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Smoke is a collection of airborne particulates and gases emitted when a material undergoes combustion or pyrolysis, together with the quantity of air, entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass. It is an unwanted by-product of fires, but may be used for pest control, communication and offensive capabilities in the military, cooking, or smoking, it is used in rituals where incense, sage, or resin is burned to produce a smell for spiritual or magical purposes. It can be a flavoring agent and preservative for various foodstuffs. Smoke inhalation is the primary cause of death in victims of indoor fires; the smoke kills by a combination of thermal damage and pulmonary irritation caused by carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide and other combustion products. Smoke is an aerosol of solid particles and liquid droplets that are close to the ideal range of sizes for Mie scattering of visible light; the composition of smoke depends on the nature of the conditions of combustion. Fires with high availability of oxygen burn at a high temperature and with a small amount of smoke produced.

High temperature leads to production of nitrogen oxides. Sulfur content yields sulfur dioxide. Carbon and hydrogen are completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. Fires burning with lack of oxygen produce a wider palette of compounds, many of them toxic. Partial oxidation of carbon produces carbon monoxide, while nitrogen-containing materials can yield hydrogen cyanide and nitrogen oxides. Hydrogen gas can be produced instead of water. Contents of halogens such as chlorine may lead to the production of hydrogen chloride, phosgene and chloromethane, bromomethane and other halocarbons. Hydrogen fluoride can be formed from fluorocarbons, whether fluoropolymers subjected to fire or halocarbon fire suppression agents. Phosphorus and antimony oxides and their reaction products can be formed from some fire retardant additives, increasing smoke toxicity and corrosivity. Pyrolysis of polychlorinated biphenyls, e.g. from burning older transformer oil, to lower degree of other chlorine-containing materials, can produce 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, a potent carcinogen, other polychlorinated dibenzodioxins.

Pyrolysis of fluoropolymers, e.g. teflon, in presence of oxygen yields carbonyl fluoride. Pyrolysis of burning material incomplete combustion or smoldering without adequate oxygen supply results in production of a large amount of hydrocarbons, both aliphatic and aromatic, terpenes. Heterocyclic compounds may be present. Heavier hydrocarbons may condense as tar. Presence of such smoke, and/or brown oily deposits during a fire indicates a possible hazardous situation, as the atmosphere may be saturated with combustible pyrolysis products with concentration above the upper flammability limit, sudden inrush of air can cause flashover or backdraft. Presence of sulfur can lead to formation of e.g. hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, thiols. Partial oxidation of the released hydrocarbons yields in a wide palette of other compounds: aldehydes, alcohols, carboxylic acids; the visible particulate matter in such smokes is most composed of carbon. Other particulates may be composed of solid particles of ash.

The presence of metals in the fuel yields particles of metal oxides. Particles of inorganic salts may be formed, e.g. ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, or sodium chloride. Inorganic salts present on the surface of the soot particles may make them hydrophilic. Many organic compounds the aromatic hydrocarbons, may be adsorbed on the surface of the solid particles. Metal oxides can be present when metal-containing fuels are burned, e.g. solid rocket fuels containing aluminium. Depleted uranium projectiles after impacting the target ignite, producing particles of uranium oxides. Magnetic particles, spherules of magnetite-like ferrous ferric oxide, are present in coal smoke. Magnetic remanence, recorded in the iron oxide particles, indicates the strength of Earth's magnetic field when they were cooled beyond their Curie temperature. Fly ash is composed of silica and calcium oxide. Cenospheres are present in smoke from liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Minute metal particles produced by abrasion can be present in engine smokes.

Amorphous silica particles are present in smokes from burning silicones.

Mary Devenport O'Neill

Mary Devenport O'Neill was an Irish poet and dramatist and a friend and colleague of W. B. Yeats, George Russell,and Austin Clarke. Mary Devenport O'Neill was born Mary Devenport on 3 August 1879 in Barrack Street, County Galway, she was the daughter of RIC sub-constable, John Devenport, his wife Bridget. She attended the Dominican convent, Eccles Street, Dublin before enrolling in the Metropolitan School of Art from 1898 to 1903. In 1900 she won the year's prize in the School of Art, she appears to have considered teaching as a career, as she is listed on the college register as a teacher in training from 1901 to 1903. It was while an art student that she started to correspond with the writer she admired, Joseph O'Neill, their relationship developed, the couple married on 19 June 1908, settling in Kenilworth Square, Dublin. Many of her husband's friends disapproved of her modern and unconventional ideas, but she was popular with "the Rathgar Group" who attended George Russell's Sunday salons. After a few years, O'Neill established her own salon referred to as "Thursdays at home", attended by Russell, Padraic Colum, W. B.

Yeats, Richard Irvine Best, Frank O'Connor, Francis Stuart and Iseult Gonne. She became close to Yeats, who she confided in. Yeats' recorded their weekly consultations in his diary. In his Oxford anthology of English verse from 1936, he included one of O'Neill's poems. In 1917, she contributed lyrics to her husband's play The kingdom maker, she published her only book in Prometheus and other poems. After this she contributed modernist plays and poetry to The Dublin Magazine, The Irish Times and The Bell. O'Neill collaborated with Austin Clarke from the Lyric Theatre Company on her plays Bluebeard and Cain. O'Neill suffered with poor health, which saw her and her husband spending extended periods in the south of France and Switzerland, they sold their home in Dublin in August 1950 and moved to Nice, with the intention of settling there. However, due to depleting finances they were forced to return to Ireland in April 1951. From they rented a cottage in Wicklow from their friend Con Curran; when her husband died in 1953, O'Neill went to live with relatives in Dublin.

She died there in 1967

Lisa Onodera

Lisa Onodera is an American independent film producer, of such noted films as Picture Bride, The Debut and Americanese. She grew up in Berkeley and attended UCLA where she received a degree from the School of Motion Picture and Television. Early film credits include serving as Associate Producer on Arthur Dong's documentary, Forbidden City, USA and the Frontline documentary, The Monster That Ate Hollywood. Onodera produced the 1995 Sundance Film Festival Audience Award winner, Picture Bride, directed by Kayo Hatta, starring Youki Kudoh, Akira Takayama, Tamlyn Tomita, Toshirō Mifune; the film, considered a landmark Asian American work received an Independent Spirit Award nomination for Best First Feature, was released by Miramax Films. From 1997 to 2002, Onodera ran the production company, Celestial Pictures, with producer Peter Shiao; the company developed a number of Asian American projects, co-financed and co-produced Jule Gilfillan's Restless, a romantic drama set and shot in Beijing, China.

In 2000, she produced Gene Cajayon's Filipino American feature, The Debut, starring Dante Basco, which won the Audience Award at the Hawaii International Film Festival and Best Feature at the San Diego Asian Film Festival. The film received an AMMY Award for Best Independent Feature, a MANAA Media Achievement Award, while breaking indie distribution records with a $2 million box office return during its theatrical release in 2003. In 2003, Onodera produced the Emmy nominated half-hour PBS television special, Day of Independence for Cedar Grove Productions, which told the story of a young Nisei baseball player facing the Japanese American internment during World War II. In 2006, she produced Emily Skopov's Novel Romance. In 2009, IFC Films will release Americanese, an adaptation of Shawn Wong's seminal Asian American novel, "American Knees," which Onodera optioned in 1995, the year the book was first published. Written for the screen and directed by Eric Byler, produced by Onodera, the film made its world premiere at the South by Southwest Film Festival, winning the SXSW Audience Award for Best Narrative Feature and a Special Jury Prize for Outstanding Ensemble Cast.

The film stars Allison Sie, Joan Chen, Kelly Hu, Ben Shenkman and Sab Shimono. Lisa Onodera on IMDb

Adventures of the Road Runner

Adventures of the Road Runner is a 1962 animated film, directed by Chuck Jones and co-directed by Maurice Noble and Tom Ray. It was the intended pilot for a TV series starring the Road Runner. Television produced The Road Runner Show; as a result, Adventures of the Road Runner was released theatrically alongside the live-action film Lad: A Dog, was subsequently split into three further shorts. The first, To Beep or Not to Beep, was released in 1963. Mel Blanc as Wile E. Coyote Dick Beals as Ralph Phillips Nancy Wible as Ralph's Friend Bea Benaderet as additional voices Norman Nesbitt as additional voices Marian Richman as additional voices Jud Conlon's Rhythmaires as Vocalist Paul Julian as Road Runner Dick Tufeld as ACME commercial announcer Adventures of the Road Runner on IMDb

Pedernales Province

Pedernales is the southernmost province of the Dominican Republic, including the offshore island of Isla Beata. It was split from Barahona in 1957. Of its 2,074.53 km², 1374 km² belong to the Jaragua National Park. According to the UNFPA, in 2012 thirty percent of the province’s population was of Haitian origin; as of 2015, it is estimated that Haitians are 50% of the population. The province as of June 20, 2006 is divided into the following municipalities and municipal districts within them: Pedernales, head municipality of the province José Francisco Peña Gómez Oviedo Juancho The following is a sortable table of the municipalities and municipal districts with population figures as of the 2012 census. Urban population are those living of municipal districts. Rural population are those living in the neighborhoods outside of them. For comparison with the municipalities and municipal districts of other provinces see the list of municipalities and municipal districts of the Dominican Republic. Oficina Nacional de Estadística, Statistics Portal of the Dominican Republic Oficina Nacional de Estadística, Maps with administrative division of the provinces of the Dominican Republic, downloadable in PDF format

Entre el Cielo y el Infierno

Entre el Cielo y el Infierno is the fifth studio album by Argentine heavy metal band Rata Blanca. The album was recorded at Estudios La Nave between June and July, 1994 and was released in September, 1994 by BMG. Is the first and unique album featuring vocalist Mario Ian and is the first album featuring Javier Retamozo on keyboards; the album contains a cover of Creedence Clearwater Revival hit "Travelin' Band". En el Bajo Flores - 6:24 - Bajo Control - 5:08 - Jerusalén - 7:37 - Sombra Inerte del Amor - 5:24 - Obsesión - 3:34 - Patria - 7:20 - Herederos de la fe - 4:42 - Sin tu amor nada existe - 5:55 Máquina - 6:26 - Fantasma Azul - 5:14 - Banda Viajera - 2:00 Bajo Control Jerusalem Guillermo Sanchez - Bass Gustavo Rowek - Drums Javier Retamozo - Keyboards Mario Ian - Vocals Sergio Berdichevsky - Guitars Walter Giardino - Lead Guitars/Producer Roland Harris - Producer Alejandro Tersse Herrera - Recording assistant Gonzalo Cabré - Recording assistant Whilfield Street Studio - Mastering José Luis Botto - Executive Producer/Management Mundy Epifanio - Executive Producer Antonio Diaz - Photography Pedro Delgado - Graphic design