Beowulf is an Old English epic poem consisting of 3,182 alliterative lines. It is arguably one of the most important works of Old English literature; the date of composition is a matter of contention among scholars. The author was an anonymous Anglo-Saxon poet, referred to by scholars as the "Beowulf poet"; the story is set in Scandinavia. Beowulf, a hero of the Geats, comes to the aid of Hrothgar, the king of the Danes, whose mead hall in Heorot has been under attack by a monster known as Grendel. After Beowulf slays him, Grendel's mother attacks the hall and is also defeated. Victorious, Beowulf goes home to Geatland and becomes king of the Geats. After a period of fifty years has passed, Beowulf defeats a dragon, but is mortally wounded in the battle. After his death, his attendants erect a tower on a headland in his memory; the full story survives in the manuscript known as the Nowell Codex. It has no title in the original manuscript, but has become known by the name of the story's protagonist.
In 1731, the manuscript was badly damaged by a fire that swept through Ashburnham House in London that had a collection of medieval manuscripts assembled by Sir Robert Bruce Cotton. The Nowell Codex is housed in the British Library; the events in the poem take place over most of the sixth century, after the Anglo-Saxons had started migrating to England and before the beginning of the seventh century, a time when the Anglo-Saxons were either newly arrived or were still in close contact with their Germanic kinsmen in Northern Germany and southern Scandinavia. The poem may have been brought to England by people of Geatish origins. Many suggest that Beowulf was first composed in the 7th century at Rendlesham in East Anglia, that the Sutton Hoo ship-burial shows close connections with Scandinavia, that the East Anglian royal dynasty, the Wuffingas, may have been descendants of the Geatish Wulfings. Others have associated this poem with the court of King Alfred the Great or with the court of King Cnut the Great.
The poem deals with legends, was composed for entertainment, does not separate between fictional elements and historic events, such as the raid by King Hygelac into Frisia. Though Beowulf himself is not mentioned in any other Anglo-Saxon manuscript, scholars agree that many of the other figures referred to in Beowulf appear in Scandinavian sources.. This concerns not only individuals, but clans and certain events. In Denmark, recent archaeological excavations at Lejre, where Scandinavian tradition located the seat of the Scyldings, i.e. Heorot, have revealed that a hall was built in the mid-6th century the time period of Beowulf. Three halls, each about 50 metres long, were found during the excavation; the majority view appears to be that people such as King Hroðgar and the Scyldings in Beowulf are based on historical people from 6th-century Scandinavia. Like the Finnesburg Fragment and several shorter surviving poems, Beowulf has been used as a source of information about Scandinavian figures such as Eadgils and Hygelac, about continental Germanic figures such as Offa, king of the continental Angles.
19th-century archaeological evidence may confirm elements of the Beowulf story. Eadgils was buried at Uppsala according to Snorri Sturluson; when the western mound was excavated in 1874, the finds showed that a powerful man was buried in a large barrow, c. 575, on a bear skin with two dogs and rich grave offerings. The eastern mound was excavated in 1854, contained the remains of a woman, or a woman and a young man; the middle barrow has not been excavated. The protagonist Beowulf, a hero of the Geats, comes to the aid of Hrothgar, king of the Danes, whose great hall, Heorot, is plagued by the monster Grendel. Beowulf kills Grendel with his bare hands and Grendel's mother with a giant's sword that he found in her lair. In his life, Beowulf becomes king of the Geats, finds his realm terrorized by a dragon, some of whose treasure had been stolen from his hoard in a burial mound, he attacks the dragon with the help of his thegns or servants. Beowulf decides to follow the dragon to its lair at Earnanæs, but only his young Swedish relative Wiglaf, whose name means "remnant of valour", dares to join him.
Beowulf slays the dragon, but is mortally wounded in the struggle. He is cremated and a burial mound by the sea is erected in his honour. Beowulf is considered an epic poem in that the main character is a hero who travels great distances to prove his strength at impossible odds against supernatural demons and beasts; the poem begins in medias res or "in the middle of things,", a characteristic of the epics of antiquity. Although the poem begins with Beowulf's arrival, Grendel's attacks have been an ongoing event. An elaborate history of characters and their lineages is spoken of, as well as their interactions with each other, debts owed and repaid, deeds of valour; the warriors form a kind of brotherhood linked by loyalty to their lord. What is unique about "Beowulf" is that the poem begins and ends with a funeral. At the beginning of the poem, the king, Shield Shiefson dies and there is a huge funeral for him. At the end of the poem when Beowulf dies, there is a massive funeral for Beowulf. Beowulf begins with the story of Hrothgar, who constructed the great hall Heorot for himself and his warriors.
Gandalf is a fictional character and a protagonist in J. R. R. Tolkien's novels The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, he is a wizard, member of the Istari order, as well as leader of the Fellowship of the Ring and the army of the West. In The Lord of the Rings, he is known as Gandalf the Grey, but returns from death as Gandalf the White. Although known as Gandalf, the character has a number of names in Tolkien's writings. Gandalf himself says, "Many are my names in many countries. Mithrandir among the Elves, Tharkûn to the Dwarves, Olórin I was in my youth in the West, forgotten, in the South Incánus, in the North Gandalf. In Norse the name means staff-elf; this is reflected in his name Tharkûn, "said to mean'Staff-man' " in Khuzdul, one of Tolkien's invented languages. In Middle-earth the colour of a Wizard's cloak distinguishes him from other Wizards. For most of his manifestation as a wizard, Gandalf's cloak is famously grey, from this derive a number of his appellations: hence Gandalf the Grey, Greyhame.
Mithrandir is a name in Sindarin, the translation of which gives rise to further names for Gandalf: the Grey Pilgrim and the Grey Wanderer. Midway through The Lord of the Rings, Gandalf is promoted to the head of the order of Wizards, is thus named Gandalf the White instead of Gandalf the Grey; this change in status introduces yet another name for the wizard: the White Rider. However after this transformation, characters who speak Elvish still refer to the wizard as Mithrandir. At times in The Lord of the Rings, other characters address Gandalf by nicknames disparaging: hence Stormcrow, Láthspell, Grey Fool. Láthspell means'Ill-news' in Old English. Tolkien discusses Gandalf in his essay on the Istari, he describes Gandalf as the last of the wizards to appear in Middle-earth, one who: "seemed the least, less tall than the others, in looks more aged, grey-haired and grey-clad, leaning on a staff". Yet the Elf Círdan who met him on arrival considered him "the greatest spirit and the wisest" and gave him the Elven Ring of Power called Narya, the Ring of Fire, containing a "red" stone for his aid and comfort.
Tolkien explicitly links Gandalf to the element fire in the same essay: Warm and eager was his spirit, for he was the Enemy of Sauron, opposing the fire that devours and wastes with the fire that kindles, succours in wanhope and distress. Merry he could be, kindly to the young and simple, yet quick at times to sharp speech and the rebuking of folly, he journeyed tirelessly on foot, leaning on a staff, so he was called among Men of the North Gandalf'the Elf of the Wand'. For they deemed him to be of Elven-kind, since he would at times work wonders among them, loving the beauty of fire, yet it is said that in the ending of the task for which he came he suffered and was slain, being sent back from death for a brief while was clothed in white, became a radiant flame. As one of the Maiar, Gandalf would have participated in the Music of the Ainur at the creation of the world; however he does not attain any prominence. In Valinor, Gandalf was known as Olórin; as recounted in the "Valaquenta" in The Silmarillion, he was one of the Maiar of Valinor of the people of the Vala Manwë.
He was closely associated with two other Valar: Irmo, in whose gardens he lived, Nienna, the patron of mercy, who gave him tutelage. When the Valar decided to send the order of the Wizards to Middle-earth in order to counsel and assist all those who opposed Sauron, Olórin was proposed by Manwë. Olórin begged to be excused as he feared Sauron and lacked the strength to face him, but Manwë replied that, all the more reason for him to go; as one of the Maiar, Gandalf was not a mortal Man but an angelic being. As one of those spirits, Olórin was in service to the Creator and the Creator's'Secret Fire'. Along with the other Maiar who entered into the world as the five Wizards, he took on the specific form of an aged old man as a sign of his humility; the role of the wizards was to advise and counsel but never to attempt to match Sauron's strength with his own, the kings and lords of Middle-earth would be more receptive to the advice of a humble old man than a more glorious form giving them direct commands.
The Istari arrived in Middle-earth separately, around T. A. 1000. He seemed the oldest and least in stature of them, but Círdan the Shipwright felt that he had the highest inner greatness on their first meeting in the Havens, gave him Narya, the Ring of Fire. Saruman, the chief Wizard learned of the gift and resented it. Gandalf hid the ring well, it was not known until he left with the other ring-bearers at the end of the Third Age that he, not Círdan, was the holder of the third of the Elven-rings. Gandalf's relationship with Saruman, the head of their Order, was strained; the Wizards were commanded to aid Men and Dwarves, but only through counsel.
J. R. R. Tolkien
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, was an English writer, poet and academic, best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion. He served as the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon and Fellow of Pembroke College, from 1925 to 1945 and Merton Professor of English Language and Literature and Fellow of Merton College, from 1945 to 1959, he was at one time a close friend of C. S. Lewis—they were both members of the informal literary discussion group known as the Inklings. Tolkien was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II on 28 March 1972. After Tolkien's death, his son Christopher published a series of works based on his father's extensive notes and unpublished manuscripts, including The Silmarillion. These, together with The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, form a connected body of tales, fictional histories, invented languages, literary essays about a fantasy world called Arda and Middle-earth within it.
Between 1951 and 1955, Tolkien applied the term legendarium to the larger part of these writings. While many other authors had published works of fantasy before Tolkien, the great success of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings led directly to a popular resurgence of the genre; this has caused Tolkien to be popularly identified as the "father" of modern fantasy literature—or, more of high fantasy. In 2008, The Times ranked him sixth on a list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945". Forbes ranked him the 5th top-earning "dead celebrity" in 2009. Tolkien's immediate paternal ancestors were middle-class craftsmen who made and sold clocks and pianos in London and Birmingham; the Tolkien family originated in the East Prussian town Kreuzburg near Königsberg, where his first known paternal ancestor Michel Tolkien was born around 1620. Michel's son Christianus Tolkien was a wealthy miller in Kreuzburg, his son Christian Tolkien moved from Kreuzburg to nearby Danzig, his two sons Daniel Gottlieb Tolkien and Johann Benjamin Tolkien emigrated to London in the 1770s and became the ancestors of the English family.
In 1792 John Benjamin Tolkien and William Gravell took over the Erdley Norton manufacture in London, which from on sold clocks and watches under the name Gravell & Tolkien. Daniel Gottlieb obtained British citizenship in 1794, but John Benjamin never became a British citizen. Other German relatives joined the two brothers in London. Several people with the surname Tolkien or similar spelling, some of them members of the same family as J. R. R. Tolkien, live in northern Germany, but most of them are descendants of recent refugees from East Prussia who fled the Red Army invasion and subsequent ethnic cleansing. According to Ryszard Derdziński the Tolkien name is of Low Prussian origin and means "son/descendant of Tolk." Tolkien mistakenly believed his surname derived from the German word tollkühn, meaning "foolhardy", jokingly inserted himself as a "cameo" into The Notion Club Papers under the translated name Rashbold. However, Derdziński has demonstrated this to be a false etymology. While J. R. R. Tolkien was aware of the Tolkien family's German origin, his knowledge of the family's history was limited because he was "early isolated from the family of his prematurely deceased father".
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on 3 January 1892 in Bloemfontein in the Orange Free State to Arthur Reuel Tolkien, an English bank manager, his wife Mabel, née Suffield. The couple had left England when Arthur was promoted to head the Bloemfontein office of the British bank for which he worked. Tolkien had one sibling, his younger brother, Hilary Arthur Reuel Tolkien, born on 17 February 1894; as a child, Tolkien was bitten by a large baboon spider in the garden, an event some think echoed in his stories, although he admitted no actual memory of the event and no special hatred of spiders as an adult. In another incident, a young family servant, who thought Tolkien a beautiful child, took the baby to his kraal to show him off, returning him the next morning; when he was three, he went to England with his mother and brother on what was intended to be a lengthy family visit. His father, died in South Africa of rheumatic fever before he could join them; this left the family without an income, so Tolkien's mother took him to live with her parents in Kings Heath, Birmingham.
Soon after, in 1896, they moved to Sarehole a Worcestershire village annexed to Birmingham. He enjoyed exploring Sarehole Mill and Moseley Bog and the Clent and Malvern Hills, which would inspire scenes in his books, along with nearby towns and villages such as Bromsgrove and Alvechurch and places such as his aunt Jane's farm of Bag End, the name of which he used in his fiction. Mabel Tolkien taught her two children at home. Ronald, as he was known in the family, was a keen pupil, she taught him a great deal of botany and awakened in him the enjoyment of the look and feel of plants. Young Tolkien liked to draw landscapes and trees, but his favourite lessons were those concerning languages, his mother taught him the rudiments of Latin early. Tolkien could write fluently soon afterwards, his mother allowed him to read many books. He disliked Treasure Island and The Pied Piper and thought Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll was "amusing but disturbing", he liked stories about "Red Indians" and the fantasy wor
Motion capture is the process of recording the movement of objects or people. It is used in military, sports, medical applications, for validation of computer vision and robotics. In filmmaking and video game development, it refers to recording actions of human actors, using that information to animate digital character models in 2D or 3D computer animation; when it includes face and fingers or captures subtle expressions, it is referred to as performance capture. In many fields, motion capture is sometimes called motion tracking, but in filmmaking and games, motion tracking refers more to match moving. In motion capture sessions, movements of one or more actors are sampled many times per second. Whereas early techniques used images from multiple cameras to calculate 3D positions, Often the purpose of motion capture is to record only the movements of the actor, not his or her visual appearance; this animation data is mapped to a 3D model so that the model performs the same actions as the actor.
This process may be contrasted with the older technique of rotoscoping, as seen in Ralph Bakshi's The Lord of the Rings and American Pop. The animated character movements were achieved in these films by tracing over a live-action actor, capturing the actor's motions and movements. To explain, an actor is filmed performing an action, the recorded film is projected onto an animation table frame-by-frame. Animators trace the live-action footage onto animation cels, capturing the actor's outline and motions frame-by-frame, they fill in the traced outlines with the animated character; the completed animation cels are photographed frame-by-frame matching the movements and actions of the live-action footage. The end result of, that the animated character replicates the live-action movements of the actor. However, this process takes a considerable amount of effort. Camera movements can be motion captured so that a virtual camera in the scene will pan, tilt or dolly around the stage driven by a camera operator while the actor is performing.
At the same time, the motion capture system can capture the camera and props as well as the actor's performance. This allows the computer-generated characters and sets to have the same perspective as the video images from the camera. A computer processes the data and displays the movements of the actor, providing the desired camera positions in terms of objects in the set. Retroactively obtaining camera movement data from the captured footage is known as match moving or camera tracking. Motion capture offers several advantages over traditional computer animation of a 3D model: Low latency, close to real time, results can be obtained. In entertainment applications this can reduce the costs of keyframe-based animation; the Hand Over technique is an example of this. The amount of work does not vary with the complexity or length of the performance to the same degree as when using traditional techniques; this allows many tests to be done with different styles or deliveries, giving a different personality only limited by the talent of the actor.
Complex movement and realistic physical interactions such as secondary motions and exchange of forces can be recreated in a physically accurate manner. The amount of animation data that can be produced within a given time is large when compared to traditional animation techniques; this contributes to meeting production deadlines. Potential for free software and third party solutions reducing its costs. Specific hardware and special software programs are required to process the data; the cost of the software and personnel required can be prohibitive for small productions. The capture system may have specific requirements for the space it is operated in, depending on camera field of view or magnetic distortion; when problems occur, it is easier to shoot the scene again rather than trying to manipulate the data. Only a few systems allow real time viewing of the data to decide; the initial results are limited to what can be performed within the capture volume without extra editing of the data. Movement that does not follow the laws of physics cannot be captured.
Traditional animation techniques, such as added emphasis on anticipation and follow through, secondary motion or manipulating the shape of the character, as with squash and stretch animation techniques, must be added later. If the computer model has different proportions from the capture subject, artifacts may occur. For example, if a cartoon character has large, oversized hands, these may intersect the character's body if the human performer is not careful with their physical motion. Video games use motion capture to animate athletes, martial artists, other in-game characters; this has been done since the Sega Model 2 arcade game Virtua Fighter 2 in 1994. By mid-1995 the use of motion capture in video game development had become commonplace, developer/publisher Acclaim Entertainment had gone so far as to have its own in-house motion capture studio built into its headquarters. Namco's 1995 arcade game Soul Edge used passive optical system markers for motion capture. Movies use motion capture for CG effects, in some cases replacing traditional cel animation, for computer-generated creatures, such as Gollum, The Mummy, King Kong, Davy Jones from Pirates of the Caribbean, the Na'vi from the film Avatar, Clu from Tron: Legacy.
The Great Goblin, the three Stone-trolls, many of the orcs and goblins in the 2012 film The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey, Smaug were created using motion capture. ‘’Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace’’ was the first feature-length film to
A slavic dragon is any dragon in Slavic mythology, including the Russian zmei, known in Ukraine as zmiy, its counterparts in other Slavic cultures: the Bulgarian zmei, the Polish żmij, the Serbian and Croatian zmaj. the Macedonian zmey. The Romanian zmeu is a Slavic dragon, but a non-cognate etymology has been proposed. A zmei may be beast-like or human-like, sometimes wooing women, but plays the role of chief antagonist in Russian literature. In the Balkans, the zmei type is overall regarded as benevolent, as opposed to malevolent dragons known variously as lamia, ala or hala, or aždaja; the Polish smok or the Ukrainian or Belarusian smok, can be included. In some Slavic traditions smok is an ordinary snake; some of the common motifs concerning Slavic dragons include their identification as masters of weather or water source. The derivation that Serbo-Croatian zmaj "dragon" and zemlja "earth" descended from proto-Slavic root zbm, Indo-European *ḡhdem, was proposed by Croatian linguist Petar Skok.
The forms and spellings are Russian: zmei or zmey змей. In the legends of Russia and Ukraine, a particular dragon-like creature, Zmey Gorynych, has three to twelve heads, spits fire. According to one bylina, Zmei Gorynych was the dragon killed by Dobrynya Nikitich. Tugarin Zmeyevich, known as zmei-bogatyr or "serpent hero", is a man-like dragon who appears in Russian heroic literature. Tugarin may symbolize the Mongol steppe peoples. Chudo-Yudo is a multi-headed dragon; the Chudo-Iudo is considered to be water-dwelling. In some legends he is described as the brother of Koschey the Deathless, thus the off-spring of Baba Yaga, in others as personification of the witch in her foulest form. Chudo Yudo is one of the guardians of the Water of Life and Death, his name traditionally was invoked in times of drought, he can assume human-like forms, this being is able to ride a horse. He has the ability to grow up the missing heads; the term may not be a name for a specific type of dragon at all, but rather a fanciful term for a generic "monster".
According to this explanation, the term is to be understood as a poetic form of chudovishe meaning "monster", with a -iudo ending appended for the rhyme. A three and six-headed zmei slain by the titular hero in "Ivan Popyalov" are substituted with six-, nine-, twelve-headed Chuda-Iuda in the cognate tale #137 "Ivan Bykovich"; the inference is that Chudo-Yudo must be a dragon, despite the lack of the word serpent explicitly appearing in the latter tale. The six-, nine-, twelve-headed Chuda-Yuda that appear out of the Black Sea are explicitly described as zmei in yet another cognate tale, #136 "Storm-Bogatyr, Ivan the Cow's Son"; the Storm-Bogatyr uses his battle club to attack it. Chudo-Yudo's heads have remarkable healing property and if severed, they can be picked up and reattached with a stroke of its fiery finger, according to one of these tales; the terms smok and tsmok can signify a dragon, but just an ordinary snake. There are Slavic folk tales. Similar lore is widespread across Slavic countries.
The folklore that an ancient snake grows into a dragon is widespread in Slavic regions. This is paralleled by similar lore in China. In Bulgaria is a similar folk belief that the smok, which starts out as a non-venomous snake, grows to become a zmei dragon after living 40 years. Or, if the body of a decapitated snake was joined to a ox or buffalo horn, it grew into a lamia after just 40 days, according to Bulgarian folk tradition published by Racho Slaveykov in the 19th century. There are among the East Slavic folk the tradition that a viper transforms into a dragon. In Ukrainian folklore the viper needs 7 years to metamorphosize into a dragon, while in Belorussian folklore the requisite time is 100 years, according to one comparison; the weather-making dragon, ismeju, of Romanian Scholomance folklore is locally believed to grow out of a snake which has lived for 9 years. Locally in Ukraine, around Lutsk, the rainbow is called tsmok, said to be a tube that guzzles water from the sea and rivers and carries the moisture up into the clouds.
There is the notion of a slavic dragon that dips its tail into a river or lake and siphons up the water, ready to cause floods. In Rumanian folklore, dragons are ridden by weather-controlling wizards called the Solomonari; the type of dragon they ride may be the balaur, depending on the source. The lamia and the hala are generally perceived as weather dragons or demons. In Bulgarian lore, the zmei is sometimes described as a scale-covered serpent-like creature with four legs and bat's wings, at other times as half-man, half-snake, with wings an
The tapetum lucidum is a layer of tissue in the eye of many vertebrates. Lying behind the retina, it is a retroreflector, it reflects visible light back through the retina, increasing the light available to the photoreceptors. The tapetum lucidum contributes to the superior night vision of some animals. Many of these animals are nocturnal carnivores, while others are deep sea animals. Similar adaptations occur in some species of spiders. Most primates, including humans, lack a tapetum lucidum, compensate for this using perceptive recognition methods. Presence of a tapetum lucidum enables animals to see in dimmer light than would otherwise be possible; the tapetum lucidum, iridescent, reflects light on the interference principles of thin-film optics, as seen in other iridescent tissues. However, the tapetum lucidum cells are leucophores, not iridophores; the tapetum lucidum functions as a retroreflector which reflects light directly back along the light path. This serves to match the original and reflected light, thus maintaining the sharpness and contrast of the image on the retina.
The tapetum lucidum reflects with constructive interference, thus increasing the quantity of light passing through the retina. In the cat, the tapetum lucidum increases the sensitivity of vision by 44%, allowing the cat to see light, imperceptible to human eyes, it has been speculated that some flashlight fish may use eyeshine both to detect and to communicate with other flashlight fish. A classification of anatomical variants of tapeta lucida defines four types: Retinal tapetum, as seen in teleosts, crocodiles and fruit bats; the tapetum lucidum is within the retinal pigment epithelium. Choroidal guanine tapetum, as seen in elasmobranchii and chimaeras; the tapetum is a palisade of cells containing stacks of flat hexagonal crystals of guanine. Choroidal tapetum cellulosum, as seen in carnivores and cetacea; the tapetum consists of layers of cells containing organized refractive crystals. These crystals are diverse in makeup. Choroidal tapetum fibrosum, as seen in cows, sheep and horses; the tapetum is an array of extracellular fibers.
The functional differences between these four different types of tapeta lucida are not known. This classification does not include tapeta lucida in birds. Kiwis, stone-curlews, the boat-billed heron, the flightless kakapo and many nightjars and other night birds such as the swallow-tailed gull possess a tapetum lucidum; this classification does not include the extraordinary focusing mirror in the eye of the brownsnout spookfish. Like humans, some animals lack a tapetum lucidum and they are diurnal; these include most primates, some birds, red kangaroo, pig. Among primates only the strepsirrhines, with the exception of several diurnal Eulemur species, have a tapetum lucidum; when a tapetum lucidum is present, its location on the eyeball varies with the placement of the eyeball in the head, such that in all cases the tapetum lucidum enhances night vision in the center of the animal's field of view. Apart from its eyeshine, the tapetum lucidum, it is described as iridescent. In tigers it is greenish.
In ruminants it may be golden green with a blue periphery, or whitish or pale blue with a lavender periphery. In dogs it may be whitish with a blue periphery. Eyeshine is a visible effect of the tapetum lucidum; when light shines into the eye of an animal having a tapetum lucidum, the pupil appears to glow. Eyeshine can be seen in nature and in flash photographs. In low light, a hand-held flashlight is sufficient to produce eyeshine, visible to humans. Eyeshine occurs in a wide variety of colors including white, green, yellow and red. However, since eyeshine is a type of iridescence, the color varies with the angle at which it is seen and the minerals which make up the reflective tapetum-lucidum crystals. White eyeshine occurs in many fish walleye. Although human eyes lack a tapetum lucidum, they still exhibit a weak reflection from the fundus, as can be seen in photography with the red-eye effect and with near-infrared eyeshine. Another effect in humans and other animals that may resemble eyeshine is leukocoria, a white shine indicative of abnormalities such as cataracts and cancers.
Cats and dogs with a blue eye color may display both red-eye effect. Both species have a tapetum lucidum, so their pupils may display eyeshine. In flash color photographs, individuals with blue eyes may display a distinctive red eyeshine. Individuals with heterochromia may display red eyeshine in the blue eye and normal yellow/green/blue/white eyeshine in the other eye; these include bi-eyed dogs. The red-eye effect is independent of the eyeshine: in some photographs of individuals with a tapetum lucidum and heterochromia, the eyeshine is dim, yet the pupil of the blue eye still appears red; this is most apparent when the individual is not looking into the camera because the tapetum lucidum is far less extensive than the retina. Most species of spider have a tapetum, located only in their smaller, lateral eyes; this consists of reflective crystalline deposits, is thought to have a similar function to the structure of the same name in vertebrates. Four general pa
Sauron is the title character and main antagonist of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. In the same work, he is identified as the Necromancer, mentioned in Tolkien's earlier novel The Hobbit. In Tolkien's The Silmarillion, he is described as the chief lieutenant of the first Dark Lord, Morgoth. Tolkien noted that the Ainur, the "angelic" powers of his constructed myth, "were capable of many degrees of error and failing", but by far the worst was "the absolute Satanic rebellion and evil of Morgoth and his satellite Sauron"; the Ainulindalë, the cosmological myth prefixed to The Silmarillion, explains how the supreme being Eru initiated his creation by bringing into being innumerable spirits, "the offspring of his thought", who were with him before anything else had been made. The being known as Sauron originated among these as an "immortal spirit". In his origin, Sauron therefore perceived the Creator directly; as Tolkien noted: "Sauron could not, of course, be a'sincere' atheist. Though one of the minor spirits created before the world, he knew Eru, according to his measure."In the terminology of Tolkien's invented language of Quenya, these angelic spirits were called Ainur.
Those who entered the physical world were called Valar the most powerful ones. The lesser Ainur who entered the world, of whom Sauron was one, were called Maiar. In Tolkien's letters, the author noted that Sauron "was of course a'divine' person". Tolkien noted that he was of a "far higher order" than the Maiar who came to Middle-earth as the Wizards Gandalf and Saruman; as created by Eru, the Ainur were all good and uncorrupt, as Elrond stated in The Lord of the Rings: "Nothing is evil in the beginning. Sauron was not so."Rebellion originated with the Vala Melkor. According to a story meant as a parable of events beyond Elvish comprehension, Eru let his spirit-children perform a great Music, the Music of the Ainur, developing a theme revealed by Eru himself. For a while the cosmic choir made wondrous music, but Melkor tried to increase his own glory by weaving into his song thoughts and ideas that were not in accordance with the original theme. "Straightway discord arose around him, many that sang nigh him grew despondent... but some began to attune their music to his rather than to the thought which they had at first."The discord Melkor created would have dire consequences, as this singing was a kind of template for the world: "The evils of the world were not at first in the great Theme, but entered with the discords of Melkor."
However, "Sauron was not a beginner of discord. Sauron was not one of the spirits that began to attune their music to that of Melkor, since it is noted elsewhere that his fall occurred later; the cosmic Music now represented the conflict between evil. Eru abruptly brought the Song of Creation to an end. To show the spirits, faithful or otherwise, what they had done, Eru gave independent being to the now-marred Music; this resulted in the manifestation of the material World, Eä, where the drama of good and evil would play out and be resolved. Entering Eä at the beginning of time, the Valar and Maiar tried to build and organize the world according to the will of Eru; each Maia was associated with one of the powerful Valar. As a result, Sauron came to possess great knowledge of the physical substances of the world and all manner of craftsmanship—emerging as "a great craftsman of the household of Aulë". Sauron would always retain the "scientific" knowledge he derived from the great Vala of Craft: "In his beginning he was of the Maiar of Aulë, he remained mighty in the lore of that people."
Sauron's original Elvish name in Valinor was Mairon, but this name was not used anymore after he joined Melkor. In Beleriand, he was called in Sindarin Gorthu "Mist of Fear" and Gorthaur "The Cruel". However, during the Second Age, Sauron continued to call himself Tar-Mairon. Melkor opposed the other Valar, who remained faithful to Eru and tried to carry out the Creator's designs. Within the larger universe, they focused on developing the world of Arda. Around this time, Sauron fell victim to Melkor's corrupting influence: "In the beginning of Arda, Melkor seduced him to his allegiance."As for Sauron's motives, Tolkien noted that "it had been his virtue that he loved order and coordination, disliked all confusion and wasteful friction". Thus, "it was the apparent will and power of Melkor to effect his designs and masterfully that had first attracted Sauron to him". For a while, Sauron kept up the pretence that he was a faithful servant of the Valar, all the while feeding Melkor information about their doings.
Thus, when the Valar made Almaren as their first physical abode in the world, "Melkor knew of all, done. They still did not perceive Sauron's treachery, for he too became "a being of Valinor". At some point, Sauron left the Blessed Realm and went to Middle-earth