Snow chains, or tire chains, are devices fitted to the tires of vehicles to provide maximum traction when driving through snow and ice. Snow chains attach to the drive wheels of a vehicle or special systems deploy chains which swing under the tires automatically. Although named after steel chain, snow chains may be made of other materials and in a variety of patterns and strengths. Chains are sold in pairs and must be purchased to match a particular tire size, although some designs can be adjusted to fit various sizes of tire. Driving with chains reduces fuel efficiency, can reduce the allowable speed of the automobile to 50 km/h, but increase traction and braking on snowy or icy surfaces; some regions require chains to be used under some weather conditions, but other areas prohibit the use of chains, as they can deteriorate road surfaces. Snow chains were invented in 1904 by Harry D. Weed in Canastota, New York. Weed received U. S. Patent 0,768,495 for his "Grip-Tread for Pneumatic Tires" on August 23, 1904.
Weed's great-grandson, James Weed, said that Harry got the idea of creating chains for tires when he saw drivers wrap rope, or vines, around their tires to increase traction on muddy or snowy roads, which were common at the turn of the 20th century.. He sought to make a traction device, more durable and would work with snow as well as mud. In July 1935, the Canadian Auguste Trudeau obtained a patent for anti-skidding chain. In snowy conditions, transportation authorities may require that snow chains or other traction aids be installed on vehicles, or at least supplied for them; this can apply to all vehicles, or only those without other traction aids, such as four-wheel drive or special tires. Local requirements may be enforced by other type of inspection. Snow chains should be installed on one or more drive axles of the vehicle, with requirements varying for dual-tire or multi-driven-axle vehicles that range from "one pair of tires on a driven axle" to "all tires on all driven axles" also one or both steering wheels, requiring snow chains whenever required by signage or conditions.
In case of running wheel loaders, it is recommended to use special protection chains due to intense pressure on tires during work. Tires come with standardized tire code sizing information, found on the sidewalls of the tires; the first letter, indicate the vehicle type. The next three digits indicate the tire's width in millimeters; the middle two digit number indicates the tire's height-to-width ratio. The next character is a letter "R". Followed by a final two digit number indicating the rim size for the vehicle's wheels. Additionally, the correct Society of Automotive Engineers class of snow chains must be installed, based on the wheel clearance of the vehicle; the SAE Class "S" well clearance is a common requirement on newer cars if after-market wider, low-profile, or larger tires and/or wheels are fitted. The classes are defined as follows: SAE Class S: Regular passenger tire traction devices for vehicles with restricted wheel well clearance. SAE Class U: Regular and lug-reinforced passenger tire traction devices for vehicles with regular wheel well clearances.
SAE Class W: Passenger tire traction devices that use light truck components, as well as some light truck traction devices. Driving too fast with chains. Recommended maximum speeds in the owners' manual of the chains – 30 to 50 km/h – maximum. Driving on dry roads with chains for extended periods of time. Driving on dry roads with chains can cause a vehicle to slide. Driving on dry roads with chains will wear the chains. Not securing the chains enough. Owners' manual of the chains recommends tightening a second time after driving a short distance and checking for tightness from time to time. If a chain comes loose, it should either be refastened or removed before it wraps around the drive axle of the vehicle. Tensioners or adjusters may be required. Installing chains on non-drive wheels. Accelerating too causing tire spin and stress on chains If a chain does break, it can cause vehicle damage by slapping around inside the wheel well wrapping around the axle and severing brake lines Tire chains are available in a variety of types that have different advantages of cost, ride smoothness, durability, ease of installation, recommended travel speed.
Materials include steel, polyurethane and fabric. The original-style steel-link chains are available in a variety of carbon steel and steel alloys and link shapes. Link shapes include standard, twisted and reinforced; the shape of the links changes the flexibility and strength of the chain. The links can have added studs or V-bars for an more aggressive traction; the use of alloy steel and hardened steel adds durability. Traction cables are made from cable rather than chain. Chain patterns include diagonal, or pattern types. Ladder type chains have cross chains perpendicular to the road and look like a ladder when laid on the
Güven Önüt was a Turkish international footballer. A forward during his playing days, Önüt finished top scorer of the 1963–64 1. Lig with 19 goals, he most notably played for Beşiktaş from 1960 to 1969, scoring 62 goals in 133 matches for the club. The club transferred him from İzmirspor in 1960 after he scored a hat-trick against them, beating out Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray for his signature, he played Trabzonspor and Orduspor. Önüt died on 24 February 2003 after suffering a heart attack. He was interred in Zeytinburnu. Süper Lig: 1965–66, 1966–67 Süper Lig top scorers: 1963-64
Robert Harlow is a Canadian writer and former academic, best known for his 1972 novel Scann. Harlow was born in Prince Rupert, but raised in Prince George, he served in the military during World War II as a bomber pilot, attended the University of British Columbia and the University of Iowa. He worked for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation from 1951 to 1965, much of that time as the director of radio operations for British Columbia, he joined the faculty of the University of British Columbia in 1965 as head of its creative writing program. He married Margaret Latremouille, was stepfather to broadcaster and actor Fred Latremouille, Margaret's son from her prior marriage, his debut novel Royal Murdoch was the first of what is called his Linden Trilogy, set in the fictional small British Columbia town of Linden. The other two novels in the trilogy were A Gift of Scann, his novels were Making Arrangements, Paul Nolan, Felice: A Travelogue, The Saxophone Winter and Necessary Dark. In 2001, he was presented with a lifetime achievement award by the Vancouver Public Library and BC Bookworld.
In the 2000s, with all of his novels out of print, he republished them all through Xlibris. Official website
Andrew Frederick Buckland is a South African award-winning playwright, film director, mime and academic. Born and schooled in Zimbabwe, he is married to actress Janet Buckland and their son Daniel Buckland is an actor, another son, Matthew was an Internet entrepreneur and businessman who died in 2019. He trained at Rhodes University, graduating in 1979 with a BA Honours in Drama, he became a junior lecturer joined the Performing Arts Council of the Transvaal as actor. In 1992 Buckland became a member of the First Physical Theatre Company and a lecturer in the Drama Department at Rhodes University. Senior lecturer and professor, Buckland retired from Rhodes University in December 2017. For PACT he played in, inter alia, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, The Importance of Being Earnest, Tom Jones and Bloed in die Strate, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?. Performed in Romeo and Juliet, Monday After the Miracle, The Runner Stumbles. Andrew began to create his own theatre works and in 1987 he and Janet Buckland founded Mouthpeace Theatre in Johannesburg, working with their friends Lionel Newton, director Lara Foot-Newton.
He created a distinctive style of theatre for himself, utilizing the techniques of physical theatre and mime to relate his poetic fantasies. Among his best known works are Touchstones, Pas de Deux, which he had co-written with Soli Philander, the much-admired and multiple award-winning The Ugly Noonoo, Between the Teeth, Feedback, Noisy Walk, The Water Juggler /The Well Being, ****. Laugh the Buffalo, directed by Janet Buckland. Touchstones, 1984, Grahamstown Festival; the Ugly Noo Noo: A Trilogy, Market Theatre, 1989. The Inconvenience of Wings by Lara Foot in 2016, Makana on the Island in 2001 at the Grahamstown Festival, he starred in David Mamet’s Speed the Plow at Upstairs at the Market in 1990, A Doll's House at Upstairs at the Market in 1990, in a return run of The Ugly Noo Noo at the Market Theatre in 1991. He directed Soli Philander in Philander’s Take Two at the Laager Theatre in Johannesburg in 1991. Performed in Love for Cirque du Soleil in 2009, he played Hamlet for the SABC in 1983.
His film work includes roles in Shotdown, The Schoolmaster, Dirty Games, The Good Fascist and Quest for Love. Awards include the Standard Bank Young Artist Awards for Drama for Pas de Deux, The Scotsman Fringe Award for Feedback, several Vita Awards, the Fleur du Cap Award for Best New Indigenous Script. Biography at South African Who's who Artslink.co.za Headlines - Week 38 - 16/09/2014 Theatre or Extinction - Choose!: Andrew Buckland at TEDxRhodesU on YouTube
Glynneath RFC are a Welsh Rugby Union club playing in WRU Division 1 West Central of the WRU National Leagues. The Club has won a number of honours over the years, including the locally famous Invincibles of the 1961–62 season captained by Bas Thomas. Playing out of Abernant Park in red and black jerseys, the Club has one senior teams and six junior sides. Famous sons of Glynneath RFC include David Richards, Dai Morris and Tavis Knoyle. Glynneath RFC was founded in the 1889-90 season. According to Gwilym R Davies, Will Jones, son of the Landlord of the Angel Hotel, introduced the game to the village in 1880. Two local sides were set up - the'Woollen Factory' and the'Lamb & Flag'. Glynneath RFC was captained by Will Jones; the club moved to its current home at Abernant Park in 1901. In common with many other clubs, no rugby was played in the years 1904-5 and 1905-6 due to the Religious Revival; the 1909-10 season saw. The Golden Period saw Glynneath finish with the following record: Played 129, Won 86, Drawn 27, Lost 16.
The 1921-22 season saw the formation of the first Juniors team who wore a black and white strip. However, the team disbanded after three seasons; the same season saw the introduction of a reserve team, which disbanded four years later. Following on from the Second World War, Glynneath RFC decided in the Summer of 1944 that they were to reform. A meeting was held and a committee was formed; the club sought permission for the use of Abernant Park and the opportunity to buy new balls and 17 jerseys at a cost of £11-13-6 plus 4 coupons each. Goal posts and a first-aid kit were purchased. New rules were introduced, such as, any Committee member absent four times from meetings without reasonable excuse would be automatically expelled; the first visit of Hawick Trades took place in 1956 - a fixture. Following a conversation between Rees Thomas and Bert Miller, Mr Thomas was put in touch with John Imrie of Hawick Trades; the two teams battle it out each year for the Andrew Deans Challenge Cup. It was decided in 1959 that Glynneath RFC should seek out a permanent clubhouse, as they had been using The Rock Hotel.
Abernant House was purchased for the sum of £4,000. A further £10,000 was spent on the premises to transform it into a spacious modern rugby club, it was opened on 7 October 1959. The most well-known era of the club was the'Invincible Season' in 1961-62; the team, captained by Bas Thomas, played a total of 41 games in that season, winning 37 and drawing just 4 fixtures. They won the Championship Cup, League Shield and Silver Ball Trophy; this run continued for 11 games in the following season until they were defeated by St Luke's College. Including the 1960-61 season, Glynneath RFC went on a run of 55 games unbeaten. 1964 saw wholesale changes in Glynneath's facilities - with the building of a grandstand, an extension to the clubhouse, the installation of floodlights. The official opening took place on 22 December 1964. However, a black day in the club's history occurred in 1977 when the dance hall was gutted by a fire; the clubhouse was reopened in 1980 following a massive fund-raising effort by the club to repair the hall.
The 1980s saw the introduction of The Valley Shield - a game between Glynneath and Cwmgrwach in memory of Gareth Thomas. Glynneath won the fixture 18-3, it saw the Glynneath Athletic XV win Division B of the Neath & District Championship, the annual Neath & District RU 7-a-side tournament at Abernant Park, the Courage Wales League Cup. The following season saw. Glynneath RFC were accepted as members of the Welsh Brewers West Wales Championship League in 1987-88, competing in Section F, they finished their league campaign unbeaten and set two new records - WWWRU Cup for most tries and the Eurof Davies Shield for most points. Further success came through the Wood & Elkias Trophy, they went on to win Section E in the following season, enjoyed a successful run in the Schweppes Cup beating Maesteg en route to their 5th Round exit against Bridgend. They were awarded the Team of the Round Trophy for the victory over Maesteg, they broke their own record during the season with 129 tries and 676 points. During the centenary season of 1989-90, Glynneath RFC finished as Runners Up of Section D ensuring their constant rise up the leagues.
The run continued when they were crowned Champions of Section C, Section B and Section A. The club won the Tovali Cup the 1990-91 season, they were the last team to win Section A, went on to win a Heineken League play-off against Cardigan which placed Glynneath in Division 3. The biggest game at Abernant Park took place on 28 January 1995, when they took on Llanelli in the SWALEC Cup; the strong players Nigel Davies, Rupert Moon, Robin McBryde, Craig Quinnell and Phil Davies, others, played for Llanelli. The game saw the return from injury of Ieuan Evans. A crowd of 3,000 and a camera crew were present during the wet and windy conditions to see Llanelli win by 27-0; the turn of the Millennium saw the club re-introduce a number of Junior squads as well as the reformation of the youth squad. In 2006, the youth team brought a long-awaited piece of silverware to the club in the form of the Welsh Youth Cup, which saw them defeat Rumney Youth at the Millennium Stadium running out 14-10 winners. Points scorers on the day were David Price and Greg Roberts.
Live Music – Europe 2010 is a live album by Joe Jackson. Recordings for this album were made at the following locations: La Luciole in Alençon, France on 22 October 2010 La Carenne in Brest, France on 23 October 2010 Avo Sessions in Basel, Switzerland on 31 October 2010 Paradiso music venue in Amsterdam, Netherlands on 7 November 2010 Gloria Theatre in Cologne, Germany on 8 November 2010 Postbanhof in Berlin, Germany on 11 November 2010 All songs written and arranged by Joe Jackson, except where noted. "Fools in Love" was available as a free download bonus track via the official Joe Jackson website. Musicians Joe Jackson – piano, melodica, vocals Graham Maby – bass, vocals Dave Houghton – electric and acoustic drums, vocalsProduction Joe Jackson – arrangements, producer George Cowan – recording engineer Blackpete – mixing engineer Tilmann Ilse, Martin Schattenberg – digital editing Greg Calbi – mastering engineer Ed Sherman – art direction Anabel Ganske – photography