SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Smiley

A smiley is a stylized representation of a smiling humanoid face, a part of popular culture worldwide. The classic form designed by Harvey Ball in 1963 comprises a yellow circle with two black dots representing eyes and a black arc representing the mouth. On the Internet and in other plain text communication channels, the emoticon form has traditionally been most popular employing a colon and a right parenthesis to form sequences such as:-),:), =), =D, or (: that resemble a smiling face when viewed after rotation through 90 degrees. "Smiley" is sometimes used as a generic term for any emoticon. The smiley has been referenced in nearly all areas of Western culture including music and art; the smiley has been associated with late 1980s and early 1990s rave culture. The plural form "smilies" is used, but the variant spelling "smilie" is not as common as the "y" spelling. In 2017, a team of archaeologists led by Nicolò Marchetti of the University of Bologna pieced together the fragments of a Hittite pot from 1700 BC, found in Karkamış, Turkey.

After it was pieced together, the team saw that it had what appeared to be a large smiley face painted on it. The Danish poet and author Johannes V. Jensen was amongst other things famous for experimenting with the form of his writing. In a letter sent to publisher Ernst Bojesen in December 1900, he includes both a happy face and a sad face, resembling the modern smiley. A commercial version of a smiley face with the word "THANKS" above it was available in 1919 and applied as a sticker on receipts issued by the Buffalo Steam Roller Company in Buffalo, New York; the round face was much more detailed than the one depicted above, having eyebrows, teeth, facial creases and shading, is reminiscent of "man-in-the-moon" style characterizations. Ingmar Bergman's 1948 film Port of Call includes a scene where the unhappy Berit draws a sad face – resembling the modern "frowny", but including a dot for the nose – in lipstick on her mirror, before being interrupted. In 1953 and 1958, similar happy faces were used in promotional campaigns for the films Lili and Gigi.

A smiley was used in a promotion by New York radio station WMCA beginning in 1962. Listeners who answered their phone "WMCA Good Guys!" were rewarded with a "WMCA good guys" sweatshirt that incorporated a happy face into its design. Thousands of these sweatshirts were given away; the WMCA smiley was yellow with black dots as eyes, had a crooked smile, had no creases at the sides of the mouth. According to the Smithsonian Institution, the smiley face as we know it today was created by Harvey Ross Ball, an American graphic artist. In 1963, Ball was employed by State Mutual Life Assurance Company of Worcester, Massachusetts to create a happy face to raise the morale of the employees. Ball created the design in ten minutes and was paid $45, his rendition, with a bright yellow background, dark oval eyes, full smile, creases at the sides of the mouth, was imprinted on more than fifty million buttons and became familiar around the world. The design is so simple that it is certain that similar versions were produced before 1963, including those cited above.

However, Ball’s rendition, as described here, has become the most iconic version. In 1967, Seattle graphic artist George Tenagi drew his own version at the request of advertising agent, David Stern. Tenagi's design was used in an advertising campaign for Seattle-based University Federal Savings & Loan; the ad campaign was inspired by Lee Adams's lyrics in "Put on a Happy Face" from the musical Bye Bye Birdie. Stern, the man behind this campaign later incorporated the Happy Face in his run for Seattle mayor in 1993; the graphic was further popularized in the early 1970s by Philadelphia brothers Bernard and Murray Spain, who seized upon it in September 1970 in a campaign to sell novelty items. The two produced buttons as well as coffee mugs, t-shirts, bumper stickers and many other items emblazoned with the symbol and the phrase "Have a happy day", which mutated into "Have a nice day". Working with New York button manufacturer NG Slater, some 50 million happy face badges were produced by 1972. In 1972, Frenchman Franklin Loufrani became the first person to trademark the use of a smiley face.

He used it to highlight the good news parts of the newspaper France Soir. He called the design "Smiley" and launched The Smiley Company. In 1996 Loufrani's son Nicolas Loufrani took over the family business and built it into a multinational corporation. Nicolas Loufrani was outwardly skeptical of Harvey Ball's claim to creating the first smiley face. While noting that the design that his father came up with and Ball's design were nearly identical, Loufrani argued that the design is so simple that no one person can lay claim to having created it; as evidence for this, Loufrani's website points to early cave paintings found in France that he claims are the first depictions of a smiley face. Loufrani points to a 1960 radio ad campaign that made use of a similar design. In the UK, the happy face has been associated with psychedelic culture since Ubi Dwyer and the Windsor Free Festival in the 1970s and the electronic dance music culture with acid house, that emerged during the Second Summer of Love in the late 1980s.

The association was cemented when the band Bomb the Bass used an extracted smiley from the comic book series Watchmen on the center of its "Beat Dis" hit single. The earliest known smiley-like image in a written document was drawn by a Slovak notary to indicate his satisfaction with the state of his town's muni

Sonsonate Cathedral

The Most Holy Trinity Cathedral Also Sonsonate Cathedral is the name given to a religious building affiliated with the Catholic Church located in the city of Sonsonate in the department of the same name, in the western part of the Central American country of El Salvador. As its name indicates this is dedicated to the mystery Christian of the Holy Trinity; the present building started as a parish, was blessed in 1887 and elevated to cathedral status in 1986. It is a temple that follows the Roman or Latin rite and is the main church of the diocese of Sonsonate, created by The bull "De grege Christi" of the Pope John Paul II, it is under the pastoral responsibility of Bishop Constantino Barrera Morales. Roman Catholicism in El Salvador Cathedral of the Most Holy Trinity

Pinguicula moranensis

Pinguicula moranensis is a perennial rosette-forming insectivorous herb native to Mexico and Guatemala. A species of butterwort, it forms summer rosettes of flat, succulent leaves up to 10 centimeters long, which are covered in mucilaginous glands that attract and digest arthropod prey. Nutrients derived from the prey are used to supplement the nutrient-poor substrate that the plant grows in. In the winter the plant forms a non-carnivorous rosette of small, fleshy leaves that conserves energy while food and moisture supplies are low. Single pink, purple, or violet flowers appear twice a year on upright stalks up to 25 centimeters long; the species was first collected by Humboldt and Bonpland on the outskirts of Mina de Morán in the Sierra de Pachuca of the modern-day Mexican state of Hidalgo on their Latin American expedition of 1799–1804. Based on these collections, Humboldt and Carl Sigismund Kunth described this species in Nova Genera et Species Plantarum in 1817; the variable species has been redefined at least twice since, while several new species have been segregated from it based on various geographical or morphological distinctions, although the legitimacy of some of these is still debated.

P. moranensis remains the most common and most distributed member of the Section Orcheosanthus. It has long been cultivated for its carnivorous nature and attractive flowers, is one of the most common butterworts in cultivation; the generic name Pinguicula is derived from the Latin pinguis due to the buttery texture of the surface of the carnivorous leaves. The specific epithet moranensis refers to Mina de Moran. P. moranensis is seasonally dimorphic, in that it undergoes two distinct growth habits throughout the year. During the summer when rain and insect prey are most plentiful, the plant forms a ground hugging rosette composed of 6–8 obovate leaves, each up to 95 millimeters long; these leaves are carnivorous, having a large surface area densely covered with stalked mucilaginous glands with which they attract and digest arthropod prey, most flies. These so-called "summer leaves" are replaced by "winter rosettes" of small, glandless succulent leaves with the onset of the dry season in October.

This protective winter rosette allows the plant to undergo winter dormancy until the first rains begin in May. Flowers born singly on upright 10–25 centimeters peduncles emerge twice during the year, a feature rare among the Mexican species. In the summer these appear in June, peak in August and September, disappear with the return to the winter rosette in October or November; the leaf blades of the summer rosettes of P. moranensis are smooth and succulent, varying from bright yellow-green to maroon in colour. The laminae are obovate to orbicular, between 5.5 and 13 centimeters long and supported by a 1 to 3.5 centimetre petiole. As with all members of the genus, these leaf blades are densely covered by peduncular mucilaginous glands and sessile digestive glands; the peduncular glands consist of a few secretory cells on top of a single-celled stalk. These cells produce a mucilaginous secretion; this wet appearance helps lure prey in search of water. The droplets secrete only limited enzymes and serve to entrap insects.

On contact with an insect, the peduncular glands release additional mucilage from special reservoir cells located at the base of their stalks. The insect struggles, encasing itself in mucilage. P. moranensis can bend its leaf edges by thigmotropism, bringing additional glands into contact with the trapped insect. The sessile glands, which lie flat on the leaf surface, serve to digest the insect prey. Once the prey is entrapped by the peduncular glands and digestion begins, the initial flow of nitrogen triggers enzyme release by the sessile glands; these enzymes, which include amylase, phosphatase and ribonuclease break down the digestible components of the insect body. These fluids are absorbed back into the leaf surface through cuticular holes, leaving only the chitin exoskeleton of the larger insects on the leaf surface; the holes in the cuticle which allow for this digestive mechanism pose a challenge for the plant, since they serve as breaks in the cuticle that protects the plant from desiccation.

As a result, P. moranensis is found in humid environments. The production of the stalked capture glands and sessile digestive glands is costly. A recent study found that the density of these respective glands can be correlated to environmental gradients. For example, capture gland density was found to be highest where prey availability was low, whereas digestive glands density showed direct correlation to prey availability; these results suggest that the amount of investment in carnivorous features is an adaptation to the environmental gradients. The "winter" or "resting" rosette of P. moranensis is two to three centimeters in diameter and consists of 60 to 100 or more small, non-glandular leaves. These are each 10 to 30 millimeters long and three to eight millimeters wide spatulate or oblong-spatulate, densely covered with fine hairs; the rosette is either compact and bulb-like, depending on variety. P. moranensis produces one to seven flowers during each flowering period. These are borne singly on upright flower stalks which are green to brown-green in color and like the upper surface of the carnivorous leaves, ar