Education in the United States
Education in the United States is provided in public and home schools. State governments set overall educational standards mandate standardized tests for K–12 public school systems and supervise through a board of regents, state colleges, universities. Funding comes from the state and federal government. Private schools are free to determine their own curriculum and staffing policies, with voluntary accreditation available through independent regional accreditation authorities, although some state regulation can apply. In 2013, about 87% of school-age children attended state funded public schools, about 10% attended tuition- and foundation-funded private schools, 3% were home-schooled. By state law, education is compulsory over an age range starting between five and eight and ending somewhere between ages sixteen and eighteen, depending on the state; this requirement can be satisfied in public schools, state-certified private schools, or an approved home school program. In most schools, compulsory education is divided into three levels: elementary school, middle or junior high school, high school.
Children are divided by age groups into grades, ranging from kindergarten and first grade for the youngest children, up to twelfth grade as the final year of high school. There are a large number and wide variety of publicly and administered institutions of higher education throughout the country. Post-secondary education, divided into college, as the first tertiary degree, graduate school, is described in a separate section below. Higher education includes elite private colleges like Harvard University, Stanford University, MIT, Caltech, large state flagship universities, private liberal arts schools, historically-black colleges and universities, community colleges, for-profit colleges like University of Phoenix. College enrollment rates in the United States have increased over the long term. At the same time, student loan debt has risen to $1.5 trillion. The United States spends more per student on education than any other country. In 2014, the Pearson/Economist Intelligence Unit rated US education as 14th best in the world.
In 2015, the Programme for International Student Assessment rated U. S. high school students No. 40 globally in No. 24 in Science and Reading. The President of the National Center on Education and the Economy said of the results "the United States cannot long operate a world-class economy if our workers are, as the OECD statistics show, among the worst-educated in the world". Former U. S. Education Secretary John B. King, Jr. acknowledged the results in conceding U. S. students were well behind their peers. According to a report published by the U. S. News & World Report, of the top ten colleges and universities in the world, eight are American; the US ranks 3rd from the bottom among OECD nations in terms of its' poverty gap, 4th from the bottom in terms of poverty rate. Jonathan Kozol has described these inequalities in K–12 education in Savage Inequalities and The Shame of a Nation: The Restoration of Apartheid Schooling in America. Colonial New England encouraged its towns to support free public schools funded by taxation.
In the early 19th century Massachusetts took the lead in education reform and public education with programs designed by Horace Mann that were emulated across the North. Teachers were specially trained in normal schools and taught the three Rs and history and geography. Public education was at the elementary level in most places. After the Civil War, the cities began building high schools; the South was far behind northern standards on every educational measure and gave weak support to its segregated all-black schools. However northern philanthropy and northern churches provided assistance to private black colleges across the South. Religious denominations across the country set up their private colleges. States opened state universities, but they were quite small until well into the 20th century. In 1823, the Reverend Samuel Read Hall founded the first normal school, the Columbian School in Concord, aimed at improving the quality of the burgeoning common school system by producing more qualified teachers.
In the mid-20th century, the increasing Catholic population led to the formation of parochial schools in the largest cities. Theologically oriented Episcopalian and Jewish bodies on a smaller scale set up their own parochial schools. There were debates over whether tax money could be used to support them, with the answer being no. From about 1876, thirty-nine states passed a constitutional amendment to their state constitutions, called Blaine Amendments after James G. Blaine, one of their chief promoters, forbidding the use of public tax money to fund local parochial schools. States passed laws to make schooling compulsory between 1852 and 1917, they used federal funding designated by the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Acts of 1862 and 1890 to set up land grant colleges specializing in agriculture and engineering. By 1870, every state had free elementary schools, albeit only in urban centers. According to a 2018 study in the Economic Journal, states were more to adopt compulsory education laws during the Age of Mass Migration if they hosted more European immigrants with lower exposure to civic values.
Following Reconstruction the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute was founded in 1881 as a state college, in Tuskegee, Alabama, to train "Colored Teachers," led by Booker T. Washington, himself a freed slave, his movement spread, leading
Manzanar is most known as the site of one of ten American concentration camps where over 110,000 Japanese Americans were incarcerated during World War II from December 1942 to 1945. Located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada in California's Owens Valley between the towns of Lone Pine to the south and Independence to the north, it is 230 miles north of Los Angeles. Manzanar was identified by the United States National Park Service as the best-preserved of the former camp sites, is now the Manzanar National Historic Site, which preserves and interprets the legacy of Japanese American incarceration in the United States. Long before the first incarcerees arrived in March 1942, Manzanar was home to Native Americans, who lived in villages near several creeks in the area. Ranchers and miners formally established the town of Manzanar in 1910, but abandoned the town by 1929 after the City of Los Angeles purchased the water rights to the entire area; as different as these groups were, their histories displayed a common thread of forced relocation.
Since the last incarcerees left in 1945, former incarcerees and others have worked to protect Manzanar and to establish it as a National Historic Site to ensure that the history of the site, along with the stories of those who were unjustly incarcerated there, are remembered by current and future generations. The primary focus is the Japanese American incarceration era, as specified in the legislation that created the Manzanar National Historic Site; the site interprets the former town of Manzanar, the ranch days, the settlement by the Owens Valley Paiute, the role that water played in shaping the history of the Owens Valley. Since the end of World War II, there has been debate over the terminology used to refer to Manzanar, the other camps in which Americans of Japanese ancestry and their immigrant parents, were incarcerated by the United States Government during the war. Manzanar has been referred to as a "War Relocation Center," "relocation camp," "relocation center," "internment camp," and "concentration camp," and the controversy over which term is the most accurate and appropriate continues to the present day.
Dr. James Hirabayashi, Professor Emeritus and former Dean of Ethnic Studies at San Francisco State University, wrote an article in 1994 in which he stated that he wonders why euphemistic terms used to describe camps such as Manzanar are still being used. Let us review the main points of the debate. Over 120,000 residents of the U. S. A. two thirds of whom were American citizens, were incarcerated under armed guard. There were no crimes committed, no trials, no convictions: the Japanese Americans were political incarcerees. To detain American citizens in a site under armed guard constitutes a "concentration camp." But what were the terms used by the government officials who were involved in the process and who had to justify these actions? Raymond Okamura provides us with a detailed list of terms. Let's consider three such euphemisms: "evacuation," "relocation," and "non-aliens." Earthquake and flood victims are relocated. The words refer to moving people in order to protect them from danger; the official government policy makers used "evacuation" to refer to the forced removal of the Japanese Americans and the sites were called "relocation centers."
These are euphemisms as the terms do not imply forced removal nor incarceration in enclosures patrolled by armed guards. The masking was intentional. Hirabayashi went on to describe the harm done by the use of such euphemisms and addressed the issue of whether or not only the Nazi camps can be called "concentration camps." The harm in continuing to use the government's euphemisms is that it disguises or softens the reality which subsequently has been recognized as a grave error. The actions abrogated some fundamental principles underlying the Constitution, the document under which we govern ourselves; this erosion of fundamental rights has consequences for all citizens of our society and we must see that it is never repeated. Some have argued that the Nazi Germany camps during the Holocaust were concentration camps and to refer to the Japanese American camps would be an affront to the Jews, it is true that the Japanese Americans did not suffer the harsh fate of the Jews in the terrible concentration camps or death camps where Nazi Germany practiced a policy of genocide.
Although the loss of life was minimal in America's concentration camps, it does not negate the reality of the unconstitutional incarceration of Japanese American citizens. Michi and Walter Weglyn's research concerning Nazi Germany's euphemisms for their concentration camps revealed such phrases as "protective custody camps," "reception centers," and "transit camps." Two Nazi euphemisms were identical to our government's usage: "assembly centers" and "relocation centers." It might be well to point out that the Nazis were not operating under the U. S. Constitution. Comparisons neglect to point out that Hitler was operating under the rules of the Third Reich. In America all three branches of the U. S. government, ostensibly operating under the U. S. Constitution, ignored the Bill of Rights in order to incarcerate Japanese Americans. In 1998, use of the term "concentration camps" gained greater credibility prior to the opening of an exhibit about the American camps at Ellis Island; the American Jewish Committee and the National Park Service, which manages Ellis Island, objected to the use of the term in the exhibit.
However, during a subsequent meeting held at the offices of the AJC in New York City, leaders representing
Anti-Japanese sentiment in the United States
Anti-Japanese sentiment in the United States has existed since the late 19th century, during the Yellow Peril. Anti-Japanese sentiment peaked during the Second World War and again in the 1970s-1980s with the rise of Japan as a major economic power. In the United States, anti-Japanese sentiment had its beginnings well before World War II. Racial prejudice against Asian immigrants began building soon after Chinese workers started arriving in the country in the mid-19th century, set the tone for the resistance Japanese would face in the decades to come. Although Chinese were recruited in the mining and railroad industries whites in Western states and territories came to view the immigrants as a source of economic competition and a threat to racial "purity" as their population increased. A network of anti-Chinese groups worked to pass laws that limited Asian immigrants' access to legal and economic equality with whites. Most important of these discriminatory laws was the exclusion of Asians from citizenship rights.
The Naturalization Act of 1870 revised the previous law, under which only white immigrants could become U. S. citizens. By designating Asians as permanent aliens, the law prohibited them from voting and serving on juries, combined with laws that prevented people of color from testifying against whites in court, made it impossible for Asian Americans to participate in the country's legal and political systems. Significant were alien land laws, which relied on coded language barring "aliens ineligible for citizenship" from owning land or real estate, in some cases from entering into a temporary lease, to discourage Asian immigrants from establishing homes and businesses in over a dozen states; these laws were detrimental to the newly arrived immigrants, since many of them were farmers and had little choice but to become migrant workers. After the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 stopped immigration from China, American labor recruiters began targeting Japanese workers, triggering a rapid increase in the country's Japanese population, which in turn triggered the movement to decrease their number and restrict their economic and political power.
Some cite the formation of the Asiatic Exclusion League as the start of the anti-Japanese movement in California, along with the Japanese American population, the exclusion movement was centered. Their efforts focused on ending Japanese immigration and, as with the previous anti-Chinese movement, nativist groups like the Asiatic Exclusion League lobbied to limit and with the Immigration Act of 1924, ban Japanese and other East Asians from entering the U. S. However, in the process they created an atmosphere of systematic hostility and discrimination that would contribute to the push to incarcerate 120,000 Japanese Americans during World War II. With its anti-Japanese organizations, state authorities and legislation, California may have been to the Japanese what the South was to blacks. California Farm Bureau California Joint Immigration Committee California State Grange Committee of One Thousand Japanese Exclusion League of California Native Sons and Daughters of the Golden West The California Alien Land Law of 1913 was created to prevent land ownership among Japanese citizens residing in the state of California.
In State of California v. Jukichi Harada, Judge Hugh H. Craig sided with the defendant and ruled that American children - who happened to be born to Japanese parents - had the right to own land. In 1942, with the Japanese incarcerated in ten American concentration camps, California Attorney General Earl Warren saw his chance and approved the state takeover of twenty parcels of land held in the name of American children of Japanese parents, in absentia. In 1943, Governor Warren signed a bill that expanded the Alien Land Law by denying the Japanese the opportunity to farm as they had before World War II. In 1945, he followed up by signing two bills that facilitated the seizure of land owned by American descendants of the Japanese. In State of California v. Oyama, the Supreme Court ruled that California's Alien Land Law was anti-Japanese in concept, deemed unfit to stand in America's law books. Justices Murphy and Rutledge wrote: This measure, though limited to agricultural lands, represented the first official act of discrimination aimed at the Japanese...
The immediate purpose, of course, was to restrict Japanese farm competition. The more basic purpose of the statute was to irritate the Japanese, to make economic life in California as uncomfortable and unprofitable for them as possible. Vigorous enforcement of the Alien Land Law has been but one of the cruel discriminatory actions which have marked this nation's treatment since 1941 of those residents who chanced to be of Japanese origin. Can a state disregard in this manner the historic ideal that those within the borders of this nation are not to be denied rights and privileges because they are of a particular race? I say, it took four years for California's Supreme Court to concede that the law was unconstitutional, in State of California v. Fujii. In 1956, California voters repealed the law. Anti-Japanese racism and Yellow Peril in California had become xenophobic after the Japanese victory over the Russian Empire in the Russo-Japanese War. On October 11, 1906, the San Francisco, California Board of Education had passed a regulation whereby children of Japanese descent would be required to attend racially segregated separate schools.
At the time, Japanese immigrants made up 1% of the population of California.
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Snow Falling on Cedars (film)
Snow Falling on Cedars is a 1999 film directed by Scott Hicks. It is based on David Guterson's novel of the same name, it was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Cinematography. Set on the fictional San Piedro Island in the northern Puget Sound region of the Washington state coast in 1950, the plot revolves around the murder case of Kabuo Miyamoto, a Japanese American accused of killing Carl Heine, a White fisherman; the trial occurs in the midst of deep anti-Japanese sentiments following World War II. Covering the case is the editor of the town's one-man newspaper, Ishmael Chambers, a World War II veteran who lost an arm fighting the Japanese in the Pacific War. Ishmael struggles with his childhood, continuing, love for Kabuo's wife and his conscience, wondering if Kabuo is innocent. Spearheading the prosecution are the town's sheriff, Art Moran, prosecutor, Alvin Hooks. Leading the defense is the old, experienced attorney Nels Gudmundsson. An underlying theme throughout the trial is prejudice.
Several witnesses, including Etta Heine, Carl's mother, accuse Kabuo of murdering Carl for racial and personal reasons. This stance is not without irony, as Kabuo, experienced prejudice because of his ancestry, following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. By the same standard, Etta, a German American, could be blamed for Nazi war crimes. Involved in the trial is Ole Jurgensen, an elderly man who sold his strawberry field to Carl; the strawberry field is a contested issue during the trial. The land was owned by Carl Heine Sr; the Miyamotos lived in a house on the Heines' land and picked strawberries for Carl Sr. Kabuo and Carl Jr. were close friends as children. Kabuo's father, Zenhichi approached Carl Sr. about purchasing 7 acres of the farm. Though Etta opposed the sale, Carl Sr. agreed. The payments were to be made over a ten-year period. However, before the last payment was made, war erupted between the U. S. and Japan, all islanders of Japanese ancestry were forced to relocate to internment camps.
In 1944, Carl Sr. died and Etta sold the land to Ole. When Kabuo returned after the war, he was bitter toward Etta for reneging on the land sale; when Ole suffered a stroke and decided to sell the farm, he was approached by Carl Jr. hours before Kabuo arrived, to try to buy the land back. During the trial, the land is presented as the motivation behind Carl's murder. Ishmael's search of the maritime records reveals on the night that Carl Heine died a freighter had passed through the channel where Carl had been fishing at 1:42am, five minutes before his watch had stopped. Ishmael realises. Despite the bitterness he feels at Hatsue's rejection, Ishmael comes forward with the new information. Further evidence is collected in support of the conclusion that Carl had climbed the boat's mast to cut down a lantern, been knocked from the mast by the freighter's wake, hit his head fallen into the sea; the charges against Kabuo are dismissed. Hatsue thanks Ishmael by allowing him to hold her "one last time."
Scenes of Maine's Portland Head Light were filmed during the ice storm of 1998. Ethan Hawke as Ishmael Chambers Reeve Carney as Young Ishmael Chambers James Cromwell as Judge Fielding Richard Jenkins as Sheriff Art Moran James Rebhorn as Alvin Hooks Sam Shepard as Arthur Chambers Max von Sydow as Nels Gudmundsson Youki Kudoh as Hatsue Miyamoto Anne Suzuki as Young Hatsue Imada Rick Yune as Kabuo Miyamoto Seiji Inouye as Young Kabuo Miyamoto Celia Weston as Etta Heine Normand Lavallee as Parade boy #2 Cary-Hiroyuki Tagawa as Zenhichi Miyamoto Academy Awards Best Cinematography American Society of Cinematographers Outstanding Achievement in Cinematography in Theatrical Releases – Robert Richardson Chicago Film Critics Association Awards Best Cinematography – Robert Richardson Dallas-Fort Worth Film Critics Association Awards Best Cinematography – Robert Richardson Florida Film Critics Circle Awards Best Cinematography – Robert Richardson Golden Trailer Awards The Dark and Stormy Night Las Vegas Film Critics Society Awards Best Cinematography – Robert Richardson International Press Academy – Satellite Awards Best Film – Drama Best Actress, Drama – Youki Kudoh Best Director – Scott Hicks Best Cinematography Best Original Score Young Artist Awards Best Performance in a Feature Film, Supporting Young Actor – Reeve Carney YoungStar Award Best Young Actress/Performance in a Motion Picture Drama – Anne Suzuki Snow Falling on Cedars received mixed reviews, as it holds a 40% rating on Rotten Tomatoes from 91 critics.
Film critic Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times awarded the film 3 1/2 out of 4 stars and wrote that "Snow Falling on Cedars is a rich, multilayered film about a high school romance and a murder trial a decade later" and that it "reveals itself with the complexity of a novel, holding its themes up to the light so that first one and another aspect can be seen." Official website Snow Falling on Cedars on IMDb Snow Falling on Cedars at AllMovie Snow Falling on Cedars at Rotten Tomatoes Snow Falling on Cedars at Metacritic Snow Falling on Cedars at Box Office Mojo
Puget Sound is a sound along the northwestern coast of the U. S. state of Washington, an inlet of the Pacific Ocean, part of the Salish Sea. It is a complex estuarine system of interconnected marine waterways and basins, with one major and two minor connections to the open Pacific Ocean via the Strait of Juan de Fuca—Admiralty Inlet being the major connection and Deception Pass and Swinomish Channel being the minor. Water flow through Deception Pass is equal to 2% of the total tidal exchange between Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Puget Sound extends 100 miles from Deception Pass in the north to Olympia, Washington in the south, its average depth is 450 feet and its maximum depth, off Jefferson Point between Indianola and Kingston, is 930 feet. The depth of the main basin, between the southern tip of Whidbey Island and Tacoma, Washington, is 600 feet. In 2009, the term Salish Sea was established by the United States Board on Geographic Names as the collective waters of Puget Sound, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the Strait of Georgia.
Sometimes the terms "Puget Sound" and "Puget Sound and adjacent waters" are used for not only Puget Sound proper but for waters to the north, such as Bellingham Bay and the San Juan Islands region. The term "Puget Sound" is used not just for the body of water but the Puget Sound region centered on the sound. Major cities on the sound include Seattle, Tacoma and Everett, Washington. Puget Sound is the third largest estuary in the United States, after Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and Virginia, San Francisco Bay in northern California. In 1792 George Vancouver gave the name "Puget's Sound" to the waters south of the Tacoma Narrows, in honor of Peter Puget, a Huguenot lieutenant accompanying him on the Vancouver Expedition; this name came to be used for the waters north of Tacoma Narrows as well. A different term for Puget Sound, used by a number of Native Americans and environmental groups, is Whulge, an anglicization of the Lushootseed name x̌ʷə́lč, which means "sea, salt water, ocean, or sound".
The USGS defines Puget Sound as all the waters south of three entrances from the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The main entrance at Admiralty Inlet is defined as a line between Point Wilson on the Olympic Peninsula, Point Partridge on Whidbey Island; the second entrance is at Deception Pass along a line from West Point on Whidbey Island, to Deception Island to Rosario Head on Fidalgo Island. The third entrance is at the south end of the Swinomish Channel, which connects Skagit Bay and Padilla Bay. Under this definition, Puget Sound includes the waters of Hood Canal, Admiralty Inlet, Possession Sound, Saratoga Passage, others, it does not include Bellingham Bay, Padilla Bay, the waters of the San Juan Islands or anything farther north. Another definition, given by NOAA, subdivides Puget Sound into regions. Four of these correspond to areas within the USGS definition, but the fifth one, called "Northern Puget Sound" includes a large additional region, it is defined as bounded to the north by the international boundary with Canada, to the west by a line running north from the mouth of the Sekiu River on the Olympic Peninsula.
Under this definition significant parts of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Strait of Georgia are included in Puget Sound, with the international boundary marking an abrupt and hydrologically arbitrary limit. According to Arthur Kruckeberg, the term "Puget Sound" is sometimes used for waters north of Admiralty Inlet and Deception Pass for areas along the north coast of Washington and the San Juan Islands equivalent to NOAA's "Northern Puget Sound" subdivision described above. Kruckeberg uses the term "Puget Sound and adjacent waters". Continental ice sheets have advanced and retreated from the Puget Sound region; the most recent glacial period, called the Fraser Glaciation, stades. During the third, or Vashon Glaciation, a lobe of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, called the Puget Lobe, spread south about 15,000 years ago, covering the Puget Sound region with an ice sheet about 3,000 feet thick near Seattle, nearly 6,000 feet at the present Canada-U. S. border. Since each new advance and retreat of ice erodes away much of the evidence of previous ice ages, the most recent Vashon phase has left the clearest imprint on the land.
At its maximum extent the Vashon ice sheet extended south of Olympia to near Tenino, covered the lowlands between the Olympic and Cascade mountain ranges. About 14,000 years ago the ice began to retreat. By 11,000 years ago it survived only north of the Canada–US border; the melting retreat of the Vashon Glaciation eroded the land, creating a drumlin field of hundreds of aligned drumlin hills. Lake Washington and Lake Sammamish, Hood Canal, the main Puget Sound basin were altered by glacial forces; these glacial forces are not "carving", as in cutting into the landscape via the mechanics of ice/glaciers, but rather eroding the landscape from melt water of the Vashon Glacier creating the drumlin field. As the ice retreated, vast amounts of glacial till were deposited throughout the Puget Sound region; the soils of the region, less than ten thousand years old, are still characterized as immature. As the Vashon glacier receded a series of proglacial lakes formed, filling the main trough of Puget Sound and inundating the southern lowlands.
Glacial Lake Russell was the first such large recessional lake. From the vicinity of Seattle in the north the lake extended south to the Black Hills, where it drained south into the Chehalis River. Sediments from Lake Russell form the blue-gray clay identified as the Lawton Clay; the second
Battle of Tarawa
The Battle of Tarawa was a battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II, fought on 20–23 November 1943. It took place at the Tarawa Atoll in the Gilbert Islands, was part of Operation Galvanic, the U. S. invasion of the Gilberts. Nearly 6,400 Japanese and Americans died in the fighting on and around the small island of Betio, in the extreme southwest of Tarawa Atoll; the Battle of Tarawa was the first American offensive in the critical central Pacific region. It was the first time in the Pacific War that the United States had faced serious Japanese opposition to an amphibious landing. Previous landings met little or no initial resistance, but on Tarawa the 4,500 Japanese defenders were well-supplied and well-prepared, they fought to the last man, exacting a heavy toll on the United States Marine Corps. U. S. Divisions suffered similar casualties in previous campaigns, such as over the six months of the Guadalcanal Campaign, but the losses on Tarawa were incurred within 76 hours. In order to set up forward air bases capable of supporting operations across the mid-Pacific, to the Philippines, into Japan, the U.
S. planned to take the Mariana Islands. The Marianas were defended. Naval doctrine of the time held that in order for attacks to succeed, land-based aircraft would be required to weaken the defenses and protect the invasion forces; the nearest islands capable of supporting such an effort were the Marshall Islands. Taking the Marshalls would provide the base needed to launch an offensive on the Marianas, but the Marshalls were cut off from direct communications with Hawaii by a Japanese garrison and air base on the small island of Betio, on the western side of Tarawa Atoll in the Gilbert Islands, thus to launch an invasion of the Marianas, the battle had to start far to the east, at Tarawa. Following the completion of the Guadalcanal campaign, the 2nd Marine Division had been withdrawn to New Zealand for rest and recuperation. Losses were replaced and the men given a chance to recover from the malaria and other illnesses that had weakened them through the fighting in the Solomons. On 20 July 1943, the Joint Chiefs directed Admiral Chester Nimitz to prepare plans for an offensive operation in the Gilbert Islands.
In August, Admiral Raymond Spruance was flown down to New Zealand to meet with the new commander of the 2nd Marine Division, General Julian Smith, initiate the planning of the invasion with the division's commanders. Located about 2,400 miles southwest of Pearl Harbor, Betio is the largest island in the Tarawa Atoll; the small, flat island lies at the southernmost reach of the lagoon, was the base of the majority of the Japanese troops. Shaped like a long, thin triangle, the tiny island is 2 miles long, it is narrow, being only 800 yards wide at its widest point. A long pier was constructed jutting out from the north shore onto which cargo ships could unload cargo while anchored beyond the 500-metre -wide shallow reef which surrounded the island; the northern coast of the island faces into the lagoon, while the southern and western sides face the deep waters of the open ocean. Following Colonel Evans Carlson's diversionary Makin Island raid of August 1942, the Japanese command was made aware of the vulnerability and strategic significance of the Gilbert Islands.
The 6th Yokosuka Special Naval Landing Force reinforced the island in February 1943. In command was Rear Admiral Tomonari Saichirō, an experienced engineer who directed the construction of the sophisticated defensive structures on Betio. Upon their arrival, the 6th Yokosuka became a garrison force, the unit's identification was changed to the 3rd Special Base Defense Force. Tomonari's primary goal in the Japanese defensive scheme was to stop the attackers in the water or pin them on the beaches. A tremendous number of pill boxes and firing pits were constructed, with excellent fields of fire over the water and sandy shore. In the interior of the island was the command post and a number of large shelters designed to protect defenders from air attack and bombardment; the island's defenses were not set up for a battle in depth across the interior. The interior structures did not have firing ports. Defenders were limited to firing from the doorways; the Japanese worked intensely for nearly a year to fortify the island.
To aid the garrison in the construction of the defenses, the 1,247 men of the 111th Pioneers, similar to the Seabees of the U. S. Navy, along with the 970 men of the Fourth Fleet's construction battalion were brought in. 1,200 of the men in these two groups were Korean laborers. The garrison itself was made up of forces of the Imperial Japanese Navy; the Special Naval Landing Force was the marine component of the IJN, were known by US intelligence to be more trained, better disciplined, more tenacious and to have better small unit leadership than comparable units of the Imperial Japanese Army. The 3rd Special Base Defense Force assigned to Tarawa had a strength of 1,112 men, they were reinforced with a strength of 1,497 men. It was commanded by Commander Takeo Sugai; this unit was bolstered by 14 Type 95 light tanks under the command of Ensign Ohtani. A series of fourteen coastal defense guns, including four large Vickers 8-inch guns purchased during the Russo-Japanese War from the British, were secured in concrete bunkers around the island to guard the open water approaches.
It was thought these big guns would make it difficult for a landing force to enter the lagoon and attack the island from the north side. The island had a total of 500 pillboxes or "stockades" built from logs and sand, many of which were reinforced with cement. Forty