine Clint Jung as Jim Lela Lee as Naomi John Cho as Clarance Peggy Ahn as Grace Scott Eberlein as Matt Daniel Twyman as Dr. Suleri Jennifer Hengstenberg as Sammi Dana Pan as May The film's budget was less than $100,000 and had a filming schedule of 21 days in Los Angeles. Lee and Lin separated the filming between themselves, with Lee filming the part with Katherine and Lin filming the part with Phil, it was released by Lin's company Margin Films. The term GenerAsian X may have been coined because of this film's release, with the X being removed.
Lee said in a 2012 interview, "Shopping for Fangs is about finding connections, a theme that threads through all my movies." He said, "It’s hard to quantify cultural impact, but years after and critics are still talking about Shopping for Fangs." David Noh, writing for Film Journal, said, "Under the circumstances, the actors manage to do rather nicely." Edward Guthmann, of San Francisco Chronicle, wrote, "Despite some fresh ideas, attractive actors and a sly, surprising performance by Chin as the disaffected Katherine, this is a rough first effort." The film was released on DVD on October 2009 by Pathfinder Home Entertainment. Shopping for Fangs on IMDb
State Route 102 is a 18.56-mile-long state highway that exists within Rutherford County, Tennessee. Its southern terminus is in Almaville, an unincorporated community in the western part of the county, at SR 96, its northern terminus is in Smyrna. The southern half of SR 102 is called Almaville Road and has an interchange with I-840; the two-lane road travels north through rural, undeveloped land until reaching the growing residential and warehouse areas just outside Smyrna and expanding to four lanes. After an interchange with I-24, SR 102 becomes Lee Victory Parkway, named after a prominent local politician. There is a one-quadrant interchange with Old Nashville Highway. After an interchange with US 41/US 70S, SR 102 becomes Nissan Drive, named for the massive Nissan automobile manufacturing facility that faces the east side of the highway; the highway's northern terminus is at Jefferson Pike. Thus, the combination of SR 102 and SR 266 forms a partial beltway around Smyrna; the entire route is in Rutherford County
Pardee Dam is a 345-foot -high structure across the Mokelumne River which marks the boundary between Amador and Calaveras Counties, located in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada 30 miles northeast of Stockton. The impounded water forms Pardee Reservoir, the primary source of water for the East Bay Municipal Utility District in the San Francisco Bay Area. Like all the reservoirs in the Sierra watershed, most of the water originates from the annual snowpack in the High Sierra; the reservoir covers 3 sq mi with a 215,000 acre⋅ft capacity and 37 miles of shoreline. California state law prohibits human body to water contact within Pardee Reservoir, so water skiers, jet skis, lake swimmers are forbidden, but boating and fishing remain popular activities; the water is transported from Pardee Reservoir across the Central Valley via the triple steel pipe Mokelumne Aqueduct to several storage reservoirs located in the hills east of San Francisco Bay which supply drinking water to the East Bay region.
The water is used to generate electric power and for recreation. Both the dam and its reservoir are named for George Pardee, a prominent Progressive Era politician in the Bay Area who served as Governor of California. Due to the many dams along the Mokelumne River, salmon runs that used to cross through to the present location of the Pardee Reservoir are stopped short in lower sections of the river. In the Fall of 2014, the fifth largest Chinook salmon count recorded in the past 74 years took place, with over 12,118 salmon. Below the dam lies a hatchery, the result of a joint project with EBMUD and California Department of Fish and Wildlife. There, about a fourth of the returning salmon are harvested for egg production. Along with raising the salmon, scientists work to manipulate river flow to encourage more salmon to return. During times of low water level, the fish are at risk of being drawn into water pumps that lead towards the south past the delta. To avoid this, scientists truck the baby salmon from the hatchery to Sherman Island in the delta.
The goal of the hatchery is that the baby salmon will imprint to the water in the Mokelumne River and return when it is time for them to mate. List of dams and reservoirs in California List of lakes in California List of largest reservoirs of California List of the tallest dams in the United States Department of Water Resources. "Station Meta Data: Pardee Dam". California Data Exchange Center. State of California. Retrieved 2009-04-01. Columbia Gazetteer, EBMUD history Current Conditions, Pardee Reservoir, California Department of Water Resources St. Mary's Magazine "Bumper Run of River Salmon" "Build Dam In Record Time". Popular Science Monthly: 55. March 1930. Historic American Engineering Record No. CA-168, "Pardee Dam, Mokulumne River, Valley Springs vicinity, Calaveras County, CA" HAER No. CA-168-A, "Pardee Dam, Powerhouse" HAER No. CA-168-B, "Pardee Dam, South Spillway" HAER No. CA-168-C, "Pardee Dam, Intake Tower" HAER No. CA-168-D, "Pardee Dam, Jackson Creek Spillway"
The music of the video game Final Fantasy XII was composed by Hitoshi Sakimoto. Additional music was provided by Masaharu Iwata and Hayato Matsuo, who orchestrated the opening and ending themes. Former regular series composer Nobuo Uematsu's only work for this game was "Kiss Me Good-Bye", the theme song sung by Angela Aki; the Final Fantasy XII Original Soundtrack was released on four Compact Discs in 2006 by Aniplex. A sampling of tracks from the soundtrack was released as an album entitled Selections from Final Fantasy XII Original Soundtrack, was released in 2006 by Tofu Records. Additionally, a promotional digital album titled The Best of Final Fantasy XII was released on the Japanese localization of iTunes for download only in 2006. "Kiss Me Good-Bye" was released by Epic Records as a single in 2006, Symphonic Poem "Hope", the complete music from the game's end credits, was released by Hats Unlimited in 2006. An abridged version of the latter piece, which accompanied a promotional video for the game, was included in the official soundtrack album.
An album of piano arrangements, titled Piano Collections Final Fantasy XII, was released by Square Enix in 2012. The soundtrack received mixed reviews from critics. Common complaints about the album were the large number of filler tracks, which seemed to be uninspired and hurt the soundtrack as a whole. However, several reviewers commented on "Kiss Me Good-bye", finding it to be one of the soundtrack's strongest areas; the singles for the soundtrack were well received by critics, who found them to be enjoyable but short in duration, the piano album was considered by reviewers to be one of the best in the series. The game's soundtrack was nominated for a British Academy of Film and Television Arts award for Best Original Score. Hitoshi Sakimoto composed most of the game's soundtrack. Uematsu noted that Aki's style of playing the keyboard while singing reminded him of his childhood idol, Elton John, one of the reasons he chose her. Aki was approached for the role three years before the release of the game.
She based her words for the song on "a scene of a new journey after good-bye", the sense she had gotten from Uematsu's melody, was encouraged by Uematsu not to limit herself in her lyrics to what she thought the producers wanted. Sakimoto was brought in to compose the soundtrack to the game by Yasumi Matsuno, the producer of the game, five months before the game was announced. Sakimoto experienced difficulty following in Uematsu's footsteps, but he decided to create a unique soundtrack in his own way, although he cites Uematsu as his biggest musical influence. Sakimoto did not meet with Uematsu for direction on creating the soundtrack and tried to avoid copying Uematsu's style from previous Final Fantasy soundtracks. However, he did attempt to ensure that his style would mesh with Uematsu's "Kiss Me Good-Bye" and the overall vision of the series; the soundtrack includes pieces composed by Uematsu for previous Final Fantasy games, with new arrangements by Sakimoto. These tracks include "Final Fantasy ~FFXII Version~", "Victory Fanfare ~FFXII Version~", "Chocobo FFXII Arrange Ver. 1", "Chocobo ~FFXII Version~", "Clash on the Big Bridge ~FFXII Version~".
Of these, all but "Clash on the Big Bridge" are recurring pieces used in every Final Fantasy game. "Clash on the Big Bridge" plays during the battle with Gilgamesh, as it did in Final Fantasy V. Sakimoto created the music for the game based on the atmosphere of the game and the emotional changes of the characters, rather than the story, so that the music would not be affected by changes in the development of the game. Sakimoto stated in an interview included in a bonus disc of the collector's edition of the game that his favorite pieces from the soundtrack are the "world" themes in the outdoor areas, that his overall favorite is "The Cerobi Steppe". Final Fantasy XII Original Soundtrack is the soundtrack album of Final Fantasy XII, containing musical tracks from the game, was composed and produced by Hitoshi Sakimoto. Additional music was provided by Masaharu Iwata and Hayato Matsuo, who orchestrated the opening and ending themes; the soundtrack spans four discs and 100 tracks, covering a duration of 4:54:34.
It was released on May 31, 2006 in Japan by Aniplex, bearing the catalog numbers SVWC-7351~4. The limited edition of the soundtrack included a 28-page booklet featuring artwork for the game and providing information about the soundtrack. An album entitled Selections from Final Fantasy XII Original Soundtrack was released on October 31, 2006 by Tofu Records containing 31 tracks from the full Final Fantasy XII soundtrack; the tracks were the same versions as on the full soundtrack, although some tracks that repeated were cut shorter. The album covers a duration of 73:23 and has a catalog number of TOF-033. Additionally, a promotional digital album titled The Best of Final Fantasy XII was released on the Japanese localization of iTunes for download only on March 15, 2006; the album contains 11 tracks handpicked by Hitoshi Sakimoto, including versions of "Theme of Final Fantasy XII" and "Chocobo FFXII Arrange Ver. 1" that were not used in the game. The game's soundtrack was nominated for a British Academy of Film and Television Arts award for Best Original Score.
Final Fantasy XII Original Soundtrack has sold 31,000 copies as of January 2010. It reached #7 on the Japanese Oricon charts, stayed on the charts for six weeks; the album received mixed reviews from critics. Jared's review from Square Enix Music On