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Smoke testing (mechanical)

Smoke testing refers to various classes of tests of systems intended to determine whether they are ready for more robust testing. The expression was first used in plumbing in referring to tests for the detection of cracks, leaks or breaks in closed systems of pipes; the plumbing industry started using the smoke test in 1875. In plumbing a smoke test forces non-toxic, artificially created smoke through waste and drain pipes under a slight pressure to find leaks. Plumes of smoke form; this test can be performed when the plumbing is brand new, but more it is used to find sewer gas leaks that may plague a building or an area. Any sign of smoke escaping can be considered a possible site for sewer gas to escape. Sewer gas has a rotten egg smell and can contain methane gas, explosive, or hydrogen sulfide gas, deadly. Plumbing smoke tests are used to find places where pipes will spill fluid, to check sanitary sewer systems for places where ground water and storm runoff can enter. Smoke testing is useful in places such as ventilated sanitary sewer systems, where sealing the system is not practical.

When smoke testing a sanitary sewer system it is helpful to block off the section of sewer to be tested. This can be done by using a sand bag on the end of a rope; the sand bag is lowered into the manhole and swung into position to block lines. Blocking the line can cause water to back up and prevent smoke from escaping through defects. Smoke testing may not be done after rain or when ground water is unusually high as this may prevent detection of defects. Large downdraft fans powered by gasoline engines, are placed on top of open manholes at either end of the section to be tested. If possible all lines in the manholes except for the line between the manholes are blocked. Smoke is created using either liquid smoke. Smoke bombs are lit and placed on a grate or in a holder on top of each fan, while liquid smoke is injected into the fan via a heating chamber; the fans create a pressure differential that forces the smoke into the sewer at a pressure just above atmospheric. With properly installed plumbing, the traps will prevent the smoke from entering the house and redirect it out the plumbing vents.

Defective plumbing systems or dry traps will allow smoke to enter the inside of the house. The area around the section being tested is searched for smoke plumes. Plumes coming from plumbing vents or the interface between the fan shroud and manhole rim are normal. Plumes are marked with flags, defects are noted using measurements from stationary landmarks like the corners of houses; the plumes or markers may be photographed. In woodwind instrument repair, a smoke test involves plugging one end of an instrument and blowing smoke into the other to test for leaks. Escaping smoke reveals improperly seated faulty joints. After this test the instrument is cleaned to remove nicotine and other deposits left by the smoke. Due to tobacco smoke being used, this test may be hazardous to the health of the technician in the long run. Described in a repair manual written in the 1930s, smoke testing is considered obsolete, is no longer used by reputable technicians; the usual alternative to smoke is to place a bright light inside the instrument check for light appearing around pads and joints.

In the same way that plumbing and woodwind instruments are tested, the vacuum systems of automobiles may be tested in order to locate difficult-to-find vacuum leaks. Artificial smoke is deliberately introduced into the system under slight pressure and any leaks are indicated by the escaping smoke. Smoke can be used to locate difficult-to-find leaks in the fuel evaporative emissions control system. In infectious disease control a smoke test is done to see. A tube containing smoke is held near the bottom of the negative pressure room door, about two inches in front of the door; the smoke tube is held parallel to the door, a small amount of smoke is generated by squeezing the bulb. Care is taken to release the smoke from the tube to ensure the velocity of the smoke from the tube does not overpower the air velocity. If the room is at negative pressure, the smoke will travel into the room. If the room is not at negative pressure, the smoke will be blown outward or will stay stationary

Son Ye-jin

Son Ye-jin is a South Korean actress. She rose to fame in romance-themed films and television series such as The Classic, Summer Scent, A Moment to Remember, April Snow, she has won acting recognition for her versatility in diverse genres, notably in Alone in Love, My Wife Got Married, The Pirates and the 2016 films The Truth Beneath and The Last Princess. She is known for her lead roles in romance dramas such as Something in the Rain and Crash Landing on You. Son Ye-jin first appeared in a supporting role in Park Ki-hyung's film Secret Tears in 2000, went on to take the leading role in television dramas such as Delicious Proposal, Sun-hee and Jin-hee, Great Ambition, her first high-profile role in cinema was in Im Kwon-taek's Chi-hwa-seon, which screened at Cannes and took home a Best Director award in 2002. The biggest success of her early career was in the subsequent films Lovers' Concerto and The Classic. Both were solid mid-level hits in Korea, The Classic in particular — being a work of My Sassy Girl director Kwak Jae-yong — received wide exposure in countries such as Hong Kong and China, launched Son into pan-Asia stardom.

Son further solidified her status as a Hallyu star in 2003 by taking the lead in TV drama Summer Scent, the third installment of season-themed tetralogy Endless Love drama series directed by Yoon Seok-ho. Her next two films proved to be huge hits in Asia: A Moment to Remember, based on a famous Japanese series, set box office records in Japan and sold over two million tickets in Korea, while April Snow in which she co-starred with superstar Bae Yong-joon was a hit in Japan and China. Son, who adorned a pure and innocent image in her films The Classic and A Moment to Remember, was given the title of the "Nation's First Love" in Korea. Son cast off her nice girl image in her next projects, she took on the roles of a con artist in The Art of Seduction, an ambitious reporter in Spotlight, a femme fatale in Open City, a divorcée in the critically acclaimed series Alone in Love. In 2008, her portrayal of a polyandrous woman in My Wife Got Married bagged her Best Actress honors from the prestigious Blue Dragon Film Awards and other local award-giving bodies.

After filming the dark mystery White Night, Son wanted to do a more fun project, so she chose the romantic comedy series Personal Taste, followed by the horror-romantic comedy film Spellbound. In 2012, Son starred in her first blockbuster The Tower, a remake of the 1974 Hollywood disaster film The Towering Inferno, she returned to television in 2013 in the revenge drama Shark headlined Blood and Ties, a thriller about a daughter who suspects that her father was involved in a kidnap-murder case. Son reunited with Shark costar Kim Nam-gil in the 2014 period adventure film The Pirates, which received mixed reviews but was a commercial hit and won Son the Best Actress award at the Grand Bell Awards. Son next starred in the black comedy Bad Guys Always Die opposite Taiwanese actor Chen Bolin, a Chinese-Korean co-production, filmed on Jeju Island. In 2016, Son reunited with My Wife Got Married co-star Kim Joo-hyuk in The Truth Beneath, a political thriller, she won Best Actress at the 25th Buil Film Awards and 17th Busan Film Critics Awards for her performance.

She played Princess Deokhye in the biopic The Last Princess, helmed by April Snow director Hur Jin-ho. The film drew positive reviews by critics and went on to become a box office hit, grossing US$40.35 million worldwide. Son was praised by critics for her "outstanding" performance in her portrayal of "the unfathomable depths of the emotional ups and downs of Deokhye". In 2018, Son starred alongside So Ji-sub in the romance film Be with You, based on the Japanese novel of the same name; the same year, Son returned to the small screen after five years with JTBC's romance drama Something in the Rain. The series was a commercial hit and Son received rave reviews for her performance. Son starred in crime thriller The Negotiation, alongside Hyun Bin, playing a professional negotiator working to save hostages. In 2019, Son reunited with Hyun Bin in the hit romance drama Crash Landing on You as a rich heiress who falls in love with a North Korean commission officer; the drama is the second-highest-rated Korean drama in cable television history.

Son Ye-jin on IMDb Official website Son Ye-jin on Instagram

The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972

In India, gratuity is a type of retirement benefit. It is a payment made with the intention of helping an employee monetarily after his retirement, it was held by the Supreme Court of India in Indian Hume Pipe Co Ltd v Its Workmen that the general principle underlying a gratuity scheme is that by service over a long period the employee is entitled to claim a certain amount as retirement benefit. The Payment of Gratuity Act was passed by Indian Parliament in 21 August 1972; the Act came in force on 16 September 1972. The act applies to the whole of India, but according to section 1 of the Act, in so far it relates to plantation or ports, it shall not be extended to State of Jammu and Kashmir. The act applies to all factories, oilfields, plantations and railway companies, but in the case of shops or establishments other than those stated before, it applies to those organisations with 10 or more persons are employed on any day of the preceding 12 months. Under Section 1, if in case of any shop and establishment to which the act applies the number of employee reduces below 10, it shall continue to be governed by the act irrespective of the number of employees.

Thus no employer can escape liability under this act by reducing the number of employees. Under Section 2, nothing in this act applies to apprentices and persons who hold civil posts under the Central Government or State Government and are subjected to any other act or rule other than this act. Under Section 4, payment of gratuity is mandatory. Gratuity shall be payable to an employee on termination of employment after he has rendered continuous service for not less than 5 years in a single organisation; the termination can be due to: Superannuation, Retirement or resignation, Death or disablement due to accident or disease. As per Section 4, the completion of continuous service of 5 years is not required where termination of employment is due to death or disablement. In such case mandatory gratuity is payable. Gratuity is paid at a rate of 15 days' wages for every completed year of service or part thereof in excess of six months; the wages here means wages last drawn by the employee. The "15 days' wages" will be calculated by dividing the last drawn wages by 26 and multiplying the result with 15.

But under Section 4, the maximum gratuity, payable is fixed at Rupees 20,00,000. Gratuity amount is taxable if it more than Rupees 20,00,000; the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972

Tie Ya Na

Tie Ya Na or Tie Yana is a table tennis player from Hong Kong, China who won two silver medals at the 2006 Asian Games in the singles and doubles competitions. Tie played for China in the Universiade before emigrating to Hong Kong in 2002, she is married to another table tennis player representing Hong Kong. Singles Olympics: QF. World Championships: round of 16. World Cup appearances: 11. Record: runner-up. Pro Tour winner: Korea Open 2002. Runner-up: USA, Swedish Open 2005. Pro Tour Grand Finals appearances: 9. Record: SF. Asian Games: runner-up. Asian Championships: SF. Asian Cup: 1st. Women's doubles Olympics: QF. World Championships: SF Pro Tour winner: Russian, Croatian, Chile, USA, Swedish Open 2005. Runner-up: Italian Open 2002. Pro Tour Grand Finals appearances: 9. Record: runner-up. Asian Games: runner-up Asian Championships: SF Mixed doubles World Championships: SF Asian Games: winner Asian Championships: runner-up.

Garzón, Uruguay

Garzón is a village in the Maldonado Department of southeastern Uruguay. Garzón is the name of the municipality to which the village belongs, it includes the following zones: Garzón, Faro José Ignacio, Playa Juanita, Puntas de José Ignacio, Cañada de la Cruz, Costas de José Ignacio, Laguna Garzón. The village is located on the border with Rocha Department on the banks of the stream Arroyo Garzón, about 22 kilometres upstream from its mouth on the Atlantic Ocean. On 21 August 1936, the populated nucleus here was declared a "Pueblo" by the Act of Ley Nº 9.587. In 2011 Garzón had a population of 198. According to the Intendencia Departamnetal de Maldonado, the municipality of Garzón has a population of 900. Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadística de Uruguay Our Lady of Mercy Chapel INE map of Garzón

Council of Ministers of Somalia

The Council of Ministers of the Federal Government of Somalia consists of Ministers appointed by the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister may dismiss members of the Council, new appointees must again be approved by the Parliament; the Council meets weekly on Thursdays in Mogadishu. There may be additional meetings; the Prime Minister chairs the meetings. Article 97, Section 3 of the Constitution of the Somalia says that the Prime Minister An outline of the functions of the Council are as follow: Formulate the overall government policy and implement it; the government is allowed to generate revenues from the people through the collection of taxes, summons, custom duties, etc. To formulate national economic policies and development programs; the Council is responsible to formulate various development programs and projects for the development of the country. Examples are the New Economic Policy, the National Development Policy, the National Vision Policy. Implement laws, ensure national security, protect state interests.

Most provisions for the amendments of the constitution requires a 2/3 majority of the total number of Parliament. Appoint and dismiss senior public officials. On 21 March 2017, the Prime Minister Hassan Ali Khayre submitted his nomination for the Council Members of the Federal Republic of Somalia and on 29 March 2017 they were approved by the parliament, they are as follows: Federal Parliament of Somalia