Songs for the Philologists
Songs for the Philologists is a collection of poems by E. V. Gordon and J. R. R. Tolkien as well as traditional songs, it is the most difficult to find Tolkien-related book. A collection of typescripts compiled by Gordon in 1921–26 for the students of the University of Leeds, it was given by A. H. Smith of University College London, a former student at Leeds, to a group of students to be printed in 1935 or 1936, printed in 1936 with the impressuum "Printed by G. Tillotson, A. H. Smith, B. Pattison and other members of the English Department, University College, London." Since Smith had not asked permission of either Gordon or Tolkien, the printed booklets were not distributed. Most copies were destroyed in a fire, only a few around 14, survived. Of the 30 songs in the collection, 13 were contributed by Tolkien: From One to Five, to the tune of Three Wise Men of Gotham. Syx Mynet, to the tune of I Love Sixpence. Ruddoc Hana, to the tune of Who Killed Cock Robin'. Ides Ælfscýne, to the tune of Daddy Neptune.
Reprinted, together with a Modern English translation in The Road to Middle-earth. Bagmē Blōma, to the tune of Lazy Sheep. Reprinted, together with a Modern English translation in The Road to Middle-earth. Éadig Béo þu!. to the tune of Twinkle, Little Star. Reprinted, together with a Modern English translation in The Road to Middle-earth. Ofer Wídne Gársecg, to the tune of The Mermaid. Reprinted, together with a Modern English translation in The Road to Middle-earth. La Húru, to the tune of O’Reilly. I Sat to the tune of The Carrion Crow. Natura Apis: Morali Ricardi Eremite to the tune of O’Reilly; the Root of the Boot, to the tune of The Fox Went Out. Reprinted in Anderson’s Annotated Hobbit, in a revised form in The Return of the Shadow. Reprinted in The Tolkien Papers: Mankato Studies in English. Revised and printed in The Lord of the Rings and The Adventures of Tom Bombadil as'The Stone Troll'. Frenchmen Froth, to the tune of The Vicar of Bray. Lit' and Lang', to the tune of Polly Put the Kettle On.
TolkienBooks.net - Songs for the Philologists Songs for the Philologists by J. R. R. Tolkien E. V. Gordon - article and review
The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm's Son
The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm's Son is a work by J. R. R. Tolkien published in 1953 in volume 6 of the scholarly journal Essays and Studies by Members of the English Association, republished in 1966 in The Tolkien Reader, it is a work of historical fiction, inspired by the Old English poem The Battle of Maldon. It is written in the form of an alliterative poem, but is a play, being a dialogue between two characters in the aftermath of the Battle of Maldon; the work was accompanied by two essays by Tolkien, one before and one after the main work. The work, as published, was thus presented as: "The Death of Beorhtnoth" - an introductory essay concerning the battle and the Old English fragment that inspired Tolkien; the Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm's Son - the actual work itself. "Ofermod" - an essay following on from the main work, discussing the meaning of the Old English word ofermod "overconfidence, foolhardiness". The play itself is the story of two characters and Torhthelm, retrieving the body of Beorhtnoth, Ealdorman of Essex, from the battlefield at Maldon.
After a brief search they find their lord's battle-mangled body and his golden sword. In the middle of the action, Totta slays an English battlefield-looter, for which Tída chastises him; the murder provides an opportunity for the characters to discuss the ethics of Beorhtnoth's actions. Totta is a romantic who thinks Beorhtnoth's actions were tragically noble, while Tída is the battle-experienced farmer who takes the realist position, pointing out the folly of Beorhtnoth's decision to let the Vikings cross the causeway; the two characters load the lord's body onto a cart, the drama closes with them leaving the battlefield for a nearby abbey in Ely. Literary critics agree that "Homecoming" is Tolkien's biting critique of the northern heroic ethos. For example, using Tolkien's original drafts of "Homecoming", Thomas Honegger reveals that Tolkien was concerned with casting Beorhtnoth's pride in a wholly negative light. George Clark points out that Tolkien's reworking of The Battle of Maldon "chastises" Beorhtnoth for his pride and criticizes the Anglo-Saxon heroic ideals of pursuing fame and material wealth.
Taking a similar position, Tom Shippey argues that Tolkien's condemnation of Beorhtnoth in "Homecoming" is "an act of parricide" against his Old English literary forebears, in which "e had...to take'the northern heroic spirit' and sacrifice it". Taking a more nuanced approach, Mary R. Bowman claims that Tolkien "rehabilitated" the northern heroic spirit, instead of "rejecting" it, she recalls Tolkien's own metaphor of the northern heroic spirit as an impure "alloy", composed of a combination of a self-sacrificing bravery for the good of others and a selfish, reckless pursuit for wealth and fame. Bowman's point is that Tolkien was concerned with "refining" the heroic code—with separating and burning away the selfish, destructive slag of "overmastering" and excessive pride, while retaining the gold of courage. Scholars have discussed the influence of "Homecoming" on Tolkien's fictional world of Middle-earth. George Clark argues that Tolkien's ideas about the northern heroic spirit are manifested in The Lord of the Rings through the character Sam.
Bowman claims that both Sam and Bilbo possess the "refined" brand of heroism that she thinks Tolkien is forging in "Homecoming". Other scholars have made similar cases.
The Lord of the Rings
The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy novel written by English author and scholar J. R. R. Tolkien; the story began as a sequel to Tolkien's 1937 fantasy novel The Hobbit, but developed into a much larger work. Written in stages between 1937 and 1949, The Lord of the Rings is one of the best-selling novels written, with over 150 million copies sold; the title of the novel refers to the story's main antagonist, the Dark Lord Sauron, who had in an earlier age created the One Ring to rule the other Rings of Power as the ultimate weapon in his campaign to conquer and rule all of Middle-earth. From quiet beginnings in the Shire, a hobbit land not unlike the English countryside, the story ranges across Middle-earth, following the course of the War of the Ring through the eyes of its characters, not only the hobbits Frodo Baggins, Samwise "Sam" Gamgee, Meriadoc "Merry" Brandybuck and Peregrin "Pippin" Took, but the hobbits' chief allies and travelling companions: the Men, Aragorn, a Ranger of the North, Boromir, a Captain of Gondor.
The work was intended by Tolkien to be one volume of a two-volume set, the other to be The Silmarillion, but this idea was dismissed by his publisher. For economic reasons, The Lord of the Rings was published in three volumes over the course of a year from 29 July 1954 to 20 October 1955; the three volumes were titled The Fellowship of The Two Towers and The Return of the King. Structurally, the novel is divided internally into six books, two per volume, with several appendices of background material included at the end; some editions combine the entire work into a single volume. The Lord of the Rings has since been translated into 38 languages. Tolkien's work has been the subject of extensive analysis of its origins. Although a major work in itself, the story was only the last movement of a larger epic Tolkien had worked on since 1917, in a process he described as mythopoeia. Influences on this earlier work, on the story of The Lord of the Rings, include philology, mythology and the author's distaste for the effects of industrialization, as well as earlier fantasy works and Tolkien's experiences in World War I.
The Lord of the Rings in its turn is considered to have had a great effect on modern fantasy. The enduring popularity of The Lord of the Rings has led to numerous references in popular culture, the founding of many societies by fans of Tolkien's works, the publication of many books about Tolkien and his works; the Lord of the Rings has inspired, continues to inspire, music and television, video games, board games, subsequent literature. Award-winning adaptations of The Lord of the Rings have been made for radio and film. In 2003, it was named Britain's best novel of all time in the BBC's The Big Read. Thousands of years before the events of the novel, the Dark Lord Sauron had forged the One Ring to rule the other Rings of Power and corrupt those who wore them: three for Elves, seven for Dwarves, nine for Men. Sauron was defeated by an alliance of Men led by Gil-galad and Elendil, respectively. In the final battle, son of Elendil, cut the One Ring from Sauron's finger, causing Sauron to lose his physical form.
Isildur claimed the Ring as an heirloom for his line, but when he was ambushed and killed by the Orcs, the Ring was lost in the River Anduin. Over two thousand years the Ring was found by one of the river-folk called Déagol, his friend Sméagol fell under strangled Déagol to acquire it. Sméagol was hid under the Misty Mountains; the Ring gave him long life and changed him over hundreds of years into a twisted, corrupted creature called Gollum. Gollum lost the Ring, his "precious", as told in The Hobbit, Bilbo Baggins found it. Meanwhile, Sauron took back his old realm of Mordor; when Gollum set out in search of the Ring, he was tortured by Sauron. Sauron learned from Gollum. Gollum was set loose. Sauron, who needed the Ring to regain his full power, sent forth his powerful servants, the Nazgûl, to seize it; the story begins in the Shire, where the hobbit Frodo Baggins inherits the Ring from Bilbo Baggins, his cousin and guardian. Neither hobbit is aware of the Ring's nature, but Gandalf the Grey, a wizard and an old friend of Bilbo, suspects it to be Sauron's Ring.
Seventeen years after Gandalf confirms his guess, he tells Frodo the history of the Ring and counsels him to take it away from the Shire. Frodo sets out, accompanied by his gardener and friend, Samwise "Sam" Gamgee, two cousins, Meriadoc "Merry" Brandybuck and Peregrin "Pippin" Took, they are nearly caught by the Black Riders, but shake off their pursuers by cutting through the Old Forest. There they are aided by Tom Bombadil, a strange and merry fellow who lives with his wife Goldberry in the forest; the hobbits reach the town of Bree, where they encounter a Ranger named Strider, whom Gandalf had mentioned in a letter. Strider persuades the hobbits to take him on as their protector. Together, they leave Bree after another close escape from the Black Riders. On the hill of Weathertop, they are again attacked by the Black Riders, who wound Frodo with a cursed blade. Strider leads the hobbits towards the Elven refuge of Rivendell. Frodo falls deathly ill from the wound; the Black Riders nearly capture him at the Ford of Bruinen, but flood waters summoned by Elrond, master of Rivendell, rise up and overwhelm them.
The Road Goes Ever On
The Road Goes Ever On is a song cycle, published as a book of sheet music, as an audio recording. The music was written by Donald Swann, the words are taken from poems in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth writings The Lord of the Rings; the title of this opus is taken from "The Road Goes Ever On". The songs form a song cycle, designed to fit together. With Tolkien's approval, Donald Swann wrote the music for this song cycle, much of the music resembles English traditional music or folk music; the sole exception is the Quenya song "Namárië", based on a tune by Tolkien himself and which has some affinities to Gregorian chant. This book has been valued by those uninterested in the music, since it helps Tolkien's readers to better understand the cultures of the various mythological beings presented in Middle-earth, helps linguists analyse Tolkien's poetry. For example, it contains one of the longest samples of the language Quenya, as well as the Sindarin prayer "A Elbereth Gilthoniel" with grammatical explanations.
In addition to the sheet music, the book includes an introduction that contains additional information about Middle-earth. Prior to the publication of The Silmarillion, this introduction was the only publicly available source for certain information about the First Age of Middle-earth; the first edition of The Road Goes Ever On: a Song Cycle was published on 31 October 1967, in the United States. An LP record of this song cycle was recorded on 12 June 1967, with Donald Swann on piano and William Elvin singing. Side one of this record consisted of Tolkien himself reading five poems from The Adventures of Tom Bombadil; the first track on side two was Tolkien reading the Elvish prayer "A Elbereth Gilthoniel". The remainder of side two contained the song cycle performed by Elvin; this LP record, entitled Poems and Songs of Middle Earth and released by Caedmon Records, is long out of print and difficult to find. The second edition of The Road Goes Ever On, published in 1978, added music for "Bilbo's Last Song."
This song was published separately. The third edition, published in 1993, added music for "Lúthien Tinúviel" from The Silmarillion, which had earlier appeared in The Songs of Donald Swann: Volume I; the third edition of The Road Goes Ever On was packaged with a CD that duplicated the song cycle from the 1967 LP record. The CD included two new recordings; the third edition was reprinted in hardcover in 2002 by Harper Collins. On 10 June 1995, the song cycle was performed in Rotterdam under the auspices of the Dutch Tolkien Society, by the baritone Jan Krediet together with the chamber choir EnSuite and Alexandra Swemer on the piano. A CD of this concert was published in a limited edition; the complete list of songs in this song-cycle is as follows: "The Road Goes Ever On". From The Lord of the Rings vol. 1, The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 1, Chapter 1 and Chapter 3. "Upon the Hearth the Fire Is Red". From The Lord of the Rings vol. 1, The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 1, Chapter 3. "In the Willow-meads of Tasarinan".
From The Lord of the Rings vol. 2, The Two Towers, Book 3, Chapter 4. "In Western Lands". From The Lord of the Rings vol. 3, The Return of the King, Book 6, Chapter 1. "Namárië". From The Lord of the Rings vol. 1, The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 2, Chapter 8. "I Sit beside the Fire". From The Lord of the Rings vol. 1, The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 2, Chapter 3, including the text of "A Elbereth Gilthoniel", from The Lord of the Rings vol. 1, The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 2, Chapter 1. "Errantry". From The Adventures of Tom Bombadil; the following additional songs were added after the first edition, but do not form part of the song cycle itself: "Bilbo's Last Song". Given to Donald Swann after Tolkien's death. Only in the second and third editions of the book. On the CD but not the LP. "Lúthien Tinúviel". From The Silmarillion, Chapter 19. Only in the third edition of the book. On the CD but not the LP; the Donald Swann website
The Tolkien Reader
The Tolkien Reader is an anthology of works by J. R. R. Tolkien, it includes a variety of poems, a play and some non-fiction by Tolkien. It compiles material published as three separate shorter books together with one additional piece and introductory material, it was published in 1966 by Ballantine Books in the USA. "Publisher's Note" "Tolkien's Magic Ring", by Peter S. Beagle "The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm's Son" Tree and Leaf "On Fairy-Stories" "Leaf by Niggle" Farmer Giles of Ham The Adventures of Tom Bombadil "The Adventures of Tom Bombadil" "Bombadil Goes Boating" "Errantry" "Princess Mee" "The Man in the Moon Stayed Up Too Late" "The Man in the Moon Came Down Too Soon" "The Stone Troll" "Perry-the-Winkle" "The Mewlips" "Oliphaunt" "Fastitocalon" "Cat" "Shadow-bride" "The Hoard" "The Sea-Bell" "The Last Ship" Poems and Stories Tales from the Perilous Realm, a similar collection, containing a different collection of material
Poems and Stories (J. R. R. Tolkien)
Poems and Stories is a posthumous anthology of some of the published short fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, it includes the literary essay "On Fairy Stories", the illustrations of Pauline Baynes, which have appeared in other publications. In this volume, the illustrations are in colour. Poems and Stories was first published in the UK in a boxed, hardcover "deluxe edition" by Allen & Unwin in 1980, it was reissued in hardcover by HarperCollins in 1992. Houghton Mifflin published a hardcover edition for the United States in 1994; the Adventures of Tom Bombadil, 16 poems "of hobbit origin" about Tom Bombadil The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm's Son, a play in alliterative verse about the historical Battle of Maldon "On Fairy Stories", an essay in which Tolkien discusses the fairy-story as a literary form "Leaf by Niggle", an allegorical short story concerning a painter and his neighbour "Farmer Giles of Ham", a novella about an English farmer who encounters a dragon "Smith of Wootton Major", a short story about the people in a village near Oxford, of one man's immersion in the world of Faerie The Tolkien Reader Tales from the Perilous Realm
Tales from the Perilous Realm
Tales from the Perilous Realm is an anthology of some of the lesser-known writings of J. R. R. Tolkien, it was published in 1997 by HarperCollins without illustrations, republished in an enlarged edition in 2008, with illustrations by Alan Lee. Lee has painted cover-art for several of Tolkien's other works; the 2008 edition has an introductory essay by literary scholar Thomas Shippey. In 2010 HarperCollins published Tales from the Perilous Realm as an audiobook read by actor, Derek Jacobi; the 2008 edition includes these works: Roverandom, a novella about the adventures of a dog named Rover after a wizard turns him into a toy "Farmer Giles of Ham", a short story about an English farmer who encounters a dragon The Adventures of Tom Bombadil, 16 poems "of hobbit origin". The 2008 edition adds an essay by Thomas Shippey, illustrations by Alan Lee. Shippey's essay is a brief analysis of the works in the collection. Lee specialises in illustrating fantasy fiction, has painted cover-art for several Tolkien works since the late 1980s.
Two earlier Tolkien collections—The Tolkien Reader and Poems and Stories —have most of the same material as Tales from the Perilous Realm. The Tolkien Reader omits "Smith of Wootton Major", but has an introductory essay by fantasy novelist Peter S. Beagle. Poems and Stories omits Roverandom, but includes Tolkien's verse play The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm's Son; these earlier publications are illustrated by Pauline Baynes. In her treatment of "Farmer Giles of Ham", Baynes depicts Giles' dog Garm as a greyhound; the Road Goes Ever On Mr. Bliss Tolkien, J. R. R.. Tales from the Perilous Realm. Introduction by Tom Shippey. ISBN 978-0-547-15411-4