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Smells Like Teen Spirit

"Smells Like Teen Spirit" is a song by American rock band Nirvana. It is the opening track and lead single from the band's second album, released on DGC Records; the unexpected success of the song propelled Nevermind to the top of several albums charts at the start of 1992, an event marked as the point where grunge entered the mainstream."Smells Like Teen Spirit" was Nirvana's biggest hit in most countries, charting high on music industry charts around the world in 1991 and 1992, including topping the charts of Belgium, New Zealand and Spain. The song received critical plaudits, including topping the Village Voice Jop critics' poll; the song was dubbed an "anthem for apathetic kids" of Generation X, but Nirvana grew uncomfortable with the attention it brought them. In the years since Kurt Cobain's death and critics have continued to praise "Smells Like Teen Spirit" as one of the greatest songs in the history of music; the music video for the song is based on the concept of a school concert which ends in anarchy and riot, inspired by Jonathan Kaplan's 1979 film Over the Edge and the Ramones' film Rock'n' Roll High School.

It won two MTV Video Music Awards, in heavy rotation on music television. In subsequent years Amy Finnerty of MTV's programming department, claimed the video "changed the entire look of MTV" by giving the channel "a whole new generation to sell to". In 2000 the Guinness World Records named "Smells Like Teen Spirit" the "Most Played Video" on MTV Europe. "Smells Like Teen Spirit" was included in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's list of The Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll. In 2001, The Recording Industry Association of America ranked the song at number 80 on their Songs of the Century list. In 2002, NME ranked the song the number two on its list of "100 Greatest Singles of All Time", while Kerrang! Ranked it at number one on its list of the "100 Greatest Singles of All Time". In 2004, Rolling Stone ranked "Smells Like Teen Spirit" ninth on its list of The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. In 2017, it was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame. Nirvana frontman Kurt Cobain said that "Smells Like Teen Spirit" was an attempt to write a song in the style of the Pixies, a band he admired: I was trying to write the ultimate pop song.

I was trying to rip off the Pixies. I have to admit it; when I heard the Pixies for the first time, I connected with that band so that I should have been in that band—or at least a Pixies cover band. We used their sense of dynamics, being soft and quiet and loud and hard. Cobain came up with the song's title when his friend Kathleen Hanna, at the time the lead singer of the riot grrrl band Bikini Kill, wrote "Kurt Smells Like Teen Spirit" on his wall. Hanna meant that Cobain smelled like the deodorant Teen Spirit, which his then-girlfriend Tobi Vail wore. Cobain said he was unaware of the deodorant until months after the single was released, had interpreted it as a revolutionary slogan, as they had been discussing anarchism and punk rock."Smells Like Teen Spirit" was, along with "Come as You Are", one of several songs written following Nirvana's first recording sessions with producer Butch Vig in 1990. Cobain began writing it a few weeks before recording Nirvana's second album, Nevermind, in 1991.

When he presented the song to his bandmates, it comprised just the main guitar riff and the chorus vocal melody, which bassist Krist Novoselic dismissed as "ridiculous". In response, Cobain made the band play the riff for a half. Novoselic began playing the riff more inspiring drummer Dave Grohl to create the drum beat; as a result, it is the only song on Nevermind to credit all three band members as writers. Prior to the Nevermind recording sessions, the band sent Vig demos for songs including "Teen Spirit". While the sound was distorted due to the band playing at a volume, Vig felt. Vig and the band recorded "Smells Like Teen Spirit" at Sound City recording studio in Van Nuys, California in May 1991. Vig suggested changes to the arrangement, including moving a guitar ad lib to the chorus and shortening the chorus; the band recorded the basic track in three takes, used the second take. Vig corrected. Cobain recorded. "Smells Like Teen Spirit" was recorded in the original key of F minor and follows a Fm-B♭–A♭–D♭ chord progression, with the main guitar riff constructed from four power chords played in a syncopated sixteenth note strum by Cobain.

The guitar chords were double tracked to create a "more powerful" sound. The chords lapse into suspended chord voicings as a result of Cobain playing the bottom four strings of the guitar for the thickness of sound; the riff resembles. Cobain said: "It was such a clichéd riff, it was so close to a Boston riff or The Kingsmen's'Louie Louie.'" During the verses, Cobain used a Small Clone effect pedal to add a chorus effect. "Smells Like Teen Spirit" uses a "somewhat conventional formal structure" consisting of four-, eight-, twelve-bar sections, including an eight-bar verse, an eight-bar pre-chorus, a twelve-bar chorus. Musicologist Graeme Downes, who led the band the Verlaines, says that "Smells Like Teen Spirit" illustrates developing variation. Elements of the structure are marked with shifts in volume and dynamics, moving from quiet to loud several times; this structure of "quiet verses with wobbly, chorused guitar, followed by big, loud hardcore-inspired choruses" became an alternative rock template.

During the verses, the band maintains the same chord progression as the chorus. Cobai

Didier Dagueneau

Didier Dagueneau was a winemaker in the Loire Valley who received a cult following for his Sauvignon blanc wines from the Pouilly Fumé appellation. He died on 17 September 2008, in an ultralight plane crash in the Cognac region of France, he is survived by two children with his ex-wife Martine and Charlotte, who work at the domaine, two children with his partner Suzan Cremer, Aaron and Léon. Dagueneau was born in 1956 in Nièvre, Burgundy, his winery with 12 hectares of vineyards was in the town of Saint-Andelain, in Pouilly Fumé. He was seeking to make "the best Sauvignon blanc in the world", he made a variety of different cuveés, including Buisson-Renard, Pur Sang, Asteroïde, Silex. Somewhat unusually for the appellation and grape variety, many of his wines were meant for cellaring and some had a clear influence of oak, he was developing vineyards in Jurançon. An ex-motorcycle racer with no formal enological training Dagueneau clashed with other winegrowers about "typicité" while achieving unprecedented prices for the region.

His vineyard practices were a combination of the exacting with the unusual, such as using horses to plow the soil between vines. He was described as a risk taker and an experimenter, with perfectionist attitudes to his work, cutting yields to achieve greater ripeness. Footnotes

TWA Flight 358

Trans World Airlines Flight 358 was a domestic flight traveling from Chicago's O'Hare International Airport to New York City's John F. Kennedy International Airport. On June 11, 1971, a ticketless man named Gregory White boarded the Boeing 727 aircraft using force and demanded a machine gun, $75,000, to be flown to North Vietnam. After murdering a passenger, White was soon apprehended at the John F. Kennedy International Airport by FBI agents and arrested, it was the first attempted hijacking in the United States. On June 11, 1971, Gregory White bypassed security at O'Hare International Airport and entered onto the tarmac, preparing to board TWA Flight 358; when flight attendant Cathy Culver asked White to present his boarding ticket, White took out a pistol and held it to Culver's head. He entered the aircraft and demanded to be flown to North Vietnam, in addition to demanding a machine gun and $75,000; the pilot Captain Robert Eugene Elder and co-pilot Ronald Dupuis contacted TWA Operations for help.

Passengers were allowed to exit the aircraft, while they were doing so, U. S. Deputy Marshal Joseph Zito boarded by climbing a rope into a window in the cockpit. One passenger, Howard Franks, reentered the aircraft after forgetting an item and was shot dead by White. Captain Robert Elder dragged Franks' body back to the terminal, returned to the aircraft, negotiated with the hijacker to stop at John F. Kennedy International Airport for a larger aircraft better suited for travel to North Vietnam. While en route to New York, Zito gave an extra firearm to Don Welsheimer, the flight engineer, both exchanged gunfire between the cockpit and the cabin with the hijacker. Once on the ground in New York, a FBI agent shot White in White surrendered; the pilots, flight engineer, flight attendant, Deputy Marshal escaped down an escape slide. White was arrested and taken to Queens General Hospital. White was deemed too incompetent for trial and was committed to a state mental hospital in Chester, Illinois. For further reading, see

Karl Gatermann the Younger

Karl Gatermann referred to in art circles as Karl Gatermann the Younger, was a German painter, graphic artist, set designer. He was the nephew of his namesake, Karl Gatermann an artist. Gatermann trained as a decorator while working for his father in Zerbst, he attended art school at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Dessau with Wilhelm Danz in 1926, from 1927 studied at Bauhaus Dessau with Walter Gropius, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee and Lyonel Feininger. In 1928 he received a journeyman's certificate and he passed his Master's examination in 1933. Paying for his studies required working in the painting class of the Berufsschule in Zerbst. From 1935 until the beginning of World War II, he studied in Munich at the Academy of Fine Arts, his teachers there were Angelo Jank, Max Doerner, Adolf Schinnerer, Max Mayrshofer, Emil Preetorius. As a set designer, he worked at the Bavarian State Opera in Munich as well as at the opera houses in Magdeburg and Bernburg. After the war, Gatermann painted landscape oil paintings from the Munich area.

The Munich art publishing house Emil Köhn purchased many of his mountain paintings and reproduced them as art postcards. Gatermann declared himself as the first painter of the Munich parkland, his style approached late-impressionism during this period. Wide landscape with grazing cows, oil / board, signed K. Gaterman, local indication Munich, dated 22.9.48, 50x70.5 cm Autumnal forest, oil / board, signed K. Gaterman, Ortsangabe München, dated 16.10.48, backside designated K. Gatermann, 60x80 cm Field between Johanniskirchen and Unterföhring, oil / canvas, signed K. Gaterman, dated 1952, place description Munich, 60,5 × 80,5 cm Both Karl Gatermanns signed their work "K. Gatermann", however with regards to the Elder, only his early works included the notation "Munich"; these few paintings were created during his studies there before World War I. From 1919 onward, the Elder did not include the "Munich" notation; the Younger, on the other hand added "Munich" beneath his signature, since he lived and worked there.

Additionally, from around 1950, the Younger signed in printed letters, which the Elder never did. Männerchor der Bayerischen Staatsoper

Paul Bluysen

Paul Luc Olivier Bluysen was a French journalist and politician. He was deputy and senator for French India from 1910 to 1928. Paul Bluysen was born on 10 April 1861 in Paris, his family was connected to the oldest families in Pondicherry. He was educated in Juilly at the Lycée Condorcet and the Collège Rollin in Paris. In 1880 Bluysen published the Abeille de Seine-et-Oise, he was editor in chief of the journal. In 1883 he was director of the review Les arts graphiques. In 1885 he joined the République française. In 1888 he published Huit jours à Copenhague, in 1890 published Paris à l'exposition de 1889. From 1893 he was editorial secretary of the Journal des débats, he contributed to Le Voltaire. He sometimes signed his articles with the pseudonyms "Luc Olivier" or "Henri Thellier". On 2 March 1895 Alfred Le Chatelier fought a duel at the Moulin Rouge restaurant in Neuilly with Harry Alis, editor of the Journal des débats; the duel was fought with swords over a charge that Le Châtelier had made that Alis might be compromised with Belgian interests in Africa.

Alis had accused Le Châtelier of seeking personal gain in the Congo. Colonel Baudot and Commandant de Castelli acted for Chatelier, while Paul Bluysen and André Hallays, both of the Journal des débats, acted for Percher; the duel proved fatal to Alis. Bluysen was helpful to many French people in India, in 1898 was persuaded to run for election as deputy for Pondicherry, he was defeated by the journalist Louis Henrique-Duluc. That year he published Félix Faure intime, a lively but shallow work about Félix Faure President of France. In 1901 Bluysen left the Journal des Débats and became owner and director of the Correspondance républicaine libérale. On 27 April 1902 he again tried for election as deputy for Pondicherry, but was decisively beaten by Henrique-Duluc. In 1906 he became director of the Annuaire de la presse française et étrangère et du monde politique. At this time he was made a Knight of the Legion of Honour. Bluysen made another attempt in the legislative elections of 24 April 1910 for French India.

He promised improved education, more irrigation projects and strict neutrality between the religions. At that time the candidates, few of whom had visited India, paid local agents to ensure they were elected, the agents hired gangs of hooligans to control the polls. In 1910 the violence was worse than usual. Acting governor Ernest Fernand Lévecque sent a telegram to the Colonial Ministry on 24 April 1910 giving the first results, he reported, "Yesterday many incidents common to Mudaliarpet. The Pondicherry mayor Henri Gaebele was blamed for the violence. Levecque announced the final results on 4 May 1910: Bluysen = 20,580 votes, Lemaire = 17,453. In the Chamber of Deputies Bluysen sat with the Radical and Radical Socialist group, specialized in foreign affairs, he was a member of the Committee on External Affairs and Colonies. He was rapporteur on the proposed Statute of Colonial Banks in 1911 and on Works to be Undertaken in French India in 1912, he presented a report on the conviction of the deputy Hégésippe Légitimus.

He participated in the debate on the budget for education in Oceania. In 1912 he challenged the government of Raymond Poincaré on its Moroccan policy, proposed an Islamic policy and a Ministry of Africa. Bluysen won reelection on 26 April 1914 by a large majority through the support of Senator Étienne Flandin and of many European and Hindu councilors. Bluysen won by 33,154 votes against 5,624 for Jean Lemaire, 368 for J. Laporte and 231 for Paul Richard. Bluysen sat with the Radical Radical Socialist group, he proposed to facilitate granting citizenship to soldiers of Algeria, the colonies and protectorates. He was rapporteur of a draft law for appointment of Muslim forensic advisers to the Interministerial Commission of Muslim Affairs. During World War I he was involved in discussions on regulating the press and on distribution of coal. After the war he pushed to restore maritime connections between metropolitan France and the colonies, he was a member of the Peace Treaty Committee. In the 16 November 1919 legislative elections Bluysen was reelected with a majority of over 2,000 votes.

He sat with the Radical Radical Socialist group. He was now less active in the chamber, but spent more time on journalism, in 1921 became director of Actualités and of Réforme coloniale, he held office until 31 May 1924. Bluysen was elected to the senate for French India on 1 January 1924, held office until 1 January 1928. Paul Bluysen died on 10 September 1928 in Le Coudray-Montceaux, Yvelines. Publications by Bluysen include

Robson dos Santos Fernandes

Robson dos Santos Fernandes known as Robson, is a Brazilian footballer who plays as a forward for Coritiba Foot Ball Club. Robson was born in Campinas, played youth football for Ponte Preta, he made his senior debut for the club on 28 February 2010, starting in a 1–3 Campeonato Paulista away loss against Grêmio Barueri. Robson subsequently moved to São Caetano, had loan stints at Comercial-SP, Ferroviária and Rio Claro before establishing himself as a starter in 2014. In the following year, he was Azulão's top goalscorer in Série D with eight goals, but still left the club in December 2015. On 14 December 2015 Robson signed until the following November. After scoring eight league goals in 21 matches, he renewed until the end of 2017 with the club, was loaned to São Paulo on 9 September 2016. Robson made his Série A debut on 11 September 2016, coming on as a late substitute for Kelvin in a 3–1 home win against Figueirense. Robson at Soccerway