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Smoking in Japan

Smoking in Japan, though less restricted by law than in many other nations, has changed in recent years. Tobacco use has been in nearly constant decline since 1996 and the decline has been accelerating in recent years. Per capita consumption in 2015 was 1,618 cigarettes 46% of the peak figure in 1977 and a number last seen in 1956. In 2015, the adult smoking rate was 29.7 % of Japanese men and 9.7 % of Japanese women. This is the lowest recorded figure since Japan Tobacco began surveying in 1965; as of July 2016, just over 20,000,000 people smoked in Japan, though the nation remained one of the world's largest tobacco markets. Until 1985, the tobacco industry was a government-run monopoly; the Diet of Japan has many MPs who have interests in the tobacco industry and thus tobacco control legislation is uncommon. Non-smoking areas are becoming common in Japan, in homes, restaurants, fast-food eateries, "family restaurants," pachinko parlors, public areas. Kanagawa Prefecture enacted Japan's first smoke-free public places ordinance in 2009 and Hyogo Prefecture followed with a similar law in 2012.

All trains either have non-smoking cars or are smoking-free, as are many train station platforms in urban areas. A particular brand of cigarettes in Japan costs the same across all vendors, from cigarette machines to big supermarkets to corner shops. Bulk purchases are not discounted; as of 6 August 2013, the price of a typical pack of cigarettes ranged from ¥410 to ¥440 yen. Because of the hike in the consumption sales tax to 8% on 1 April 2014, the range is now 430 to 460 yen. Unlike in Europe and North America, where mandatory smoking bans apply in restaurants and public areas, smoking in Japan is not made illegal by Article 25 of the nation's Health Promotion Act, which urges smoking restrictions. Limited indoor bans have been enacted in Kanagawa and Hyogo Prefectures, but not nationally. Other restrictions may be implemented by the choice of public and private property owners, employers, etc. Many of the wealthier wards of Tokyo, such as Shinjuku and Shibuya, are applying various kinds of anti-smoking laws.

They have designated special smoking sections in areas and it is punishable by fine if caught smoking outside these areas. Chiyoda-ku banned smoking while walking on busy streets from November 2002, the first local government in Japan to do so. Starting in 2007, Kyoto began designating certain city streets as non-smoking areas, have since been increasing the number of streets designated as such. In a 2010 report, Kyoto Prefecture stated that the major goal of their anti-smoking policies is "to ensure that there is zero chance for people to suffer from second-hand smoke in Kyoto prefecture." Starbucks is one of the few service industry companies in Japan that bans smoking inside all of its stores, but allows smoking and provides ashtrays in the outside seating areas at most stores in Osaka. McDonald's Japan plans to ban smoking at some of its stores following renovations, has banned smoking at its 298 restaurants in Kanagawa prefecture since 1 March 2010. Kentucky Fried Chicken banned smoking at one branch in Shibuya, Tokyo in July 2010.

While a high percentage of men in Japan have smoked throughout in the postwar years, the rate for women for many years hovered between 10 and 15%, followed there too by a decline in recent years to be floating a little below 10%. In the mid-1990s, the number of younger female smokers in particular had risen substantially. Smoking has since declined among this group as well, but that cohort of women still smokes at a higher rate than their elders. "The manufacturers were successful in providing cool images to the consumers," says Ministry of Health and Welfare technical officer Yumiko Mochizuki, when asked to explain the steady rise in female smokers. "Until the Ministry of Health and Welfare had an understanding that smoking was up to the individual."The government's advertising ban based on the "motherhood" argument was watertight until the tobacco industry was privatized in 1985. Advertising that encourages women to smoke is forbidden in Japan under a voluntary industry agreement; the industry group pledged to voluntarily honor the advertising ban and is charged with enforcing it.

United States maker Brown & Williamson sells Capri cigarettes in Japan in slim white boxes with a flower-like design on the cover. R. J. Reynolds' Tokyo billboards for Salem's Pianissimo cigarettes are green-and-pink. Philip Morris advertised its Virginia Slims brand with the slogan "Be You" in an ad campaign. Other factors contribute to the rise in female smokers; some observers cite stress, saying that more Japanese women are smoking to relax as more enter the workforce. Others argue. Media influence is cited, as many women on popular Japanese television dramas smoke. Cigarettes can be bought in tobacco stores and at vending machines, public ashtrays dot sidewalks and train platforms; the number of cigarette vending machines in Japan is estimated at 500,000 in 2002. The law prohibits the smoking of cigarettes by persons under the age of twenty. Taspo is a smart card developed by the Tobacco Institute of Japan, the nationwide association of tobacco retailers, the Japan Vending Machine Manufacturers Association.

Introduced in 2008, the card is necessary to purchase cigarettes from vending machines. In 2008 Japan Tobacco commis


WCAL 91.9 FM is a student-run college radio station serving California University of Pennsylvania and the surrounding area, including Washington, Westmoreland and Allegheny counties. Like CUTV, WCAL is owned by The Student Association and broadcasts 24 hours per day from the Media Suite in the Natali Student Center on the California University of Pennsylvania campus. WCAL began broadcasting in 1971 from California State University as WVCS, which it continued broadcasting as until obtaining its new call-letters on March 15, 2005. WVCS stood for Voice of California State, which ceased to make sense after the school changed its name to California University of Pennsylvania in 1983. WCAL broadcasts with an immensely diverse variety of music. On February 1, 2005, the "WCAL" call sign was sold by Minnesota Public Radio to the student-run radio station of California University of Pennsylvania. Query the FCC's FM station database for WCAL Radio-Locator information on WCAL Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WCAL

M. Jayachandran

Madhusoodanan Nair Jayachandran known as M. Jayachandran, is a film score composer and musician in Indian films, he has won the Kerala State Film Award for Best Music Director for a record number of seven times. In 2005, he won the state award for best male singer. In 2015, he won the National Film Award for Best Music Direction for the film Ennu Ninte Moideen, he has composed music for more than one hundred films. Jayachandran was born on June 1971 at Thiruvananthapuram, he began learning Carnatic music at the age of 5 under Attingal Harihara Iyer and under Perumbavoor G. Raveendranath. Thereafter, he was a student of Neyyattinkara Mohanachandran for 18 years, he won the Carnatik vocal competition at the Kerala University youth festival four times in a row from 1987 to 1990. Thereafter, he graduated from TKM College of Engineering, he began his career in the film industry as a playback singer for the movie Vasudha in 1992 became an assistant to Malayalam music director G. Devarajan. In 1995, he became an independent music director through the film Chantha.

Jayachandran is the younger among the two sons of late Madhusoodanan Nair and late Vijaya Nair, born on 14 June 1971. He has an elder brother named Prakash Chandran, he worked at Asianet before taking up full-time music direction. He married Priya on 12 November 1995, has two sons, he has been on the judging panel of musical reality shows in Malayalam television. Mangalyathaali Mahamaaya Sandhyanjali Unnikkannan Vandeham Harikrishna Padmam Sree Padmam Aattukal Deviyamma Amme Devi Mahamaye Gopichandanam Haripriya Campus Kudamullapoo Iniyennum Ormakkai Swantham Raagolsavam Thiruvona Paattu TV Shows as JudgeSaptaswarangal Mega Singer Voice of Kerala Gandharvasangeetham Star Singer Old is Gold Super Star Top Singer TV serials as Music DirectorSwathi Nakshathram Chothi Mouna Ragam -TAMIL Vanambadi Sreekrishnan Geethanjali Adhiparashakthi Chottanikkarayamma Sreeguruvayoorappan Ente Sooryaputhri Sooryaputhri Innale Black and White National Film Awards: 2015 – Best Music Director – Ennu Ninte Moideen Honorary 2012 – Swaralaya Yesudas AwardKerala State Film Awards: 2003 – Best Music Director – Gourisankaram 2004 – Best Music Director – Perumazhakkalam and Kathavasheshan 2005 – Best Play Back SingerNottam 2007 – Best Music Director – Nivedyam 2008 – Best Music Director – Madambi 2010 – Best Music Director – Karayilekku Oru Kadal Dooram 2012 – Best Music Director – Celluloid 2016 - Best Music Director – KambojiAsianet Film Awards: 2003 – Best Music Director Award Gourishangaram 2004 – Best Music Director Award Perumazhakkalam, Mambazhakalam 2007 – Best Music Director Award Nivedyam 2011 – Best Music Director Award PranayamFilmfare Awards South 2004 – Filmfare Award for Best Music Director – Malayalam – Perumazhakkalam 2011 – Filmfare Award for Best Music Director – Malayalam – Pranayam 2013 – Filmfare Award for Best Music Director – Malayalam – Celluloid 2015 – Filmfare Award for Best Music Director – Malayalam – Ennu Ninte MoideenAsiavision Awards 2013 – Asiavision Awards – Best Music DirectorMirchi Music Awards South 2009 - Best music director 2009 - Album of the year 2009 - Song of the year 2010 - Best music director 2010- Album of the year 2010 - Song of the year 2011 - Song of the year 2011- Album of the year 2011 - Best music directorAsianet Television Awards 2017 - Manninte Manamulla Sangeetham 2017-Best Music DirectorVijay Television Awards 2018 - Vijay Television Awards for Special Jury Award M. Jayachandran on IMDb Scaling peaks of success

Mast-aft rig

A mast-aft rig is a sailboat sail-plan that uses a single mast set in the aft half of the hull. The mast supports fore-sails that may consist of a single jib, multiple staysails, or a crab claw sail; the mainsail is either small or absent. Mast-aft rigs are uncommon, but are found on a few custom, production sailboats. Many mast-aft rigs utilize a small mainsail and multiple staysails that can resemble some cutter rigs. A cutter is a single masted vessel, differentiated from a sloop either by the number of staysails, with a sloop having one and a cutter more than one, or by the position of the mast, with a cutter's mast being located between 50% and 70% of the way from the aft to the front of the sailplan, a sloop's mast being located forward of the 70% mark. A mast-aft rig could, based on headsail count, be considered a variation of the sloop or cutter, or, based on mast position, a unique rig. In the typical Bermuda rig, the sails located in front of the mast deliver a higher percentage of the driving force.

The stay that supports the leading edge of the sail causes far less turbulence than a mast, resulting in better airflow across the lee side of the sail. To take advantage of this fact, Bermuda rigs are shifting towards larger fore-sails and smaller mainsails. Fore-sails include jibs and staysails; the cutter, with its use of multiple foresails, achieves the same goal of placing a higher percentage of the sail area in staysails. By moving the mast toward the back of the sailboat, designers can increase the size and driving power of the more efficient foresails; the mainsail is eliminated altogether. An advantage of using foresails called staysails, is that they may be rigged for roller furling; this allows the sail to and be deployed and reefed by pulling lines. The sail rolls up around the stay; this simplicity and easy operation is one of the main attractions of the mast-aft rig. By reducing the mainsail in size or eliminating it altogether, the aft mast rig squarely minimizes or solves the problems associated with battens.

Battens enable designers to increase the size of mainsails by pushing the mainsail away from the mast. However, the forces of the battens pushing against the mast make it more difficult to raise or lower the mainsail. On larger rigs, "batten cars" are needed to overcome these forces. By eliminating the battens and associated batten cars, the material cost savings for a typical 60-ft catamaran can be as much as $12,000 AUD. Aft-mast rigs with no mainsail require fewer winches to raise and lower sails, no winches to move the boom; when "Hot Buoys" converted from a Bermuda rig to an aft-mast rig 5 winches were no longer required. For rigs with no mainsail, there is no boom; this saves the cost of the boom, hardware and lines associated with the boom. More eliminating the boom is a matter of safety; the second leading cause of death on sailboats is the boom. Booms cause deaths directly and indirectly by knocking people overboard; when stationary, booms represent a hazard. According to a German study, "boom strikes were the most common cause of sailing injury overall".

Another aspect of safety is in regards to the elimination of the lines and hardware to control the boom. With fewer lines and less hardware on the deck there are fewer items to trip over or trap fingers and hands. Mast-aft rigs depend on a large foresail which, like any sail, becomes more difficult to manage with its size; this is true when sailors do not want to use roller furling, e.g. because they do not want to compromise speed. Mast-aft rigs are viewed as unconventional, since recreational sailors choose boats based on what "looks" right, mast-aft rigs face resistance in the recreational market. Racing sailors will use whatever is fastest within class rules, class rules are very tied to the conventional Bermuda rig. Another disadvantage of the mast-aft rig, when set up with no mainsail, is the drag on the mast. While the mast may interfere with the airflow around the mainsail, the mainsail serves to reduce the drag on the mast. By not having a sail attached to the trailing edge of the mast, the mast becomes a significant source of drag.

Additionally if there is no mainsail there is difficulty in heaving to or coming to rest with sails set and boat "weathercocked" with bows into the wind. This can make the boat much more vulnerable in storms when a furled foresail has the wrong effect on boat position relative to wind and waves while hove-to and this, though less of an issue for racing, is still an issue for long-distance cruising; the performance of the sail is dependent on having a forestay, taut. If the forestay is allowed to slack, the sail will lose its airfoil shape and not perform as well; this requires heavy rigging with high tension. An early successful mast-aft design was built by Ltd.. The Snowgoose models were offered with a mast-aft rig, it boasted a number of features that made short-handed sailing easier than with a standard Bermuda rig. Broadblue Catamarans Ltd. now owns and makes two of the Prout designs, which still come standard with the mast-aft rig. RB Power & Sailing of Thailand offers two aft-mast catamarans.

Model "HK-40" is 40-ft model "HK-55" is 55-ft long. They were designed by Albert Nazarov. Most aft-mast sailboats trimarans. An exception is the "4.8 monomaran" designed by Kees Radius's. A" "monomaran"" is a single hull with a dagger board. Commercially unsuccessful examples include the Delt

Melvin Bell

Melvin Bell was a sailor who served in the United States Coast Guard, was the first Pacific Island sailor in the Coast Guard to be promoted to the rank of chief petty officer. Bell's father was an electronic technician with the telephone company, his grandfather, who he lived with for several years while attending school, owned an electronics shop, it was from them he first acquired an aptitude for electronics. Bell worked for a few months as a mechanics assistant, but met United States Coast Guard sailors at the YMCA where he was living, decided to enlist, in November 1938. At the time he enlisted; the Territory of Hawaii was isolated so he was not sent to the continental United States for basic training. In a 2014 interview Bell described how he worked as a mess attendant. Prior to World War II the Coast Guard and Navy were segregated, non-white personnel were always assigned service roles, like mess attendant. In his interview he described how he was able to make the extraordinary jump from mess attendant to skilled radio technician.

Due to his familiarity with electronics, he was welcome to spend his off-duty hours in Taney's radio room. In May 1939 Taney's long range radio broke down, which restricted her operations. Taney's radio had been down for close to a month, the District Communication's Officer, Henry Arnold had tried to assist the ship's senior radio operator in fixing it, without success; when they left, on Friday night, Bell asked the junior radio operator, on duty if he could try fixing the radio. Bell had been watching and he avoided duplicating anything the senior officers had tried, he was thorough, methodical. He ended up opening up the panel in the floor and methodically tracing and testing the leads coming to and leading away from the radio, he found that an incoming relay had a short-circuit. After he replaced the relay with a spare, powered up the radio, he found he had fixed it; when he informed the radio operator on duty, he sent a signal to District HQ, informing them the ship was back online. Arnold, the District Communication Officer, was on duty, asked who fixed the radio.

When he was informed the radio he had tried and failed to fix had been fixed by a 19-year-old mess attendant, he took Bell under his wing. Bell attributed his transfer to the electronics branch to Arnold's mentorship. Bell attributed his appointment as the radio operator of the small patrol boat USCGC Reliance to Arnold's mentorship. Arnold continued to mentor Bell for the duration of World War II; when a large fleet of aircraft carrier-launched Japanese warplanes engaged in a sneak attack on US Navy forces at Pearl Harbor Bell was the radio operator at the Coast Guard Station at nearby Diamond Head. He was the one. In World War II Bell learned Japanese and helped break Japanese codes. In 1943 he became the first Pacific Islander to be promoted to chief petty officer. After the war Bell became an electronics instructor for the Coast Guard. In 1958 when he was promoted to master chief petty officer he was the first member of any minority to hold that rank; when Bell retired after 20 years of active duty he started working for the Coast Guard as a civilian employee.

After a long career with the Coast Guard he began a long career as a civilian employee of the US Navy. During his career there he worked with both the Trident ballistic missile programs; when Bell retired from the US Navy, in 2004, he was 84 years old, received an official recognition from President George W. Bush, honoring him for a long and distinguished career. On July 26, 2019, Congressional Representative Luis Correa marked the 229th anniversary of the founding of the Coast Guard by addressing Congress, noting the highlights of the careers of fourteen members of the Coast Guard, from minorities, whose accomplishments he felt merited more recognition. Bell was one of the heroes. In 2010, Charles "Skip" W. Bowen, the Coast Guard's most senior non-commissioned officer, proposed that all the cutters in the Sentinel class should be named after enlisted sailors in the Coast Guard, or one of its precursor services, who were recognized for their heroism. In 2019 the Coast Guard announced that Melvin Bell would be the namesake of the 55th cutter, USCGC Melvin Bell

O-Bi, O-Ba: The End of Civilization

O-Bi, O-Ba: The End of Civilization is a 1985 Polish drama science fiction film written and directed by Piotr Szulkin. Starring Jerzy Stuhr and Krystyna Janda, the film takes place in a post-apocalyptic future where humans live in an isolated vault, falling apart, their only grain of hope lies in a vessel known as The Ark, said to be on its way to rescue them. Jerzy Stuhr as Soft Krystyna Janda as Gea Mariusz Dmochowski as millionaire Kalina Jędrusik as millionaire's wife Marek Walczewski as Soft's boss Jan Nowicki as engineer Henryk Bista as chubby Leon Niemczyk as well kept Krzysztof Majchrzak as man in freezer Stanisław Igar as craftsman Mariusz Benoit as doctor Włodzimierz Musiał as Kraft The film premiered in Poland on 28 January 1985, it was shown at the Polish Film Festival in Gdynia where Andrzej Kowalczyk won the prize for Best Production Design for his work on the film. The Polish DVD was released in December 2003 as part of a box set with two other Szulkin films, The War of the Worlds: Next Century and Ga-ga: Glory to the Heroes.

O-Bi, O-Ba: The End of Civilization on IMDb