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Snow comprises individual ice crystals that grow while suspended in the atmosphere—usually within clouds—and fall, accumulating on the ground where they undergo further changes. It consists of frozen crystalline water throughout its life cycle, starting when, under suitable conditions, the ice crystals form in the atmosphere, increase to millimeter size and accumulate on surfaces metamorphose in place, melt, slide or sublimate away. Snowstorms develop by feeding on sources of atmospheric moisture and cold air. Snowflakes nucleate around particles in the atmosphere by attracting supercooled water droplets, which freeze in hexagonal-shaped crystals. Snowflakes take on a variety of shapes, basic among these are platelets, needles and rime; as snow accumulates into a snowpack, it may blow into drifts. Over time, accumulated snow metamorphoses, by sintering and freeze-thaw. Where the climate is cold enough for year-to-year accumulation, a glacier may form. Otherwise, snow melts seasonally, causing runoff into streams and rivers and recharging groundwater.

Major snow-prone areas include the polar regions, the northernmost half of the Northern Hemisphere and mountainous regions worldwide with sufficient moisture and cold temperatures. In the Southern Hemisphere, snow is confined to mountainous areas, apart from Antarctica. Snow affects such human activities as transportation: creating the need for keeping roadways and windows clear. Snow affects ecosystems, as well, by providing an insulating layer during winter under which plants and animals are able to survive the cold. Snow develops in clouds; the physics of snow crystal development in clouds results from a complex set of variables that include moisture content and temperatures. The resulting shapes of the falling and fallen crystals can be classified into a number of basic shapes and combinations, thereof; some plate-like and stellar-shaped snowflakes can form under clear sky with a cold temperature inversion present. Snow clouds occur in the context of larger weather systems, the most important of, the low-pressure area, which incorporate warm and cold fronts as part of their circulation.

Two additional and locally productive sources of snow are lake-effect storms and elevation effects in mountains. Mid-latitude cyclones are low-pressure areas which are capable of producing anything from cloudiness and mild snow storms to heavy blizzards. During a hemisphere's fall and spring, the atmosphere over continents can be cold enough through the depth of the troposphere to cause snowfall. In the Northern Hemisphere, the northern side of the low-pressure area produces the most snow. For the southern mid-latitudes, the side of a cyclone that produces the most snow is the southern side. A cold front, the leading edge of a cooler mass of air, can produce frontal snowsqualls—an intense frontal convective line, when temperature is near freezing at the surface; the strong convection that develops has enough moisture to produce whiteout conditions at places which line passes over as the wind causes intense blowing snow. This type of snowsquall lasts less than 30 minutes at any point along its path but the motion of the line can cover large distances.

Frontal squalls may form a short distance ahead of the surface cold front or behind the cold front where there may be a deepening low-pressure system or a series of trough lines which act similar to a traditional cold frontal passage. In situations where squalls develop post-frontally it is not unusual to have two or three linear squall bands pass in rapid succession only separated by 25 miles with each passing the same point in 30 minutes apart. In cases where there is a large amount of vertical growth and mixing the squall may develop embedded cumulonimbus clouds resulting in lightning and thunder, dubbed thundersnow. A warm front can produce snow for a period, as warm, moist air overrides below-freezing air and creates precipitation at the boundary. Snow transitions to rain in the warm sector behind the front. Lake-effect snow is produced during cooler atmospheric conditions when a cold air mass moves across long expanses of warmer lake water, warming the lower layer of air which picks up water vapor from the lake, rises up through the colder air above, freezes and is deposited on the leeward shores.

The same effect occurs over bodies of salt water, when it is termed ocean-effect or bay-effect snow. The effect is enhanced when the moving air mass is uplifted by the orographic influence of higher elevations on the downwind shores; this uplifting can produce narrow but intense bands of precipitation, which deposit at a rate of many inches of snow each hour resulting in a large amount of total snowfall. The areas affected by lake-effect snow are called snowbelts; these include areas east of the Great Lakes, the west coasts of northern Japan, the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia, areas near the Great Salt Lake, Black Sea, Caspian Sea, Baltic Sea, parts of the northern Atlantic Ocean. Orographic or relief snowfall is caused when masses of air pushed by wind are forced up the side of elevated land formations, such as large mountains; the lifting of air up the side of a mountain or range results in adiabatic cooling, condensation and precipitation. Moisture is removed by orographic lift, leaving drier, warmer air on the leeward side.

The resulting enhanced productivity of snow fall and the decrease i


Gulzar-e-Hijri is one of the neighbourhoods of Gulshan-e-Iqbal Town in Karachi, Pakistan. Among several ethnic groups in Gulzar-e-Hijri are Muhajirs, Sindhis, Bohras and Pathans; the population is not estimated. Around 40% of the total area is developed and the remaining 60% is still developing or underdeveloped. Under the new local government system, Gulzar-e-Hijri lies in the District East. A large part of Gulzar e Hijri is along the Karachi - Hyderabad Motorway. Dow University of Health Sciences - Ojha Campus Karachi Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Memon Medical Institute and Hospital Ojha Institute of Chest Diseases khwaja greeb nwaz hospital Govt. Degree Boys College Gulzar-e-Hijri Govt. Girls Degree College Dow College of Pharmacy Dow International Medical College Sohrab Goth Police Station Sachal Police Station There are not so many parks and playgrounds in the locality of Gulzar e Hijri. Only few parks exist that too with not good standards. Few of the parks are: Metro Park Jawed Park Model Park Scount Training Park A1 Park Gulshan-e-Iqbal Town Zeenatabad Society Teachers Cooperative Housing Society 19/A Delhi Mercantile Society Gulshan-e-Iqbal I Gulshan-e-Iqbal II Sharfabad Society Gulistan-e-Jauhar Jamali Colony Memon Nagar Metroville Colony Pehlwan Goth Safoorah Goth Sadaf Society Gwalior Cooperative Housing Society Sindh Baloch Cooperative Housing Society Quetta Town Cooperative Housing Society Karachi Website.

Gulberg Town

United States Civil Service Commission v. National Ass'n of Letter Carriers

United States Civil Service Commission v. National Association of Letter Carriers, 413 U. S. 548, is a ruling by the United States Supreme Court which held that the Hatch Act of 1939 does not violate the First Amendment, its implementing regulations are not unconstitutionally vague and overbroad. In 1939, the United States Congress passed the Hatch Act, which barred federal employees from taking part in political campaigns. In United Public Workers v. Mitchell, 330 U. S. 75, the U. S. Supreme Court had held that the Act did not violate the First, Ninth, or Tenth amendments to U. S. Constitution; the same day, in Oklahoma v. United States Civil Service Commission, 330 U. S. 127, the Court rejected a similar Tenth Amendment challenge to the Act. In 1971, six federal employees, the National Association of Letter Carriers, six local Democratic and Republican political committees sought an injunction against the enforcement of the Hatch Act on the grounds that the law violated their First Amendment rights and was unconstitutionally vague.

The United States District Court for the District of Columbia ruled that United Public Workers v. Mitchell had left the constitutionality of the term "political activity" open to question; the District Court found that the term was impermissibly vague and overbroad. The District Court argued that if United Public Workers had foreclosed any discussion of the constitutionality of the term, subsequent Supreme Court decisions regarding the rights of federal workers had undermined the decision and left the door open for the District Court to re-examine the Act's constitutionality; the federal government appealed to the U. S. Supreme Court, which granted certiorari. Associate Justice Byron White wrote the decision for the majority. Justice White began by noting that while the plaintiffs in United Public Workers had only made vague assertions of the kind of political activity they wished to engage in, the plaintiffs in the present case had outlined the activities they believed were unconstitutionally barred by the Hatch Act.

White "unhesitatingly reaffirm the Mitchell holding". White reviewed the lengthy history in the U. S. of barring political activity by federal workers, a practice which extended to the presidency of Thomas Jefferson, emphasized the considered and lengthy history of the conclusion that such activity was dangerous to the proper functioning of government and democracy. But, citing Pickering v. Board of Education, 391 U. S. 563, 568, White noted that the government has a special and unique interest in regulating the speech of federal workers. This special interest is not in question. Calling "the impartial execution of the laws" the "great end of Government", White asserted that not only is the actual impartiality of government but its appearance both justify the infringement of the rights of federal workers. White next turned to the issue of vagueness. White reviewed the adoption of the 1939 Act, the rulemaking of the United States Civil Service Commission between 1939 and 1940, the adoption by Congress of amendments to the Hatch Act in 1940 which limited the Civil Service Commission's rulemaking powers regarding the Act but which incorporated the rules promulgated by the Commission.

White concluded that these "prohibitions sufficiently carve out the prohibited political conduct from the expressive activity permitted by the prior section to survive any attack on the ground of vagueness". The judgment of the District Court was reversed. Associate Justice William O. Douglas dissented, joined by Associate Justices William J. Brennan, Jr. and Thurgood Marshall. Douglas rejected the majority's conclusion that the Hatch Act of 1939 was constitutionally not vague, he noted that more than 3,000 rulings of the Civil Service Commission had been made between the first adoption of the prohibition on political activity in 1886 and 1940, along with 800 decisions since then. The sheer mass of decisions indicated, but Douglas noted that many of the decisions and rulings were themselves unclear and vague. "The chilling effect of these vague and generalized prohibitions," Douglas concluded, "is so obvious as not to need elaboration."Douglas observed that the Supreme Court had abandoned the "doctrine of privilege" defense for the Hatch Act, had only in 1972 held "that Government employment may not be denied or penalized "on a basis that infringes constitutionally protected interests -- his interest in freedom of speech."

Douglas equated freedom of speech with freedom of religion, concluded that "speech and petition are as embedded in the First Amendment as proselytizing a religious cause." If the Court would not condition public employment based on a religious test, it should not therefore base employment on a political test. Douglas agreed with the District Court that a number of Supreme Court decisions since United Public Workers had called into question the Hatch Act's constitutionality. For Douglas, the majority's long discussion of the 1940 amendments boiled down to one thing: Congress had refused to delegate to the Civil Service Commission the authority to regulate First Amendment rights, this fatally left the Act uninterpreted and thus unconstitutionally vague. Douglas would have struck down the Act as "self-imposed censorship imposed on many nervous people who live on narrow economic margins." In the 19th century, American courts had established the "doctrine of privilege." This legal doctrin

2018–19 Estonian Cup

The 2018–19 Estonian Cup was the 29th season of the Estonian main domestic football knockout tournament. Narva Trans won their second title after defeating Nõmme Kalju in the final and qualified for the first qualifying round of the UEFA Europa League; the draw was made by Estonian Football Association on 19 May 2018. League level of the club in the brackets. Rahvaliiga RL is a league organized by Estonian Football Association, but not part of the main league system; these teams were not drawn and secured a place in the second round without playing: Meistriliiga: JK Narva Trans, Nõmme Kalju FC, JK Tallinna Kalev, Paide Linnameeskond Esiliiga: Rakvere JK Tarvas, FC Flora U21, Tartu FC Santos, FC Elva, Tartu JK Welco Esiliiga B: FC Flora U19, FC Nõmme United II Liiga: Raasiku FC Joker, JK Sillamäe Kalev, Tallinna JK Piraaja, Jõgeva SK Noorus-96, Maardu United, Viimsi JK, FC Otepää, Pärnu JK Poseidon, Kohtla-Järve JK Järve II III Liiga: Tallinna FC Zapoos, FC Zenit Tallinn, Nõmme Kalju FC III, Tallinna FC Eston Villa, FC Vastseliina, Tartu FC Helios, Tallinna JK Augur, FC Järva-Jaani, FC Kose, JK Kernu Kadakas IV Liiga: Tallinna Depoo, Tallinna JK Jalgpallihaigla, FC Lelle, Tartu FC Helios II, FC Äksi Wolves Rahvaliiga: FC Teleios, FC Maksatransport The draw for the second round was made on 19 June 2018.

The draw for the third round was made on 19 July 2018. The draw for the fourth round was made on 24 August 2018; the draw for the fourth round was made on 2 March 2019. Maardu Linnameeskond and JK Tabasalu advanced a league level between 2019 league seasons; the draw was made on 25 April 2019. Final was played on 25 May 2019 at A. Le Coq Arena. 2018 Meistriliiga 2018 Esiliiga 2018 Esiliiga B Official website

Jaskinia Wielka Śnieżna

Jaskinia Wielka Śnieżna is a limestone cave system in Mount Małołączniak in the Western Tatra Mountains, of the Carpathian Mountains System, in southern Poland. The cave is within Tatra National Park. With the length of 23.723 kilometres, vertical range of 824 metres, it is the longest and deepest cave in Poland. Wielka Śnieżna has five entrances: Jaskinia Śnieżna – 1,701 metres – discovered in 1959 Jaskinia nad Kotlinami – 1,875 metres – discovered in 1966, connected to Śnieżna in 1968 Jasny Awen – 1,852 metres – first explored in 1959, connected to Wielka Śnieżna in 1978 Jaskinia Wielka Litworowa – 1,906 metres – connected to Wielka Śnieżna in 1995 Jaskinia Wilcza – 1,672 metres – discovered in 1996, connected to Wielka Śnieżna in 1999They are connected by a complicated system of shafts and passages. Several of them contain underground trickles, pools, or siphons; the cave is drained by a karst spring known as Lodowe Źródło. Jaskinia Śnieżna was discovered in 1959 by cavers from Zakopane. In 1960, it was explored to a depth of 545 m, which made it, at that time, the fourth-deepest cave in the world.

In the subsequent years, the cave was intensively connected with other caves. Exploration in the 1960s bottomed out at a sump or siphon, a U-shaped tunnel filled with water, at a depth of 752 m. In 1972, cavers using scuba diving gear were able to push past the sump for the first time, their exploration pushed down to a depth of 783 m. Subsequent efforts have found the cave to be 824 m deep. Exploration of the cave is still ongoing, including attempts to connect the cave to Śnieżna Studnia, second-largest cave in Poland. Caves of Poland Tatra Mountains Jaskinia Wielka Śnieżna – with a map

Anníe Mist Þórisdóttir

Anníe Mist Þórisdóttir is a professional CrossFit athlete from Reykjavík, Iceland. She is the co-owner of Crossfit Reykjavik, where she coaches and trains. Anníe is the first woman to win the CrossFit Games twice, she placed second in the 2014 CrossFit Games. She did not compete in 2013 due to injury, dropped out of the 2015 CrossFit Games early due to heat stroke. Anníe trains four hours per day, six days per week, has experience as a gymnast, ballet dancer, pole vaulter, she is 170 cm tall, weighs 67 kg, hopes to go into the medical field. Anníe first appeared in the sport of CrossFit in July 2009, when she travelled from Reykjavik to Aromas, California to compete at the third annual CrossFit Games, she had only a month of CrossFit experience. Anníe finished five of the eight events within the top 10, including an event win on the Sandbag Sprint and fourth-place finishes on the Sledge Hammer Drive and the Triplet. On the final day of competition, an event called "The Chipper" was announced that included ring muscle-ups.

With no exposure to this men's gymnastics movement, Anníe attempted to learn the movement before going out on the competition floor with the help of coaches and fellow athletes to no avail. On the competition floor, Anníe completed the 15 cleans, 30 toes-to-bar, 30 box jumps before reaching the 15 muscle-ups, she attempted the muscle-up many times unsuccessfully before getting one rep in front of the cheering crowds. She earned a DNF on the event, dropped in the overall standings to 11th, but made herself known as a contender for the title of "Fittest on Earth." In 2010, the Games had moved from Aromas, California, to the Home Depot Center in Carson, California. After the 2010 Europe Regional, she picked up a coach, Jami Tikkanen, worked on competition strategy; the 2010 Games went down as a competition between Kristan Anníe. Clever accumulated five event wins and three 2nd-place finishes to Anníe's four event wins, one 2nd, one third. Anníe could now do muscle-ups, important since that skill/strength was tested in the opening event, "Amanda", where she took 12th with a time of 12:07.

Once again, Anníe excelled at grunt work with sandbags winning the "Sandbag Move," and won other events such as "Pyramid Double Helen," "Deadlift/Pistol/Double-under," and "Wall Burpee/Rope Climb." She finished the Games in second place behind Clever. In 2011, Anníe was dominant, she won every stage of the CrossFit Games season beginning with the inaugural worldwide Open, continuing through the Europe Regional and the Games. Anníe surpassed 2010 Games champion Kristan Clever by a margin of 43 points thanks to top 5 finishes on 8 of the 10 events, including three event wins and four third-place finishes. Anníe shared the podium with Rebecca Voigt. In 2012, Anníe and Rich Froning Jr. became the first athletes to win the CrossFit Games twice. In 2013, Anníe was not able to defend her title due to a back injury sustained while too casually lifting heavy weight, she withdrew during the third week of the five-week Open. At the time, she said, she questioned whether she could walk again and spent the rest of the year recovering.

She entered the 2014 season notably less confident. In her first live competitive appearance since her injury, Open Announcement 14.5 in San Francisco, Anníe trailed far behind the other champions, Sam Briggs, Rich Froning, Jason Khalipa, Graham Holmberg, received the high-fives of her competitors at the end of the workout while shaking her head in apparent disappointment. Any athlete that thought there was blood in the water was proven wrong in the next two stages of the season, however. Anníe went on to win the 2014 Europe Regional, while 2013 Games champion Sam Briggs of England failed to qualify due to a poor performance on the max distance handstand walk. At the 2014 Games, Anníe had a slow start with event finishes in the teens and 20s, but as the weekend progressed Anníe appeared to have lost her hesitancy and guarding, as she bagged top 10 finishes including 1st - 2nd - 1st on the final three events. In 2015, she won the worldwide Open for a second time before taking a third at the new, combined Meridian Regional.

This was her lowest Regional finish to date, as the four-time Europe Regional champion. In the third event of the 2015 Games, Anníe got heat stroke, she decided to withdraw before the final three events on Sunday. So, two of the three women who finished on the podium, champion Katrin Davidsdottir and Sara Sigmundsdottir in third place, were Icelandic. *Withdrew Anníe placed first for women at the 2013 Dubai Fitness Competition, taking away more than Dh650,000 in prize money. Annie got on the podium Dubai Fitness Competition 2016 and came back in 2017 to take 1st place, she defeated NFL running back Justin Forsett in a push-up contest while returning from