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A smoothbore weapon is one that has a barrel without rifling. Smoothbores range from handheld firearms to large artillery mortars. Early firearms had smooth barrels. To minimize inaccuracy-inducing tumbling during flight their projectiles required stable shape, such as a sphere. However, the Magnus effect causes spheres rotating randomly during flight to curve when spinning on any axis not parallel to the direction of travel. Rifling a barrel with spiral grooves or polygonal rifling imparts a stabilizing gyroscopic spin to a projectile that prevents tumbling in flight. Not only does this more than counter Magnus-induced drift, but it allows a longer, heavier round to be fired from the same caliber barrel, increasing both range and power. In the eighteenth century, the standard infantry arm was the smoothbore musket. Artillery weapons were smoothbore until the middle 19th century, smoothbores continued in limited use until the 1890s. Early rifled artillery pieces were patented by Joseph Whitworth and William Armstrong in the United Kingdom in 1855.

In the United States, rifled small arms and artillery were adopted during the American Civil War. However, heavy coast defense Rodman smoothbores persisted in the US until circa 1900 due to the tendency of the Civil War's heavy Parrott rifles to burst and lack of funding for replacement weapons; some smoothbore firearms are still used. A shotgun fires round shot. While this may be acceptable at close ranges this is not desirable at longer ranges, where a tight, consistent pattern is required to improve accuracy. Another smoothbore weapon in use today is the 37-mm riot gun, which fires non-lethal munitions like rubber bullets and teargas at short range at crowds, where a high degree of accuracy is not required; the Steyr IWS 2000 anti-tank rifle is smoothbore. This can help increase ballistic effectiveness; the projectile is a 15.2 mm fin-stabilized discarding-sabot type with armor-piercing capability which the IWS 2000 was designed to fire. It contains a dart-shaped penetrator of either tungsten carbide or depleted uranium, capable of piercing 40 mm of rolled homogeneous armor at a range of 1,000 m, causing secondary fragmentation.

The cannon made the transition from smoothbore firing cannonballs to rifled firing shells in the 19th century. However, to reliably penetrate the thick armor of modern armored vehicles many modern tank guns have moved back to smoothbore; these fire a long, thin kinetic-energy projectile, too long in relation to its diameter to develop the necessary spin rate through rifling. Instead, kinetic energy rounds are produced as fin-stabililzed darts. Not only does this reduce the time and expense of producing rifling barrels, it reduces the need for replacement due to barrel wear; the first tank with a smoothbore gun was the Soviet T-62, introduced into service in 1961. Today all main battle tanks field them except the British Challenger 2 and Indian Arjun MBT. While the 73 mm gun of the early Soviet infantry fighting vehicles BMP-1 and BMD-1 was a smoothbore, their more recent successors BMP-3 and BMD-4 use a rifled 100 mm gun; the Russian navy conducted experiments with large-caliber smoothbore naval guns, which were halted by budget cuts.

The armour-piercing gun evolution has shown up in small arms the now abandoned U. S. Advanced Combat Rifle program; the ACR "rifles" used smoothbore barrels to fire single or multiple flechettes, rather than bullets, per pull of the trigger, to provide long range, flat trajectory, armor-piercing abilities. Just like kinetic-energy tank rounds, flechettes are too long and thin to be stabilized by rifling and perform best from a smoothbore barrel; the ACR program was abandoned due to poor terminal ballistics. Mortar barrels are muzzle-loading smoothbores. Since mortars fire bombs that are dropped down the barrel and must not be a tight fit, a smooth barrel is essential; the bombs are fin-stabilized. Rifling Buck and ball Cap gun Caplock mechanism Internal ballistics Tubes and primers for ammunition Minié ball Gunpowder Cannon Muzzleloader Muzzle Gun barrel Projectile

Corbett Lyon

Corbett Marshall Lyon is an Australian architect, art patron and academic who lives and works in Melbourne. He is a founding director of Melbourne architectural firm Lyons. With partners Carey Lyon, Cameron Lyon, Neil Appleton, Adrian Stanic and James Wilson he has designed many award-winning institutional and public buildings in Australia. Lyon is one of Australia's leading collectors and patrons of Australian contemporary art and since 1990 has developed the Lyon Collection with his wife Yueji. In 2003–2008 he designed and built the Lyon Housemuseum, a hybrid residence and art museum, which displays the Lyon Collection and makes it available for public viewing. Lyon is a professorial fellow and visiting professor in design at the University of Melbourne where he teaches and researches in the Melbourne School of Design. In 2016 he was awarded a Doctor of Architecture by the University. Lyon was born in Melbourne to architect Ronald Marietta Perrott. Attending Brighton Grammar School from 1961, he graduated Dux in 1973, studied architecture at the University of Melbourne, graduating in 1979.

He entered an extended family of architects which included his maternal grandfather, Leslie M Perrott Snr and two uncles, Leslie M Perrott Jnr and Eric Lyon. Both his parents worked in his grandfather's firm, Leslie M Perrott & Associates, which became Perrott Lyon Mathieson in 1970 when his father became a partner. All three of his brothers, Cameron and Hamish, became practicing architects. In 2019 Lyon's two daughters Carlin and Jaqlin were studying architecture at the University of Melbourne, heading up the fourth generation. Lyon won an ITT International Fellowship to study in the US where he undertook a one-year Master of Architecture program at the University of Pennsylvania, he studied under architects Steven Izenour and Aldo van Eyck, futurist Buckminster Fuller and urban planner Edmund Bacon. During his studies he worked part-time in the Philadelphia offices of architects Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates and following his graduation in 1980 worked full time in the firm's New York office.

In 2018 he completed a PhD at Melbourne. In 1981 Lyon returned to Australia and established architectural firm Lyon + Lyon with brother Cameron; the firm designed institutional and government buildings including the Butterfly House at the Melbourne Zoological Gardens and a commemorative arch in Melbourne celebrating Victoria's 1984 sesquicentenary. The brothers' work was exhibited at the XIIe Biennale de Paris in 1982. In 1996 Lyon established architectural practice Lyons Architects with brother Carey Lyon. Cameron Lyon joined the practice in 1998 as a director and worked in the firm until his death in 2018; the firm has five directors which include Neil Appleton, Adrian Stanic and James Wilson. The firm designs large scale institutional and cultural projects and has won many national and international design awards. In 2000 Lyons represented Australia as the country's sole representative at the 7th International Architecture Biennale in Venice. New Queensland Children's Brisbane Swanston Academic Building.

RMIT University, Melbourne BHP Billiton Global Headquarters, Melbourne John Curtin School of Medical Research, Canberra Central Institute of TAFE, Perth Menzies Research Institute, Hobart UWS School of Medicine, Sydney Melbourne Brain Centre, Melbourne Lyon Housemuseum, Melbourne Kangan Institute, Automotive Centre of Excellence, Melbourne Hedley Bull Centre, Australian National University, Canberra New School of Law at University of NSW, Sydney Victoria University Online Training Centre, St Albans Marine and Freshwater Research Institute, Queenscliff Lyon has taught at the University of Melbourne as a visiting critic and lecturer since 1984. He is a Professorial Fellow at the University and is a Visiting Professor in Design at the Melbourne School of Design in the Faculty of Architecture and Planning, he lectures on architectural design and design practice and innovation and has given lectures and seminars at the Royal Academy of Arts, the Otis School of Design in Los Angeles, the University of Pennsylvania, Cornell University and the Architectural League of New York.

Lyon is one of patrons of contemporary art. Since 1990 he has developed the Lyon Collection with his wife Yueji; the collection comprises over 350 artworks, including paintings, installation works and video art. More than 50 Australian artists are represented in the Collection. Between 2003 and 2005 he designed the Lyon Housemuseum, a hybrid residence and art museum which opened to the public in 2009; the Housemuseum offers pre-booked public tours and school visits on designated days each year. The Housemuseum sponsors an annual series of lectures and talks on art, art history and museology; the annual Lyon Housemuseum Lecture is published in the form of a small book. In 2012 Lyon and his wife established the Lyon Foundation to provide a permanent future home for the Lyon Collection; the Foundation has constructed a new public art museum design by Lyon, on a site adjacent to the Housemuseum. The new museum opened in March 2019. Lyon is a Trustee of the National Gallery of Victoria and a member of the International Council of Museums.

Gestalten, The Sky's the Limit - Applying Radical Architecture. Berlin, Germany: Gestalten, 2012 Goad, P et al. Monumentum: New Victorian Architecture. Melbourne, Australia: The Miegunyah Press, 2011 Goad, P & Willis, J, Encyclopaedia of Australian Architecture. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2011 Thames & Hudson (

Yun Il-lok

Yun Il-lok is a South Korean professional footballer who plays for Montpellier HSC. He has played for a number of youth-level teams representing South Korea, in 2013 graduated to his country's senior men's side. Yun entered professional football as a teenager, being selected by Gyeongnam FC as part of their squad for the 2011 season, having spent his youth career with Gyeongnam's U-18 side, his professional debut came immediately, in his club's second K-League match of the season against Ulsan, which ended in a 1–0 victory for Gyeongnam. Within a month, Yun scored his first K-League goal in Gyeongnam's 2–1 win over Incheon United. Yun represented South Korea at the 2009 FIFA U-17 World Cup in Nigeria, playing all five matches as Korea progressed from the group stage to the quarterfinals. There, the team's run came to an end against eventual finalist. Yun played a notable part in the round of 16 match against Mexico, when late in the second half his assist led to the equalising goal in the match, forcing extra time after which Korea won the subsequent penalty shootout.

Yun regards this assist as his most memorable moment in football. Yun was selected for the squad for the 2011 FIFA U-20 World Cup hosted by Colombia. After progressing through the group stages of the competition, Korea met Spain in the Round of 16 where they lost in a penalty shoot-out. Yun played in all four matches of the tournament. Yun was called up for duty with the South Korea U-23 team, playing in a friendly against Uzbekistan in which he scored a goal as well as an Olympic Final Qualifier against Qatar in November 2011. Yun has since graduated to the senior men's squad, scoring a goal in the EAFF East Asian Cup against Japan in his sides 2-1 loss on 28 July 2013. Statistics accurate as of 15 February 2020. 1Includes K League Classic and J1 League. 2Includes KFA Cup and Emperor's Cup. 3Includes Korean League Cup and J. League Cup. 4Includes AFC Champions League. Scores and results list South Korea's goal tally first. FC Seoul Korean FA Cup: 2015 K League 1: 2016 South Korea U23 Asian Games: 2014South Korea EAFF E-1 Football Championship: 2017, 2019 Profile at Yokohama F. Marinos Yun Il-lok at J.

League Yun Il-lok – K League stats at Yun Il-lok – National Team Stats at KFA Yun Il-lok – FIFA competition record Yun Il-lok at Soccerway

Adagio and Rondo for glass harmonica, flute, oboe, viola and cello

The Adagio and Rondo, K. 617, is a quintet composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart for glass harmonica, oboe and cello. Completed on May 23, 1791, it was written for Marianne Kirchgessner, a blind glass harmonica virtuoso, who played the first performance in the Burgtheater Akademie on June 10, 1791, subsequently performed it at the Kärtnertortheater on August 19, 1791; the autograph manuscript is in the British Library as part of the Stefan Zweig Collection. It was purchased by Zweig from a Berlin auction house in 1930; the work was first published by Breitkopf & Härtel in 1799. The adagio, in C minor, is 58 bars long. According to Willi Apel, "Among various compositions for the glass harmonica, Mozart's Adagio in C major and Adagio and Rondo...both composed in 1791, are the most interesting. They seem to require an instrument equipped with a keyboard mechanism such as that constructed in 1784." Köchel, Ludwig Ritter von Köchel. Chronologisch-thematisches Verzeichnis sämtlicher Tonwerke Wolfgang Amadé Mozarts: nebst Angabe der verlorengegangenen, von fremder Hand bearbeiteten, zweifelhaften und unterschobenen Kompositionen.

Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Härtel. Pp. 703–704. Federhofer, Hellmut. Kritsche Bericht: Quintette, Quartette und Trios mit Klavier und mit Glasharmonika. Serie VII, Werkgruppe 22, Abteilung 1. Kassel: Bärenreiter. Pp. 79–82. Adagio and Rondo for Glass Harmonica, Oboe and Cello: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Adagio and Rondo for glass harmonica, oboe and cello: Score in the Neue Mozart-Ausgabe Zweig MS 61 Adagio and Rondo in C, K.617 on YouTube

Kevin Maitán

Kevin Francisco Maitán Hernández is a Venezuelan professional baseball shortstop for the Los Angeles Angels organization. Maitán was considered the top international prospect for the 2016 class. Though a natural shortstop, Maitán has most been projected as a third baseman in professional baseball, he has been called the best international free agent since Miguel Sanó in 2009 and has been compared to Miguel Cabrera and Chipper Jones. He signed with the Atlanta Braves on July 2. Maitán arrived in the United States in September to begin his professional career at the instructional league, he made his debut with the Rookie-level Gulf Coast League Braves on July 3, 2017, after batting.314 with a.751 OPS in nine games, he was promoted to the Rookie Advanced Danville Braves, where he finished 2017, posting a.220 average with two home runs and 15 RBIs. On October 2, 2017, Braves general manager John Coppolella and international scouting director Gordon Blakely resigned after an MLB investigation into their activities discovered several rules violations regarding international signings.

On November 21, MLB ordered that Maitan and several other players were released from their contracts and declared to be free agents. Maitán signed with the Los Angeles Angels, he is playing for the Orem Owlz of the Advanced Rookie-level Pioneer League in 2018. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference

Social issues in Brazil

Brazil ranks 49.3 in the Gini coefficient index, with the richest 10% of Brazilians earning 42.7% of the nation's income, the poorest 34% earn less than 1.2%. According to PNUD, in 1991, 99.2% of the municipalities had a low/very low HDI. On the other hand, the number of municipalities with high/very high HDI jumped from 0.2% in 1991 to 34.7% in 2010. In 2012, the Brazilian HDI was considered high. Poverty in Brazil is most visually represented by the ____ favelas, slums in the country's metropolitan areas and remote upcountry regions that suffer with economic underdevelopment and below-par standards of living. In Rio de Janeiro, about a fifth of its population of six million live in several hundred favelas, situated on steep, neglected land beyond the control and services of city authorities. An attempt to mitigate these problems is the "Fome Zero" program launched by then-President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in 2003. Part of this is "Bolsa Família", a cash transfer program that gives money to impoverished families under the condition that they keep their kids vaccinated and in school.

The Lula administration reduced 9.8% the rate of poverty based on labor income during June 2002 and June 2006 according to Fundação Getúlio Vargas. In June 2006, the rate of extreme poverty was 18.57% of the population. The rate of poverty is in part attributed to the country's economic inequality. Brazil ranks among the world's highest nations in the Gini coefficient index of inequality assessment. A study on the subject shows that the poor segment constitutes one third of the population, the poor make out 13%. However, the same study shows the income growth of the poorest 20% population segment to be in par with China, while the richest 10% are stagnating. Brazil may achieve social indicators similar to those of developed countries by 2016 if the country is able to maintain the same rate of reduction of extreme poverty and income inequality as recorded over the 2003 to 2008 period; as well, the country may record an absolute poverty rate of 4%. The data, was taken from a document issued by the Institute of Applied Economic Research, linked to the Secretariat of Strategic Affairs of the Presidency of the Republic.

People are considered poor who earn up to 25% of one minimum wage per month, whereas the poor earn up to 50% of one minimum wage per month. "If we make a projection of the best performances recorded in Brazil in terms of poverty and inequality reduction to the year of 2016, the result would be a positive social outlook. Brazil may overcome the problem of extreme poverty, as well as attain a national absolute poverty rate of only 4%, which means its near-eradication," the document states. According to the document, the majority of the progress achieved by Brazil in fighting poverty and inequality is either directly or indirectly related to the structuring of public policies of social intervention, provided for in the Federal Constitution of 1988; the Ipea points out three other decisive factors to fighting poverty and inequality: increased social spending in the country, which went from 19% of the Gross Domestic Product in 1990 to 21.9% of the GDP in 2005. According to the institute, institutional consolidation of the framework of social laws in Brazil would be an important step towards maintaining, in coming years, the fight against poverty and inequality in the country.

"It is important that a new law be passed regulating social responsibility and commitment, with goals, funds and coordination, so that Brazil may achieve social indicators similar to those seen in developed countries. All of that must take place with no backlashes in terms of participation of society in the formatting and control of public policies," states the document; the Brazilian federal government has implemented and expanded in the last years major subsidy programs, such as Bolsa Família and Fome Zero, for families deemed to be in need of assistance. Brazil has serious problems with crime. With 23.8 homicides per 100,000 residents, robberies and gang violence are common. Police brutality and corruption are widespread. In response, the Brazilian government established the National Public Security Force in June 2004 by the Ministry of Justice, to act in situations of emergency, in times of crisis. More than 800,000 people were murdered in Brazil between 1980 and 2004. There were a total of 63,880 murders in Brazil in 2018.

Public education in Brazil is free at all levels. Primary education is compulsory as per the article 208 of the Brazilian Constitution. Most primary schools are constitutionally maintained either by the states. Both entities are obliged to apply at least 25% of their budgets in education. Since economic disparities exist between states, richer states and cities have more money to deliver quality education, whereas in the poorer cities and States the education will be of lower standards. School non-attendance by absence and malnutrition is one of the biggest educational problems in Brazil. Work under the age of 16 is forbidden by law, however Brazil has many cases of child labor. Children from large poor families start working from the age of 10 in order to help their parents, despite the law of compulsory education between the ages of 10 and 14. Other reasons for school non-attendance are the lack of sufficient