A sniper is a marksman who operates to shoot people from a concealed position. Snipers have specialized training and are equipped with high-precision rifles and high-magnification optics, feed information back to their units or command headquarters. In addition to marksmanship and long range shooting, military snipers are trained in a variety of tactical techniques: detection and target range estimation methods, field craft, special reconnaissance and observation and target acquisition; the verb "to snipe" originated in the 1770s among soldiers in British India in reference to shooting snipes, considered an challenging game bird for hunters. The agent noun "sniper" appears by the 1820s; the term sniper was first attested in 1824 in the sense of the word "sharpshooter". A somewhat older term is "sharpshooter", a calque of 18th-century German Scharfschütze, in use in British newspapers as early as 1801. Different countries use different military doctrines regarding snipers in military units and tactics.

A sniper's primary function in modern warfare is to provide detailed surveillance from a concealed position and, if necessary, to reduce the enemy's combat ability by neutralizing high-value targets and in the process pinning down and demoralizing the enemy. Typical sniper missions include managing intelligence information they gather during reconnaissance, target acquisition and impact feedback for air strikes and artillery, assisting employed combat force with accurate fire support and counter-sniper tactics, killing enemy commanders, selecting targets of opportunity, destruction of military equipment, which tend to require use of anti-materiel rifles in the larger calibers such as the.50 BMG, like the Barrett M82, McMillan Tac-50, Denel NTW-20. Soviet- and Russian-derived military doctrines include squad-level snipers. Snipers have been demonstrated as useful by US and UK forces in the recent Iraq campaign in a fire support role to cover the movement of infantry in urban areas. Military snipers from the US, UK and other countries that adopt their military doctrine are deployed in two-man sniper teams consisting of a shooter and a spotter.

A common practice is for a spotter to take turns in order to avoid eye fatigue. In most recent combat operations occurring in large densely populated towns, such as Fallujah, two teams would be deployed together to increase their security and effectiveness in an urban environment. A sniper team would be armed with a long-range weapon and a rapid-firing shorter-ranged weapon in case of close quarter combat; the German doctrine of independent snipers and emphasis on concealment, developed during the Second World War, has been most influential on modern sniper tactics, is used throughout Western militaries. Sniper rifles are classified as crew-served. A sniper team consists of a combination of one or more shooters with force protection elements and support personnel: such as a spotter or a flanker. Within the Table of Organization and Equipment for both the United States Army and the U. S. Marine Corps, the operator of the weapon has an assistant trained to fulfill multiple roles, in addition to being sniper-qualified in the operation of the weapon.

The shooter fires the shot while the spotter assists in observation of targets, atmospheric conditions and handles ancillary tasks as immediate security of their location, communication with other parties. A flanker's task is to observe areas not visible to the sniper or spotter and assist with the team's perimeter and rear security, therefore flankers are armed with an assault rifle or battle rifle. Both spotter and flanker carry associated equipment; the spotter detects and assigns targets and watches for the results of the shot. Using a spotting scope or a rangefinder, the spotter will read the wind by using physical indicators and the mirage caused by the heat on the ground. In conjunction with the shooter, the spotter will make calculations for distance, angle shooting, mil dot related calculations, correction for atmospheric conditions and leads for moving targets, it is not unusual for the spotter to be equipped with a notepad and a laptop computer for performing these calculations. Law enforcement snipers called police snipers, military snipers differ in many ways, including their areas of operation and tactics.

A police sharpshooter is part of a police operation and takes part in short missions. Police forces deploy such sharpshooters in hostage scenarios; this differs from a military sniper. Sometimes as part of a SWAT team, police snipers are deployed alongside negotiators and an assault team trained for close quarters combat; as policemen, they are trained to shoot only as a last resort, when there is a direct threat to life. Police snipers operate at much shorter ranges than military snipers under 100 meters and sometimes less than 50 meters. Both types of snipers do make difficult shots under pressure, perform one-shot kills. Police units that are unequipped for tactical operations may rely on a specialized SWAT team, which may have a dedicated sniper; some police sniper operations begin with milit

Pongola, KwaZulu-Natal

Pongola is a town on the left bank of the Phongolo River, in a fertile valley on the N2, near the Lubombo Mountains, in the valleys of Zululand accessible to the Swaziland border posts. It was part of the Transvaal panhandle between the Phongolo and Swaziland until 1994, when it was transferred to KwaZulu-Natal, it is a tranquil subtropical environment. It has more than 50 km ² of subtropical fruit plantations surrounding it. During the Depression years of the 1930s, drastic irrigation systems were started in Pongola; the town thrived as a result of the canal system and a sugar mill, built. Today it is part of the uPhongolo Local Municipality. Pongolapoort Dam and Pongola Game Reserve is to the east, it is the only dam in South Africa. The uPhongolo Local Municipality is one of five local municipalities located within the area of the Zululand District Municipality; the municipality is governed by the ANC Council consisting of 22 Councillors and an Executive Committee and Hon. Cllr Winile Nhlabathi is the Mayor.

The administrative functions are performed by a team of managers. Among other schools, there are Langa High School. Dingukwazi High Currently led by principal Dr S. G Msane and Bambanani led by Principal Mr M.ntshangase are leading schools in pongola in terms of enrolment so as Matric pass rates Pongola is surrounded by hunting lodges and several have the Big Five. Some farms specialize in biltong hunting and others concentrate on trophy hunting. Richard Antoine Rouillard, born in the Phoenix district of Mauritius in 1873, was the driving force behind the agricultural and economic prosperity of the Louwsburg and Magut districts; the pioneering spirit which opened up the interior of South Africa came in a variety of guises. Pongola It is home to uPhongolo's oldest game farm. Pongola Tourism Pongola Game Reserve Statistics at Stats SA


StormEngineC is a 3D graphics library written in JavaScript and using several HTML5 features like WebGL, WebCL and WebSockets. It provides an easy way to load objects in OBJ and Collada format and add the physical simulation for them; the source code is hosted in GitHub. Real-time visualization of 3D scenes through WebGL Sun and spot lights Shadow mapping SSAO Load of objects on.obj format or Collada Physical system integrated through JigLib2 Keyframe animation Option for enable edit menus Multiplayer utilities using Node.js Path Tracing render using the WebCL Nokia Extension Render farm option for path tracing render using Node.js The basic source code for initializing a small scene in StormEngineC: StormEngineC comes from the author's intention to provide a means for displaying 3D scenes in the web browser and enable a physical system with gravity and collisions for objects easily. Written in Java and called StormEngineJ, Appearing the first public specification of WebGL, was ported to JavaScript since this brought benefits with respect other 3D visualization methods in a web browser.

For example, does not require additional plug-ins for the viewing. The first version of the library was published on Google Code in February 2011. At the moment, has not been offered a stable version for this. From version 1.2 was introduced a rendering system based on path tracing with the option able to be used as render farm, some facilities for starting up a game server using Node.js. WebGL WebCL WebSocket Official site Repository API Reference Quick reference StormEngineC Demos Learning WebGL WebGL libraries