Snowboards are boards where both feet are secured to the same board, which are wider than skis, with the ability to glide on snow. Snowboards widths are 15 to 30 centimeters. Snowboards are differentiated from monoskis by the stance of the user. In monoskiing, the user stands with feet inline with direction of travel, whereas in snowboarding, users stand with feet transverse to the longitude of the board. Users of such equipment may be referred to as snowboarders. Commercial snowboards require extra equipment such as bindings and special boots which help secure both feet of a snowboarder, who rides in an upright position; these types of boards are used by people at ski hills or resorts for leisure and competitive purposes in the activity called snowboarding. In 1939, Vern Wicklund, at the age of 13, fashioned a shred deck in Minnesota; this modified sled was dubbed a "bunker" by his friends. He, along with relatives Harvey and Gunnar Burgeson, patented the first snowboard twenty two years later.

However, a man by the name of Sherman Poppen, from Muskegon, MI, came up with what most consider the first "snowboard" in 1965 and was called the Snurfer who sold his first 4 "snurfers" to Randall Baldwin Lee of Muskegon, MI who worked at Outdoorsman Sports Center 605 Ottawa Street in Muskegon, MI. Randy believes that Sherman took an old water ski and made it into the snurfer for his children who were bored in the winter, he added bindings to keep their boots secure. Commercially available Snurfers in the late 1960s and early 1970s had no bindings; the snowboarder held onto a looped nylon lanyard attached to the front of the Snurfer, stood upon several rows of square U-shaped staples that were driven into the board but protruded about 1 cm above the board's surface to provide traction when packed with snow. Snurfer models replaced the staples with ridged rubber grips running longitudinally along the length of the board or, subsequently, as subrectangular pads upon which the snowboarder would stand.

It is accepted that Jake Burton Carpenter and/or Tom Sims invented modern snowboarding by introducing bindings and steel edges to snowboards. In 1981, a couple of Winterstick team riders went to France at the invitation of Alain Gaimard, marketing director at Les Arcs. After seeing an early film of this event, French skiers/surfers Augustin Coppey, Olivier Lehaneur, Olivier Roland and Antoine Yarmola made their first successful attempts during the winter of 1983 in France, using primitive, home-made clones of the Winterstick. Starting with pure powder, skateboard-shaped wooden-boards equipped with aluminium fins, foot-straps and leashes, their technology evolved within a few years to pressed wood/fiber composite boards fitted with polyethylene soles, steel edges and modified ski boot shells; these were more suitable for the mixed conditions encountered while snowboarding off-piste, but having to get back to ski lifts on packed snow. In 1985, James Bond popularized snowboarding in the movie A View to a Kill.

In the scene, he escapes Soviet agents. The snowboard he used was a Sims snowboard ridden by founder Tom Sims; the makeshift snowboard was made from the debris of a snowmobile. At the same time the Snurfer was turning into a snowboard on the other side of the iron curtain. In 1980, Aleksey Ostatnigrosh and Alexei Melnikov - two members of the only Snurfer club in the Soviet Union started changing the Snurfer design to allow jumping and to improve control on hard packed snow. Being unaware of the developments in the Snurfer/snowboard world, they attached a bungee cord to the Snurfer tail which the rider could grab before jumping. In 1982, they attached a foot binding to the Snurfer; the binding was only for the back foot, had a release capability. In 1985, after several iterations of the Snurfer binding system, Aleksey Ostatnigrosh made the first Russian snowboard; the board had no metal edges. The bindings were attached by a central bolt and could rotate while on the move or be fixed at any angle.

In 1988, OstatniGROsh and MELnikov started the first Russian snowboard manufacturing company, GROMEL The first fibreglass snowboard with binding was made by Santa Cruz inventor Gary Tracy of GARSKI with the assistance of Bill Bourke in their factory in Santa Cruz in 1982 One of these original boards is still on display at Santa Cruz Skateboards in Capitola CA By 1986, although still much a minority sport, commercial snowboards started appearing in leading French ski resorts. In 2008, selling snowboarding equipment was a $487 million industry. In 2008, average equipment ran about $540 including board and bindings; the bottom or'base' of the snowboard is made of UHMW and is surrounded by a thin strip of steel, known as the'edge'. Artwork was printed on PBT using a sublimation process in the 1990s, but poor color retention and fade after moderate use moved high-end producers to longer-lasting materials. Snowboards come in several different styles, depending on the type of riding intended: Freestyle: Generally shorter with moderate to soft flex.

Freestyle snowboards have a mirror shovel at each end of the board. Freestyle snowboards have low-backed bindings. Incorporates a deep sidecut for quick/tight turning. Used in the pipe and in the park on various jumps and terrain features including boxes and urban features. Park/Jib: Flexible and sho

USS Lucille Ross (SP-1211)

USS Lucille Ross was a United States Navy tug in commission from 1917 to 1919. Lucille Ross was built in 1893 as a wooden commercial steam tug of the same name by the Brewster Shipbuilding Company at Baltimore, Maryland. On 17 April 1917, the U. S. Navy chartered her from her owner, the Richmond Cedar Works of Richmond, for use during World War I. Delivered to the Navy on 18 April 1917 and assigned the section patrol number 1211, she was commissioned at Norfolk, Virginia, as USS Lucille Ross on 24 April 1917 with Ensign William Partridge, USNRF, in command, she was enrolled in the Naval Coast Defense Reserve on 20 August 1917. Assigned to the 5th Naval District and based at Norfolk, Lucille Ross served as a shore and harbor patrol boat, assisted during customs inspections, sealed ships' radios, performed occasional towing services. In addition she steamed the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean while carrying supplies to coastal lightvessels. During September and October 1918 she provided towing service for the United States Army Transport Service.

The Navy returned Lucille Ross to the Richmond Cedar Works on 3 June 1919. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. Department of the Navy Naval History and Heritage Command Online Library of Selected Images: U. S. Navy Ships: USS Lucille Ross, 1917-1919. NavSource Online: Section Patrol Craft Photo Archive: Lucille Ross

Madison Community Cooperative

Madison Community Cooperative, or MCC, is a housing cooperative composed of 11 houses in Madison, Wisconsin with around 200 resident members. MCC is a member of North American Students of Cooperation as well as the Northcountry Cooperative Development Fund; the majority of the cooperative houses are located near the UW Madison campus. Inspired by a North American Students of Cooperation conference, on December 10, 1968, eight representatives of Madison co-ops incorporated the Madison Association of Student Cooperatives. In 1971, MASC changed its name to Madison Community Cooperative. Beginning in 1997, MCC tailored its articles and mission "to improve the Madison community by providing low cost, not-for-profit cooperative housing for low to moderate income people and to be inclusive of underrepresented and marginalized groups of the community." The membership of MCC voted to sue the City of Madison for property tax exemption at a General Meeting on March 9, 1997. Property tax exemption in Wisconsin is available only to not-for-profit organizations that are benevolent.

The City Attorney had denied exemption to MCC by arguing that MCC was not benevolent but served students who, if poor, were voluntarily and temporarily poor. Attorney David Sparer tried the case on behalf of MCC. MCC members testified in Dane County Circuit Court that non-students, including people of color, older people and poor residents, were joining the MCC membership; when authorizing the suit, the membership conditioned the lawsuit on any "budgetary savings MCC realizes from a successful resolution of our case will not be used to reduce house payments across the board by more than 3% in any fiscal year" and that "the line-item in the MCC Budget that allocates money to property taxes be changed from a fixed line to a variable one, to keep open the possibility of MCC maintaining some level of funding to city services." After settling the case with the City of Madison, MCC surveys all the members income status and annually provides the City of Madison with the income ranges of its tenant-members.

MCC continues to make annual payments in lieu of taxes in order to pay for necessary police and fire protection. Ambrosia Cooperative House Audre Lorde Cooperative House Avalon Cooperative House Friends Cooperative House Hypatia Cooperative House International Cooperative House Lothlórien Cooperative House Ofek Shalom Cooperative House Phoenix Cooperative House Sofia Cooperative House Syntropy Cooperative House North American Students of Cooperation Northcountry Cooperative Development Fund Madison Community Cooperative official site Madison Community Cooperative at Online Communities Directory "Housing Co-ops Not Limited To Students" Wisconsin State Journal article about MCC's houses