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A sneeze, or sternutation, is a semi-autonomous, convulsive expulsion of air from the lungs through the nose and mouth caused by foreign particles irritating the nasal mucosa. A sneeze expels air forcibly from the mouth and nose in an explosive, spasmodic involuntary action resulting chiefly from irritation of the nasal mucous membrane; this action allows for mucus to escape through the nasal cavity. Sneezing is linked to sudden exposure to bright light, sudden change in temperature, breeze of cold air, a full stomach, or viral infection, can lead to the spread of disease. Chronic sneezing can follow the use of local anaesthetic to the sinuses such as following optical or dental surgery, as the return of sensation to the lining of the sinuses gets mistaken by the brain as particulate matter; the function of sneezing is to expel mucus containing foreign particles or irritants and cleanse the nasal cavity. During a sneeze, the soft palate and palatine uvula depress while the back of the tongue elevates to close the passage to the mouth so that air ejected from the lungs may be expelled through the nose.

Because the closing of the mouth is partial, a considerable amount of this air is also expelled from the mouth. The force and extent of the expulsion of the air through the nose varies. Sneezing cannot occur during sleep due to REM atonia – a bodily state where motor neurons are not stimulated and reflex signals are not relayed to the brain. Sufficient external stimulants, may cause a person to wake from sleep to sneeze, but any sneezing occurring afterwards would take place with a awake status at minimum. Sneezing occurs when foreign particles or sufficient external stimulants pass through the nasal hairs to reach the nasal mucosa; this triggers the release of histamines, which irritate the nerve cells in the nose, resulting in signals being sent to the brain to initiate the sneeze through the trigeminal nerve network. The brain relates this initial signal, activates the pharyngeal and tracheal muscles and creates a large opening of the nasal and oral cavities, resulting in a powerful release of air and bioparticles.

The powerful nature of a sneeze is attributed to its involvement of numerous organs of the upper body – it is a reflexive response involving the face and chest muscles. Sneezing is triggered by sinus nerve stimulation caused by nasal congestion and allergies; the neural regions involved in the sneeze reflex are located in the brainstem along the ventromedial part of the spinal trigeminal nucleus and the adjacent pontine-medullary lateral reticular formation. This region appears to control the epipharyngeal, intrinsic laryngeal and respiratory muscles, the combined activity of these muscles serve as the basis for the generation of a sneeze; the sneeze reflex involves contraction of a number of different muscles and muscle groups throughout the body including the eyelids. The common suggestion that it is impossible to sneeze with one's eyes open is, inaccurate. Other than irritating foreign particles, allergies or possible illness, another stimulus is sudden exposure to bright light – a condition known as photic sneeze reflex.

Walking out of a dark building into sunshine may trigger PSR, or the ACHOO syndrome as it's called. The tendency to sneeze upon exposure to bright light is an autosomal dominant trait and affects 18-35% of the human population. A rarer trigger, observed in some individuals, is the fullness of the stomach after a large meal; this is known as snatiation and is regarded as a medical disorder passed along genetically as an autosomal dominant trait. While harmless in healthy individuals, sneezes spread disease through the infectious aerosol droplets ranging from 0.5 to 5 µm. A sneeze can produce 40,000 droplets. To reduce the possibility of thus spreading disease, one holds the forearm, the inside of the elbow, a tissue or a handkerchief in front of one's mouth and nose when sneezing. Using one's hand for that purpose has fallen into disuse as it is considered inappropriate, since it promotes spreading germs through human contact or by touched objects. Examples of preventive techniques are: the deep exhalation of the air in the lungs that would otherwise be used in the act of sneezing, holding the breath in while counting to ten or pinching the bridge of the nose for several seconds.

Tilting the head backwards can stop a sneeze. Proven methods to reduce sneezing advocate reducing interaction with irritants, such as keeping pets out of the house to avoid animal dander; some people, find sneezes to be pleasurable and would not want to prevent them. In Ancient Greece, sneezes were believed to be prophetic signs from the gods. In 401 BC, for instance, the Athenian general Xenophon gave a speech exhorting his fellow soldiers to fight against the Persians. A soldier underscored his conclusion with a sneeze. Thinking that this sneeze was a favorable sign from the gods, the soldiers were impressed. Another divine moment of sneezing for the Greeks occurs in the story of Odysseus, his waiting wife Penelope, hearing Odysseus may be alive, says that he and his son would take revenge on the suitors if he were to return. At that moment, their son sneezes loudly and Penelope laughs with joy, reassured that it is a sign from the gods, it may be because th

Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Sheringal

Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University is a public university, established in 2009 with a presidential order. It is located at Sheringal in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan; the University was established by upgrading the sub-campus and phytochemistry laboratories of University of malakand. Dr. Farzana Perveen is the first woman in the history in Upper Dir, who served as a controller of examination and chairperson of department of zoology; this university was established in the result of promise and commitment done by the MNA of that time Malak Najmuddin Khan. The university provides degrees in various subjects including pharmacy, geology and many more. In 2001, University of Malakand was opened at Lower Dir district, but sensing the need of the people of Dir upper, the Governor of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, issued directives for the establishment of Campus-II of Malakand University at Sheringal on October 3, 2002. His Excellency General Syed Iftikhar Hussain Shah formally inaugurated the campus-II to enable the people to get better education at their doorstep.

Sheringal Campus became a full-fledged University "Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University" on 6 October 2009, under the Regulation 2009, recommended by his Excellencies, the Governor Khyber PakhtunKhwa and approved by the President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The university is located in Sheringal, administrative headquarter and business hub of the lush green valley of Dir Kohistan, on the bank of Panjkora river at a distance of about 35 km from Dir city and 25 km from the Chukiyatan bridge. University of Malakand Abdul Wali Khan University Swat University Kohat University of Science and Technology Official website

Hidden Lake Academy

Hidden Lake Academy was a therapeutic boarding school in Dahlonega, United States, in operation from 1994 until 2011. In 2006, HLA was the subject of legal action over accreditation, the school filed bankruptcy in 2009, shut down in 2011; the school was founded in 1994 by Dr. Leonard Buccelatto in Georgia, it was intended to "fill the need for a specialty school to fill the gap between services of residential treatment centers and traditional boarding schools."In January 2009, after the bankruptcy hearing, a new branch was started under the name Creekside Wilderness Academy. It shared the same address and facilities with Hidden Lake Academy. On July 2011, the school closed. New students had struggled with homework, anger management, or various addictions; some students were from outside the United States. The student population ranged from about 15 to 200. Hidden Lake Academy was accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, the Southern Association of Independent Schools, the Georgia Accreditation Commission.

The staff recommended that most of the students attend small colleges or boarding schools, although a few attended larger universities or went back to ordinary high schools, against the school's recommendations. Books were screened, students were not allowed to possess any literature containing sex or drug references/pictures. Magazines and journals were screened, any inappropriate articles were cut out to allow the student to have reading material without negative influences. Incoming and outgoing mail were no longer screened by staff, but some letters were not permitted if they were from friends; the school did not always let students know. Peer groups, the school's method of group therapy, started with about ten students and one counselor. Students were expected to stay for 13 -- 15 months. During that time the students received an education tailored for those with learning differences and/or disabilities, which included group therapy. Like other behavioral modification institutions dedicated to improving behaviors, Hidden Lake Academy put students through different developmental tracks.

On September 11, 2006 three plaintiffs filed a petition for a federal class action lawsuit against HLA and Len Buccellato on behalf of parents of students who attended the school since January 1, 2000. The case was Jill Ryan, Ron Ryan, Doff Meyer, Robin Brecker, on behalf of others situated vs. Hidden Lake Academy, Inc; the plaintiffs were clients of Berger & Montague and were represented by Gorby and Peters. The plaintiffs charged that Hidden Lake Academy "employed a number of uncertified teachers and unqualified counseling staff. Len Buccellato responded with a letter to parents and consultants stating that "the feelings of the staff at the meetings we have had have ranged from pain as deep as mine to absolute rage that anyone could say those things in light of the countless numbers of students and families we have worked with whose lives have been put back on a positive and productive track... we have been advised by counsel not to comment on the specific allegations at this point and to allow our attorneys respond to the allegations in due course."

Matt Aiken, a former staff member at HLA, wrote a front-page article about the lawsuit in the local newspaper, The Dahlonega Nugget. Various letters to the editor were published. Diane Stephenson, a laywoman involved in the local Unitarian Universalist Church, wrote of Hidden Lake Academy's various contributions to the local community. Reverend Barry Bailey, who visits the school to teach students about local Indian beliefs, wrote a letter saying "When those lawyers made their blistering attack they conveniently forgot that Hidden Lake is a last chance boarding academy that offers objectively-defined teenagers an alternative to prison; such a school is inherent with risks and the possibility of violence and retaliation."Headmaster Charles Cates responded to the article, saying that Hidden Lake Academy was "considered the premier institute in this area and has a high success rate... relies on erroneous information provided by disgruntled ex-employees." Clarke Poole sent a letter to the editor.

Poole was once the Senior Admissions Coordinator at HLA. Though he is not a psychotherapist, he became concerned about the admission of students whom he felt to be dangerous and voiced his concerns to his colleagues, he felt that his "concerns were dismissed and I was admonished for raising them. In February 2006, when I was denied a meeting with school management to address issues of grave concern related to the safety of students, it was ethically incumbent upon me to resign." In his letter to the Nugget, besides outlining his record of involvement with the school, he attempted to dispel rumors that he was the Admissions Director and that he was involved with the lawsuit. Hidden Lake Academy replied to the lawsuit, requesting that it be dismiss

South Mount Hawkins

South Mount Hawkins is located in the San Gabriel Mountains, contained within the Angeles National Forest. The mountain was named after Nellie Hawkins, a popular waitress of the Squirrel Inn located on the North Fork of the San Gabriel River. Although the Squirrel Inn is long gone, Nellie has her name on Mount Hawkins and South Mount Hawkins. There are two ridge bumps between the two named summits and they are unofficially known as "Middle Hawkins" and "Sadie Hawkins". For 67 years a fire lookout tower stood on the summit of South Mount Hawkins It was built in 1935, it was one of the only all-wooden towers in Southern California. The tower was destroyed in the Curve Fire on September 1, 2002; the Forest Service has abandoned the 7-mile long dirt road which goes from the Deer Flats Group Campground located within the Crystal Lake Recreation Area all the way to the concrete platform upon which the fire watch tower used to stand. The road is only maintained on a needed basis such as a fire or access to the forest service repeater.

Hikers and bicycle riders still find the road passable to the top of South Mount Hawkins however there are washouts along the way and it is strewn with rocks and boulders, making the Deer Flat route up to the mountain difficult. The other access route for hikers but not bicycle riders to reach South Mount Hawkins is the Pacific Crest Trail segment which leads from Windy Gap Trail down the Hawkins Ridge Trail to the peak

Arthur Drews

Christian Heinrich Arthur Drews was a German writer, historian and important representative of German monist thought. He was born in Holstein, in present-day Germany. Drews became a professor of philosophy and German language at the Technische Hochschule in Karlsruhe. During his career he wrote on the histories of philosophy and mythology, he was a disciple of Eduard von Hartmann who claimed that reality is the "unconscious World Spirit" expressed in history through religions and the formation of consciousness in the minds of philosophers. Drews provoked controversy, in part because of his unorthodox ideas on religion and in part because of his attacks on Nietzsche and passionate support of Wagner, he rose to international prominence with his book The Christ Myth, by amplifying and publicizing the thesis advanced by Bruno Bauer, which denies the historicity of Jesus. The international controversy provoked by the "Christ Myth" was an early part of Drews's lifelong advocacy of the abandonment of Judaism and Christianity, both of which he regarded as based on ancient beliefs from antiquity, shaped by religious dualism.

He urged a renewal of faith based on German Idealism. He asserted that true religion could not be reduced to a cult of personality if based on the worship of the "unique and great personality" of a historical Jesus, as claimed by Protestant liberal theologians, which he argued was nothing more than the adaptation of the Great Man Theory of history promoted by Romanticism of the 19th century. Drews was considered a dissenter. Many German academics didn't accept his "dilettantism". Drews was a reformer, stayed involved in religious activism all his life, he was, in his last few years, to witness and participate in an attempt by the Free Religion Movement to inspire a more liberal form of worship. This was his reason for parting with the German Faith Movement, a venture trying to promote an awakening of a German Faith, an unusual form of nationalistic and racist faith with Hindu overtones — far removed from the elitist German Idealism Drews expounded in his last book, The German Religion which he had hoped to see replace Christianity and what he considered its primitive superstitions.

Drews came back to the same subject in The Denial of the Historicity of Jesus in Past and Present, a historical review of some 35 major deniers of Jesus historicity, covering the period 1780–1926. During Drews's life, Germany was going through turbulent times, both politically and culturally. Friedrich Nietzsche had become a prominent cultural icon while Richard Wagner was a controversial personality. Nietzsche was a strong critic of Christianity and its morality, which he perceived as glorifying weakness and death. At first he was a friend and admirer of Wagner, but soon became a disgruntled critic, turning against his previous friend, he reproached Wagner for his conversion to anti-semitic Christianity and his glorification of medieval sagas and spiritual chastity as the sign of a decadent, dying culture. He posited that Wagner's "unending melody" only dramatizes theatrical posing and is hostile to the affirmation of vital Dionysian life forces. Nietzsche claimed that Wagner's art was closer to Italy's Roman Catholicism.

Nietzsche passionately critiqued Wagner's ideas, detailed in Nietzsche contra Wagner. Drews was a staunch supporter of Wagner and wrote many books and articles on Wagner's religious and nationalistic ideas, which are still considered by some scholars to be important works on the subject, he embarked on a critique of Nietzsche, a lifelong critic of Christianity and Christian morality. Drews reproached Nietzsche for being an apostle of unbridled individualism — a stance which put Drews in an awkward position in the German establishment, his criticisms were never well received by academics nor by German society as a whole, since Nietzsche had become a national figure. In 1904, Drews gave a critical lecture in Münich on the philosophy of Nietzsche, Nietzsches Philosophie. " is not aiming at bypassing morality as such, only the external morality which imposes its commandments to the individual, results in the decay and submission of the Self. He would like to counter this old morality enemy of the Self with a new morality springing from the individual will and in conformity with his nature."

Drews continued with his philosophical critique of Nietzsche in Nietzsche als Antipode Wagners, 1919. His 1931 book on Wagner came out with a supplement on Nietzsche and Wagner, for which Bernhard Hoffers asserted that many of Drews' views borrowed by the standard scholarship on Wagner without giving him credit. Drews delivered his last public critique of Nietzsche in his article Nietzsche als Philosoph des Nationalsozialismus? in the journal Nordische Stimmen No. 4. There Drews again attacked Nietzsche on philosophical grounds, in direct opposition to the Nazi effort to enlist Nietzsche in its propaganda, unconcerned about potential consequences. Wolfang Müller-Lauter, in Experiences with Nietzsche, quotes Drews: One finds in Nietzsche neither national sympathy nor social awareness. Nietzsche is, on the contrary, after his break with Richard Wagner, an enemy of everything German, he is an individualist, with no notion of “the Nationa

Exit (game show)

Exit was an American game show on Syfy that premiered on June 4, 2013. Based on the Japanese series Dero!, Exit features four teams of two contestants who compete to escape four rooms that each hold a different challenge. Teams must win the brain games and puzzles before time runs out with the grand prize being $10,000 cash; the show pretends that losers suffer "lethal" consequences. Beam Room − Contestants stand on 6 ft planks of metal over a bottomless pit, they must solve a series of visual puzzles word puzzles but celebrity face combinations, as the plank recedes 1 in per second. The first team to see the puzzle is permitted 20 seconds to give the correct answer before the puzzle passes to the next team in line; the first team to fall as the plank recedes is eliminated. So far, this room is the only room to appear in every episode. Freeze Blaster −. Teams work to match various things with extra options. If a set of questions is not correct, a blast of cold carbon dioxide hits the team. After solving three of these puzzles, they gain a keypad code that unlocks a box containing wire cutters which must be used to cut the wire and deactivate the Freeze Blaster.

The losing team will be "frozen solid." Shredder Room − This room is played with either three teams remaining. The teams are in identical confined spaces, they must answer seven clues from a series of letters to move past a barrier. A "shredder" advances on them as they complete the puzzles, the first one or two teams to finish must go through a door to exit safely, while the remaining team is "shredded". Mineshaft −. A simple algorithm designates; the first team receives a clue as to what person, place or thing is being described and are allowed five seconds to answer. If they get it wrong or fail to provide an answer, they sink deeper into quicksand; the other team gets five seconds to answer. If neither team gives the correct answer after five clues, the answer is revealed and a new clue will be given. A team is eliminated when they are submerged in quicksand. Wall Room −. Teams are locked to a wall in identical rooms with their faces placed so that they can see a computer monitor, they must answer five questions about comparisons against each other.

Team members cannot speak to each other, each partner must answer with the correct answer for the answer to count. After answering five questions, one member of the team is released from the wall and must receive a key to unlock the door as the wall closes in on them. Once this is completed the other team member must retrieve the 2nd key and leave the room. First team to complete this wins while the person on the other team who has not retrieved a plasma key is "flattened" Cabin in the Woods − This was one of the two Final Game Rooms played by the remaining team for the cash prize; the remaining team has ten minutes to complete all parts of the room, which must be done in a specific order and skipping ahead is not allowed, as the ceiling comes down. First, a series of items must be placed in a specific order. Second, the team must put four logs in a fireplace to answer a question such as "shorter than Tom Cruise" or "younger than Larry King". After getting the set wrong once, they are told a hint, such as King's age.

Third, the teams must put a raccoon cap on "More" or "Less" after being given a statement for which the answer is a number. After answering five of these they must answer three pop culture questions to win; the Tank −. The remaining team has ten minutes to complete the games which must be done in a specific order and skipping ahead is not allowed as the room fills with water. First, things must be ordered properly. Second, the team must look at an underwater grid where words of colors are different colors than the word they are. Third, they must turn a lever to "Yes" or "B. S." after being given a statement. After answering five of these they must answer three pop culture questions to win. Melissa Camacho from Common Sense Media claimed that the show was more funny than scary and said anyone looking for a game show with an interesting twist will find it here. Official Page Exit on