A conscientious objector is an individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion. In general, conscientious objector status is considered only in the context of military conscription and is not applicable to military forces. In some countries, conscientious objectors are assigned to a civilian service as a substitute for conscription or military service. Some conscientious objectors consider themselves pacifist, non-interventionist, non-resistant, non-aggressionist and this was re-affirmed in 1998, when resolution 1998/77 recognized that persons performing military service may develop conscientious objections. A number of organizations around the world celebrate the principle on May 15 as International Conscientious Objectors Day, the term has been extended to objecting to working for the military–industrial complex due to a crisis of conscience. Historically, many conscientious objectors have been executed, imprisoned, or otherwise penalized when their beliefs led to conflicting with their societys legal system or government.
The legal definition and status of conscientious objection has varied over the years, Religious beliefs were a starting point in many nations for legally granting conscientious objector status. An early recognition of conscientious objection was granted by William the Silent to the Dutch Mennonites in 1575 and they could refuse military service in exchange for a monetary payment. Formal legislation to exempt objectors from fighting was first granted in mid-18th century Great Britain following problems with attempting to force Quakers into military service. In the United States, conscientious objection was permitted from the countrys founding, in 1948, the issue of the right to conscience was dealt with by the United Nations General Assembly in Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The proclamation was ratified during the General Assembly on 10 December 1948 by a vote of 48 in favour,0 against and it is The Right to Refuse to Kill. In 1976, the United Nations treaty the International Covenant on Civil and it was based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and was originally created in 1966.
Nations that have signed this treaty are bound by it and its Article 18 begins, Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought and religion. Some states argue that such limitations would permit them to make conscientious objection during time of war a threat to public safety, even that it is a moral duty to serve the state in its military. In 2006, the Committee has found for the first time a right to conscientious objection under article 18, in 1998, the Human Rights Commission reiterated previous statements and added states should. Refrain from subjecting conscientious objectors. to repeated punishment for failure to perform military service, the Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees states,171. Not every conviction, genuine though it may be, will constitute a sufficient reason for claiming refugee status after desertion or draft-evasion and it is not enough for a person to be in disagreement with his government regarding the political justification for a particular military action.
Air Commodore Lionel Charlton, of the British Royal Air Force, in 1923 he selectively refused to serve in the RAF Iraq Command
Civilian Public Service
The Civilian Public Service was a program of the United States government that provided conscientious objectors with an alternative to military service during World War II. Others helped provide social services and mental health services, the CPS men served without wages and minimal support from the federal government. The cost of maintaining the CPS camps and providing for the needs of the men was the responsibility of their congregations, CPS men served longer than regular draftees and were not released until well after the end of the war. Initially skeptical of the program, government agencies learned to appreciate the mens service, CPS made significant contributions to forest fire prevention and flood control, medical science and reform of the mental health system. Conscientious objectors refuse to participate in service because of belief or religious training. During wartime, this conflicts with conscription efforts. Those willing to accept non-combatant roles, such as personnel, are accommodated.
There are few options for draftees who cannot cooperate with the military in any way. The conscription law of World War I provided for noncombatant service for members of an organization whose members were forbidden from participating in war of any form. This exemption effectively limited conscientious objector status to members of the peace churches, Religious Society of Friends. The law gave the President authority to assign such draftees to any noncombatant military role, Conscientious objectors who refused noncombatant service during World War I were imprisoned in military facilities such as Fort Lewis, Alcatraz Island and Fort Leavenworth. The government assumed that COs could be converted into soldiers once they were exposed to life in their military camps. Simultaneously the Justice Department was preparing to indict 181 Mennonite leaders for violating the act because of a statement they adopted against performing military service. The draftees refusal to put on a uniform or cooperate in any way caused difficulties for both the government and the COs.
The treatment received by nearly 2000 of these absolute COs included short rations, solitary confinement, on June 20,1940, the Burke-Wadsworth Bill came before Congress. The arrangements for conscientious objectors were almost identical to the World War I provisions, the Friends representatives continued attempting to make the bill more favorable to the historic peace churches. The Burke-Wadsworth Bill passed on September 14,1940, becoming the Selective Training, the influence of the churches was evident in section 5, which says in part, Any such person claiming such exemption from combatant training and service. In lieu of such induction, be assigned to work of importance under civilian direction
Nez Perce National Forest
The Nez Perce National Forest is a 2,224, 091-acre United States National Forest located in west-central Idaho. In 2012, Nez Perce National Forest and Clearwater National Forest were administratively combined as Nez Perce-Clearwater National Forests, with headquarters in Kamiah, there are local ranger district offices in Elk City, Grangeville and White Bird. Nez Perce was established on July 1,1908 by the U. S. Forest Service with 1,946,340 acres from parts of Bitterroot National Forest, on October 29,1934 part of Selway National Forest was added. There are four designated wilderness areas within Nez Perce National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Three of these are partly or mostly in neighboring National Forests, frank Church—River of No Return Wilderness Gospel Hump Wilderness Hells Canyon Wilderness Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness Nez Perce tribe Nez Perce-Clearwater National Forests
West Yellowstone, Montana
West Yellowstone is a town in Gallatin County, adjacent to Yellowstone National Park. The population was 1,271 at the 2010 census, the town is served by Yellowstone Airport. It is part of the Bozeman, MT Micropolitan Statistical Area and it was founded in June 1908 when the Oregon Short Line Railroad was completed. The towns name changed several times until West Yellowstone was settled upon in 1920, for many, the town of West Yellowstone is a place to stay while traveling through Yellowstone National Park. The town is separated into two parts and commercial, roughly at the road D Parkway, south of D Parkway is mainly a business area, north of it is an area of homes and apartments. The area north of D Parkway is known to locals as the Madison Addition, the town has one school, serving kindergarten through 12th grade. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,271 people,617 households, the population density was 1,588.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 969 housing units at a density of 1,211.3 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 86. 6% White,0. 4% African American,1. 1% Native American,0. 9% Asian,7. 5% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 17. 9% of the population. 42. 1% of all households were made up of individuals, the average household size was 2.06, and the average family size was 2.86. The median age in the town was 39.4 years. 20. 9% of residents were under the age of 18,6. 5% were between the ages of 18 and 24,30. 1% were from 25 to 44,34. 2% were from 45 to 64, and 8. 4% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the town was 53. 1% male and 46. 9% female, as of the census of 2000, there were 1,177 people,518 households, and 289 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,458.9 inhabitants per square mile, there were 806 housing units at an average density of 999.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 91. 93% White,0. 34% African American,0. 85% Native American,0. 76% Asian,4. 84% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 7. 73% of the population. 34. 4% of all households were made up of individuals and 2. 5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.76.
In the town, the population was out with 22. 4% under the age of 18,7. 9% from 18 to 24,35. 9% from 25 to 44,28. 5% from 45 to 64. The median age was 37 years, for every 100 females there were 123.3 males
Deming, New Mexico
Deming is a city in Luna County, New Mexico, United States, located 60 miles west of Las Cruces and thirty-three miles north of the Mexican border. The population was 14,855 according to the 2010 census, Deming is the county seat and principal community of Luna County. The city, founded in 1881 and incorporated in 1902, was an important port of entry on the US-Mexican border until the Gadsden Purchase of 1853, a nickname was given to the city at the time of its founding, New Chicago. It was expected that with the surge of railroad usage, that the city would grow drastically and resemble Chicago, Deming is named after Mary Ann Deming Crocker, wife of Charles Crocker, one of The Big Four of the railroad industry. The Silver Spike was driven here in 1881 to commemorate the meeting of the Southern Pacific with the Atchison and this was the second transcontinental railroad to be completed in the United States. There are numerous ancient Native American sites around Deming, the Mimbres and Casas Grandes cultures made pottery of remarkable quality, and the Deming area is rich in native pottery artifacts, as well as beads, stone implements, stone carvings, etc.
The artifacts have since been deported to Mexico, where they are now on display at multiple museums, Deming is centered at 32°15′40″N 107°45′21″W, in the Basin and Range Province. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 9.3 square miles. The city is surrounded by land that appears flat, with wide rubble aprons around the nearby mountains, the Mimbres River floods the Deming area once a decade or so, in periods of unusually heavy rainfall in the Cookes Range and Black Range to the north. Deming and its area is underlain by an aquifer of good-quality water. The aquifer is recharged primarily by water from the mountains to the north. The water usually has a sulfur content. In the late 1960s, Select Western Lands Inc. ran full-page advertisements for land in Deming in The Saturday Evening Post, the ads proclaimed Your Own Ranchette Only $299, Only $5 a Month, for a half-acre. Up to 2 acres were offered, those for $1196, Deming is located within the Upper Chihuahuan Desert climate zone.
The climate is dry and breezy, summer temperatures often exceed 100 °F, but the altitude and dry air sometimes make summer days more comfortable than one would expect given the high temperature. Most precipitation occurs as thunderstorms and showers during the July–September monsoon period, minor flooding sometimes occurs over large areas of flat ground. There are periods lasting from 5 to 20 years of relatively wet or dry years, springtime is often windy, and dust storms can be severe—occasionally lasting for days. Snow is likely to fall in winter, but usually melts in a day or two, temperatures in winter are sometimes below freezing at night, but winter days are generally mild and sunny
Chico is the most populous city in Butte County, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 86,187, Bidwell Park makes up over 17% of the city. Other cities in close proximity to the Chico Metropolitan Area include Paradise and Oroville, while towns and villages include Durham, Dayton, Nord. The Chico Metropolitan Area is the 14th largest Metropolitan Statistical Area in California, the nickname City of Roses appears on the Seal of the City of Chico. The city has designated a Tree City USA for 31 years by the National Arbor Day Foundation. The original inhabitants of the now known as Chico were the Mechoopda Maidu Native Americans. The City of Chico was founded in 1860 by John Bidwell, a member of one of the first wagon trains to reach California in 1843. During the American Civil War, Camp Bidwell, was established a mile outside Chico, by Lt. Col. A. E. Hooker with a company of cavalry and two of infantry, on August 26,1863. By early 1865 it was being referred to as Camp Chico when a post called Camp Bidwell was established in northeast California, the city became incorporated January 8,1872.
Chico was home to a significant Chinese American community when it was first incorporated, old Hutch Hutchinson identified five events as the most seminal in Chico history. Several other significant events have unfolded in Chico more recently, Chico is at the northeast edge of the Sacramento Valley, one of the richest agricultural areas in the world. The Sierra Nevada mountains lie to the east, with Chicos city limits venturing several miles into the foothills, to the west, the Sacramento River lies 5 miles from the city limits. Chico sits on the Sacramento Valley floor close to the foothills of the Cascade Range to the north, Big Chico Creek is the demarcation line between the ranges. The citys terrain is flat with increasingly hilly terrain beginning at the eastern city limits. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 27.8 square miles. The city is bisected by Bidwell Park, which runs 5 miles from the city center deep into the foothills. The city is traversed by two creeks and a flood channel, which feeds the Sacramento River.
They are named Big Chico Creek, Little Chico Creek, the downtown area of Chico is located generally between Big Chico Creek and Little Chico Creek
Missoula /mᵻˈzuːlə/ is a city in the U. S. state of Montana and is the county seat of Missoula County. In 2015, the United States Census Bureau estimated the population at 71,022. In the 1990s, Missoula overtook Great Falls as Montana’s second‑largest city, Missoula is home to the University of Montana, a public research university. Missoula was founded in 1860 as Hellgate Trading Post while still part of Washington Territory, by 1866, the settlement had moved east,5 miles upstream, and renamed Missoula Mills, shortened to Missoula. The mills provided supplies to settlers traveling along the Mullan Road. The establishment of Fort Missoula in 1877 to protect settlers further stabilized the economy, the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1883 brought rapid growth and the maturation of the local lumber industry. In 1893, the Montana Legislature chose the city as the site for the states first university, along with the U. S. Forest Service headquarters founded in 1908, lumber and the university remained staples of the local economy for the next hundred years.
The city is governed by a government with twelve city council members. Notable residents include the first woman in the U. S. Congress, Jeannette Rankin, archaeological artifacts date the Missoula Valleys earliest inhabitants to the end of the last ice age 12,000 years ago with settlements as early as 3500 BCE. From the 1700s until European settlements began a years later, it was primarily the Salish, Pend dOreille, Blackfeet. Hell Gate would remain the name of the area until it was renamed Missoula in 1866, the Lewis and Clark Expedition brought the first U. S. citizens to the area. They twice stopped just south of Missoula at Travelers Rest and they camped there the first time on their westbound trip in September 1805. When they stayed there again on their return in June–July 1806, Clark left heading south along the Bitterroot River and Lewis traveled north, through Hellgate Canyon. The desire for a more convenient water supply to power a lumber, the Missoula Mills replaced Hell Gate Village as the economic power of the valley and replaced it as the county seat in 1866.
The name Missoula came from the Salish name for the Clark Fork River, Fort Missoula was established in 1877 to help protect further arriving settlers. Growth accelerated with the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1883, in 1893, Missoula was chosen as the location of the states first university, the University of Montana. The continued economic windfall from railroad construction and lumber mills led to a boom in Missoulas population. A. B. Hammond and Copper Kings Marcus Daly and William A. Clark competed fiercely in the region over lumber share, the United States Forest Service work in Missoula began in 1905
Wildfire suppression is a range of firefighting tactics used to suppress wildfires. Firefighting efforts in wild land areas require different techniques, Wildfire suppression addresses the issues of the wildland-urban interface, where populated areas border with wild land areas. Wildland fire, known in Australia as bush fire, has played a role in Australia due to arid conditions. Canada contains approximately 4,020,000 square miles of forest land, seventy-five percent of this is boreal forest, made up primarily of coniferous trees. More than 90 percent of Canadian forest land is owned. The Federal Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Center provides operational fire-control services, during a typical year there are over 9,000 forest fires in Canada, burning an average of 2.5 million hectares or 9,700 square miles. The number of fires and area burned can vary dramatically from year to year, average suppression costs are $500 million to $1 billion annually. In Canada, two-thirds of all forest fires are caused by people, while lightning causes the remaining third, despite this, lightning fires account for over 85 percent of the area burned in Canada, largely because many of the lightning-caused fires occur in remote, inaccessible areas.
Currently about ninety percent of forest fires are fought, generally fires near communities, industrial infrastructure, and forests with high commercial and recreation value are given high priority for suppression efforts. In remote areas and wilderness parks, fires may be left to burn as part of the ecological cycle. Wildfire suppression in the United States has had a long and varied history, in the 1960s, policies governing wildfire suppression changed due to ecological studies that recognized fire as a natural process necessary for new growth. Today, policies advocating complete fire suppression have been exchanged for those who encourage wildland fire use, or the allowing of fire to act as a tool, average suppression costs are $4 billion to $4.5 billion annually. Protection of human life is first priority for firefighters, since 1995, when arriving on a scene, a fire crew will establish safety zones and escape routes, verify communication is in place, and designate lookouts. This allows the firefighters to engage a fire with options for a retreat should their current situation become unsafe, briefings may be done to inform new fire resources of hazards and other pertinent information. A great emphasis is placed on safety and preventing entrapment, a situation where escape from the fire is impossible, as a last resort, many wildland firefighters carry a fire shelter.
In this inescapable situation, the shelter will provide limited protection from radiant and convective heat, entrapment within a fire shelter is called a burnover. In Australia, firefighters rarely carry fireshelters, rather training is given to locate natural shelters or the use of handtools to create protection, or in the instance of burnover in a Tanker or other fire appliance, fire over-run training is used. Hazards beyond the fire are posed as well, a very small sample of these include, unstable hazard trees, electrical cables, unexploded ordnance, hazardous materials and falling debris, and lightning
A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag. Parachutes are usually out of light, strong cloth, originally silk. Parachutes often take the shape of a dome, but shapes may vary including some taking the shape of an inverted dome, depending on the situation, parachutes are used with a variety of loads, including people, equipment, space capsules, and bombs. Drogue chutes are used to aid horizontal deceleration of a vehicle, the earliest evidence for the parachute dates back to the Renaissance period. The oldest parachute design appears in a manuscript from 1470s Renaissance Italy. As a safety measure, four straps run from the ends of the rods to a waist belt, shortly after, a more sophisticated parachute was sketched by the polymath Leonardo da Vinci in his Codex Atlanticus dated to ca. Here, the scale of the parachute is in a more favorable proportion to the weight of the jumper, Leonardos canopy was held open by a square wooden frame, which alters the shape of the parachute from conical to pyramidal.
It is not known whether the Italian inventor was influenced by the earlier design, the feasibility of Leonardos pyramidal design was successfully tested in 2000 by Briton Adrian Nicholas and again in 2008 by the Swiss skydiver Olivier Vietti-Teppa. The Croatian polymath and inventor Faust Vrančić examined da Vincis parachute sketch and he kept the square frame, but replaced the canopy with a bulging sail-like piece of cloth that he came to realize decelerates the fall more effectively. However, in book, John Wilkins wrote about flying. The modern parachute was invented in the late 18th century by Louis-Sébastien Lenormand in France, Lenormand sketched his device beforehand. Two years later, in 1785, Lenormand coined the word parachute by hybridizing a Latin prefix para, and chute, in 1785, Jean-Pierre Blanchard demonstrated it as a means of safely disembarking from a hot-air balloon. Subsequent development of the focused on it becoming more compact. In 1797, André Garnerin made the first descent using such a parachute, Garnerin invented the vented parachute, which improved the stability of the fall.
In 1907 Charles Broadwick demonstrated two key advances in the parachute he used to jump from hot air balloons at fairs and he folded his parachute into a pack he wore on his back. And the parachute was pulled from the pack by a line attached to the balloon. When Broadwick jumped from the balloon, the line became taut, pulled the parachute from the pack. In 1911 a successful test took place with a dummy at the Eiffel tower in Paris, the puppets weight was 75 kg, the parachutes weight was 21 kg
United States Forest Service
The United States Forest Service is an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nations 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres. Major divisions of the include the National Forest System and Private Forestry, Business Operations. Managing approximately 25% of federal lands, it is the major national land agency that is outside the U. S. Department of the Interior. The concept of the National Forests was born from Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation group and Crockett Club, in 1876, Congress created the office of Special Agent in the Department of Agriculture to assess the quality and conditions of forests in the United States. Hough was appointed the head of the office, in 1881, the office was expanded into the newly formed Division of Forestry. The Forest Reserve Act of 1891 authorized withdrawing land from the domain as forest reserves. In 1901, the Division of Forestry was renamed the Bureau of Forestry, gifford Pinchot was the first United States Chief Forester in the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt.
As of 2009, the Forest Service has a budget authority of $5.5 billion. The Forest Service employs 34,250 employees in 750 locations, including 10,050 firefighters,737 law enforcement personnel, and 500 scientists. The mission of the Forest Service is To sustain the health and its motto is Caring for the land and serving people. As the lead agency in natural resource conservation, the US Forest Service provides leadership in the protection and use of the nations forest, rangeland. The agencys ecosystem approach to management integrates ecological and social factors to maintain and enhance the quality of the environment to meet current, the everyday work of the Forest Service balances resource extraction, resource protection, and providing recreation.5 billion trees per year. Further, the Forest Service fought fires on 2,996,000 acres of land in 2007, the Forest Service organization includes ranger districts, national forests, research stations and research work units and the Northeastern Area Office for State and Private Forestry.
Each level has responsibility for a variety of functions, the Chief of the Forest Service is a career federal employee who oversees the entire agency. The Chief reports to the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, there are five deputy chiefs for the following areas, National Forest System and Private Forestry and Development, Business Operations, and Finance. The Forest Service Research and Development deputy area includes five stations, the Forest Products Laboratory. Station directors, like regional foresters, report to the Chief, Research stations include Northern, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, Rocky Mountain, and Southern. There are 92 research work units located at 67 sites throughout the United States, there are 80 Experimental Forests and Ranges that have been established progressively since 1908, many sites are more than 50 years old
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Oregon is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the north by Washington, on the south by California, on the east by Idaho, the Columbia River delineates much of Oregons northern boundary, and the Snake River delineates much of the eastern boundary. The parallel 42° north delineates the boundary with California and Nevada. Oregon was inhabited by indigenous tribes before Western traders, explorers. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848, Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14,1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles, Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, the capital of Oregon is Salem, the second most populous of its cities, with 164,549 residents. Portland is Oregons most populous city, with 632,309 residents, Portlands metro population of 2,389,228 ranks the 23rd largest metro in the nation. The Willamette Valley in western Oregon is the states most densely populated area, the tall conifers, mainly Douglas fir, along Oregons rainy west coast contrast with the lighter-timbered and fire-prone pine and juniper forests covering portions to the east.
Abundant alders in the west fix nitrogen for the conifers, stretching east from central Oregon are semi-arid shrublands, deserts and meadows. At 11,249 feet, Mount Hood is the states highest point, Oregons only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. The state is home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae. Because of its landscapes and waterways, Oregons economy is largely powered by various forms of agriculture, fishing. It is the top timber-producer of the lower 48 states, Technology is another one of the states major economic forces, which began in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel. Sportswear company Nike, Inc. headquartered in Beaverton, is the states largest public corporation with a revenue of $30.6 billion. The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins and this chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon.
There are two other sources with Spanish origins such as the name Oregano which grows in the part of the region. Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain, the term referred to the then-mythical River of the West. By 1778 the spelling had shifted to Oregon, in his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote, The rout. is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, and from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon
Cave Junction, Oregon
Cave Junction, incorporated in 1948, is a city in Josephine County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 1,883 and its motto is the Gateway to the Oregon Caves, and the city got its name by virtue of its location at the junction of Redwood Highway and Caves Highway. Cave Junction is located in the Illinois Valley, starting in the 1850s, after World War II, timber became the main source of income for residents. As timber income has declined, Cave Junction is attempting to compensate with tourism. Tourists visit the Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve, which includes the Oregon Caves Chateau, as well as the OutnAbout treehouse resort, for thousands of years, the Takelma Indians inhabited the Illinois Valley. Their culture was destroyed when gold was discovered in the early 1850s, after an 1853 treaty, most of the Takelmas lived on the Table Rock Reservation. In 1856, after the wars ended, they were moved to the Grand Ronde Reservation, the first gold in Oregon history was found in the Illinois Valley, as well as the largest gold nugget.
While hunting along Sucker Creek, he discovered gold lying on the ground and he staked a claim and called it the Wounded Buck Mine, which produced 1,777 ounces of gold. The mine was a small vein of gold 12 to 14 inches wide,12 feet long and 7 feet deep, as gold mining in the Illinois Valley became exhausted in the 1860s and 1870s, the residents diversified into ranching, logging and agriculture. In 1874, Elijah Davidson found a cave while on a hunting trip, burch heard about the cave from Davidson, and staked a squatters claim at the mouth of the caves. He and his brothers-in-law charged one dollar for a guided tour, according to their advertisement in the Grants Pass Courier, this included camping, plentiful pasture land and medicinal cave waters. They attempted to acquire title to the land, but as the land was unsurveyed, president William Howard Taft established the 480-acre Oregon Caves National Monument on July 12,1909, to be administered by the U. S. Forest Service. In 1923, the Forest Service subcontracted the building of a hotel, by 1926, the monument had a chalet and seven two-bedroom cabins.
Traffic into the caves led to a community developing at the junction of the Redwood Highway, Cave Junction, originally known as Cave City, was established in 1926 on land donated by Elwood Hussey. In 1935, a post office was applied for and was named Caves City, however postal authorities disapproved of the name, partly because City implied the place was incorporated. Among the other names suggested was Cave Junction, which was adopted by the United States Board on Geographic Names in 1936 with the post office being renamed the same year. The locality was incorporated as Cave Junction in 1948, and is the incorporated area in the Illinois Valley. In 1950 Cave Junction had a population of 283, which decreased to 248 in 1960 and its growth was fast in the 1960s, increasing at an average of 6.8 percent annually