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Snowdonia is a mountainous region in northwestern Wales and a national park of 823 square miles in area. It was the first to be designated of the three national parks in Wales, in 1951, it contains the highest peaks in the United Kingdom outside of Scotland. The English name for the area derives from Snowdon, the highest mountain in Wales at 3560 ft. In Welsh, the area is named Eryri. A held belief is that the name is derived from eryr, thus means'the abode/land of eagles', but recent evidence is that it means Highlands, is related to the Latin oriri as leading Welsh scholar Sir Ifor Williams proved; the term Eryri first appeared in a manuscript in the 9th-century Historia Brittonum, in an account of the downfall of the semi-legendary 5th-century king Gwrtheyrn. In the Middle Ages the title Prince of Wales and Lord of Snowdonia was used by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd. Before the boundaries of the national park were designated, "Snowdonia" was used to refer to a smaller area, namely the upland area of northern Gwynedd centred on the Snowdon massif, whereas the national park covers an area more than twice that size extending far to the south into Meirionnydd.

This is apparent in books published prior to 1951, such as the classic travelogue Wild Wales by George Borrow and The Mountains of Snowdonia by H. Carr & G. Lister. F. J. North, as editor of the book Snowdonia, states "When the Committee delineated provisional boundaries, they included areas some distance beyond Snowdonia proper." The traditional Snowdonia thus includes the ranges of Snowdon and its satellites, the Glyderau, the Carneddau, the Moelwynion and the Moel Hebog group. It does not include the hills to the south of Maentwrog; as Eryri, this area has a unique place in Welsh history and culture. Snowdonia National Park was established in 1951 as the third national park in Britain, following the Peak District and the Lake District, it covers 827 square miles, has 37 miles of coastline. The Snowdonia National Park covers parts of the counties of Conwy; the park is governed by the Snowdonia National Park Authority, made up of local government and Welsh representatives, its main offices are at Penrhyndeudraeth.

Unlike national parks in other countries, Snowdonia is made up of both public and private lands under central planning authority. The makeup of land ownership at Snowdonia is as follows: More than 26,000 people live within the park. 58.6% of the population could speak Welsh in 2011. While most of the land is either open or mountainous land, there is a significant amount of agricultural activity within the park. Since the local government re-organisation of 1998, the park lies in the county of Gwynedd, in the county borough of Conwy, it is governed by the 18-member Snowdonia National Park Authority. Unusually, Snowdonia National Park has a hole in the middle, around the town of Blaenau Ffestiniog, a slate quarrying centre; this was deliberately excluded from the park when it was set up to allow the development of new light industry to replace the reduced slate industry. The Snowdonia Society is a registered charity formed in 1967, it is a voluntary group of people with an interest in its protection.

Amory Lovins led the successful 1970s opposition to stop Rio Tinto digging up the area for a massive mine. Research indicates that there were 3.67 million visitors to Snowdonia National Park in 2013, with 9.74 million tourist days spent in the park during that year. Total tourist expenditure was £433.6 million in 2013. Snowdonia may be divided into four areas: The northernmost area is the most popular with tourists, includes Moel Hebog, Mynydd Mawr and the Nantlle Ridge; these last three groups are the highest mountains in Wales, include all Wales' mountains higher than 3000 feet. The second area includes peaks such as Moel Siabod, the Moelwynion, the mountains around Blaenau Ffestiniog; the third area includes the Rhinogydd in the west as well as the Arenig and the Migneint, Rhobell Fawr. This area is not as popular with tourists as the other areas, due to its remoteness; the southernmost area includes Cadair Idris, the Tarren range, the Dyfi hills, the Aran group, including Aran Fawddwy, the highest mountain in the United Kingdom south of Snowdon.

The Berwyn range to the south east, has the western edge of it in the park, but the highest summits to the east have been omitted. Many of the hikers in the area concentrate on Snowdon itself, it is regarded as a fine mountain, but at times gets crowded. The other high mountains with their boulder-strewn summits—as well as Tryfan, one of the few mountains in the UK south of Scotland whose ascent needs hands as well as feet—are very popular. However, there are some spectacular walks in Snowdonia on the lower mountains, they tend to be unfrequented. Among hikers' favourites are Y Garn along the ridge to Elidir Fawr.

Cassiano Leal

Cassiano Schalch Leal is a former international freestyle swimmer from Brazil. At the 1991 Pan American Games, in Havana, Leal won the silver medal in the 4×200-metre freestyle. Leal was at the 1993 FINA World Swimming Championships, in Palma de Mallorca, where he won the bronze medal in the 4×200-metre freestyle, along with José Carlos Souza, Teófilo Ferreira and Gustavo Borges, he finished 14th in the 400-metre freestyle, with a time of 3:52.47. At the 1995 Pan American Games, in Mar del Plata, Leal won for the second time the silver medal in the 4×200-metre freestyle, he finished 4th in the 200-metre freestyle, 6th in the 400-metre freestyle. Participating at the 1995 FINA World Swimming Championships, in Rio de Janeiro, Leal won again the bronze medal in the 4×200-metre freestyle, now along with Fernando Saez, Teófilo Ferreira and Gustavo Borges, he participated in Atlanta, for his native country. His best and only result in Atlanta, Georgia was the 10th place in the Men's 4×200-metre freestyle.

Leal participated at the 1999 Pan American Games, in Winnipeg, where he finished 10th in the 400-metre freestyle. Profile


Shungite is a black, non-crystalline mineraloid consisting of more than 98 weight percent of carbon. It was first described from a deposit near Shunga village, in Karelia, from where it gets its name. Shungite has been reported to contain trace amounts of fullerenes; the term "shungite" was used in 1879 to describe a mineraloid with more than 98 percent carbon. More the term has been used to describe shungite-bearing rocks, leading to some confusion. Shungite-bearing rocks have been classified purely on their carbon content, with Shungite-1 having a carbon content in the range 98-100 weight percent and Shungite-2, -3, -4 and -5 having contents in the ranges 35-80 percent, 20-35 percent, 10-20 percent and less than 10 percent, respectively. In a further classification, shungite is subdivided into bright, semi-bright, semi-dull and dull on the basis of their luster. Shungite has two main modes of occurrence, disseminated within the host rock and as mobilised material. Migrated shungite, bright shungite, has been interpreted to represent migrated hydrocarbons and is found as either layer shungite, layers or lenses near conformable with the host rock layering, or vein shungite, found as cross-cutting veins.

Shungite may occur as clasts within younger sedimentary rocks. Shungite has to date been found in Russia; the main deposit is in the Lake Onega area of Karelia, at Zazhoginskoye, near Shunga, with another occurrence at Vozhmozero. Two other much smaller occurrences have been reported in Russia, one in Kamchatka in volcanic rocks and the other formed by the burning of spoil from a coal mine at high temperature in Chelyabinsk. Other occurrences have been described from Austria, Democratic Republic of Congo and Kazakhstan. Shungite has been regarded as an example of abiogenic petroleum formation, but its biological origin has now been confirmed. Non-migrated shungite is found directly stratigraphically above deposits that were formed in a shallow water carbonate shelf to non-marine evaporitic environment; the shungite bearing sequence is thought to have been deposited during active rifting, consistent with the alkaline volcanic rocks that are found within the sequence. The organic-rich sediments were deposited in a brackish lagoonal setting.

The concentration of carbon indicates elevated biological productivity levels due to high levels of nutrients available from interbedded volcanic material. The stratified shungite-bearing deposits that retain sedimentary structures are interpreted as metamorphosed oil source rocks; some diapiric mushroom-shaped structures have been identified, which are interpreted as possible mud volcanoes. Layer and vein shungite varieties, shungite filling vesicles and forming the matrix to breccias, are interpreted as migrated petroleum, now in the form of metamorphosed bitumen; the Shunga deposit contains an estimated total carbon reserve of more than 250 gigatonnes. It is found within a sequence of Palaeoproterozoic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks that are preserved in a synform; the sequence is dated by a gabbro intrusion, which gives a date of 1980±27 Ma, the underlying dolomites, which give an age of 2090±70 Ma. There are nine Shungite-bearing layers within the Zaonezhskaya Formation, from the middle of the preserved sequence.

Of these the thickest is layer six, known as the "Productive horizon", due to its concentration of shungite deposits. Four main deposits are known from the area, the Shungskoe, Maksovo and Nigozero deposits; the Shungskoe deposit is the most studied and is mined out. Shungite has been used as a folk medical treatment since the early 18th century. Peter the Great set up Russia's first spa in Karelia to make use of the water purifying properties of shungite, which he had himself experienced, he instigated its use in providing purified water for the Russian army. The anti-bacterial properties of shungite have been confirmed by modern testing. Shungite has been used since the middle of the 18th century as a pigment for paint, is sold under the names "carbon black" or "shungite natural black". In the 1970s, shungite was exploited in the production of an insulating material, known as shungisite. Shungisite is prepared by heating rocks with low shungite concentrations to 1090–1130 °C and is used as a low density filler


Bagram is a town and seat in Bagram District in Parwan Province of Afghanistan, about 25 kilometers north of the capital Kabul. It is the site of an ancient city located at the junction of the Ghorband and Panjshir Valley, near today's city of Charikar, Afghanistan; the location of this historical town made it a key passage from Ancient India along the Silk Road, leading westwards through the mountains towards Bamiyan, north over the Kushan Pass to the Baghlan Valley and, past the impressive statement of Kushan power at Surkh Kotal, to the great commercial centre of Balkh and the rest of northern Afghanistan. The origin of the name Bagram is not clear, with several theories proposed to describe its origins. Kapisa, an ancient site near the town is known to be the location of a city once ruled by the Indo-Iranian Kamboja dynasty. While the Diadochi were warring amongst themselves, the Mauryan Empire was developing in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent; the founder of the empire, Chandragupta Maurya, confronted a Macedonian invasion force led by Seleucus I in 305 BC and following a brief conflict, an agreement was reached as Seleucus ceded Gandhara and Arachosia and areas south of Bagram to the Mauryans.

During the 120 years of the Mauryans in southern Afghanistan, Buddhism was introduced and become a major religion alongside Zoroastrianism and local pagan beliefs. The ancient Grand Trunk Road was built linking what is now Kabul to various cities in the Punjab and the Gangetic Plain. Commerce and architecture developed during this period, it reached its high point under Emperor Ashoka whose edicts and rest stops were found throughout the subcontinent. Although the vast majority of them throughout the subcontinent were written in Prakrit, Afghanistan is notable for the inclusion of 2 Greek and Aramaic ones alongside the court language of the Mauryans; the last ruler in the region was Subhagasena. Bagram became the capital of the Kushan Empire in the 1st century, from here they invaded and conquered Peshawar in the south; the "Bagram treasure" as it has been called, is indicative of intense commercial exchanges between all the cultural centers of the classical time, with the Kushan empire at the junction of the land and sea trade between the east and west.

However, the works of art found in Bagram, such as the Begram ivories, are either quite purely Hellenistic, Chinese or Indian, with only little indications of the cultural syncretism found in Greco-Buddhist art. The Islamic conquest of Afghanistan and the adjoining Pashtun region began in 7th century after conquest of Persia. However, the complete Islamization of Afghanistan wasn't achieved until the Ghaznavid rule; the modern-day town is believed to be founded by Babur at the site of the ancient city. In Babur's memoirs, the Baburnama, the emphasis of his visit in 1519 is on the colony of Hindu ascetics at Gurh Kattri, who fascinated him. Bagram hosts the strategic Bagram Airfield, from which most US air activity in Afghanistan takes place; the runway was built in 1976, it was a Soviet air base from 1979 to 1989. There is a Provincial Reconstruction Team, led by the US. Bagram is the location of the Parwan Detention Facility, it was handed back to the Afghan government on 25 March 2013. The detention centre had earlier come into the attention of the news media as it was claimed that prisoners were tortured.

At the time of the hand-over of the facility, human-rights groups like Amnesty International have raised concerns about the treatment of prisoners there. On December 21, 2015, Bagram was the site of a suicide bombing killing 6 people. Bagram District Parwan Province The Ancient Geography of India. I; the Buddhist Period, Including the Campaigns of Alexander, the Travels of Hwen-Thsang. Alexander Cunningham. Trübner and Co. London. Complete and unabridged reprint: Low Price Publications, Delhi. Afghanistan: Hidden Treasures from the National Museum, Kabul. Eds. Friedrik Hiebert and Pierre Cambon. National Geographic, Washington, D. C. ISBN 978-1-4262-0374-9. Map of Bagram and the surrounding area, Afghanistan Information Management Service Human Rights First.

Qingdao Qianwan Container Terminal

Qingdao Qianwan Container Terminal is a port of China, located at Qianwan, Shandong province. Qingdao Port ranked 10th in 2008 world's busiest container ports with 10,320 thousands TEU, current projects were expected to raise the capacity to 15,000 thousands or more. Phase 2 & 3 were held by Qingdao Qianwan Container Terminal Co. Ltd, a joint venture of Qingdao Port Co. Ltd. Dubai Ports World, COSCO Pacific and A. P. Moller-Maersk Group. Phase 2 and 3 had 11 berths. Phase 4, as Qingdao New Qianwan Terminal, located in south bank, was a joint venture of Qingdao Qianwan Container Terminal Co. Ltd, Pan Asia International Shipping Ltd. which started to build in 2007. In 2009, the first 4 out of 10 berths started to operate. Co-currently, China Merchants Holdings reached an agreement with Qingdao Qianwan International Logistic Park to build a port for the Logistic Park in September 2003. Which had 5 berths dedicated for 2 multi-purpose berths; the whole project CMHI holds 90.1% interests. The project started the construction in 2005.

In December 2009, China Merchants International Container Terminal Co. Ltd. the wholly subsidiary of CMHI, reached an agreement with QQCTN to set up a new joint venture company Qingdao Qianwan United Container Terminal Co. Ltd. to engaged in the construction and management current and future projects in the south bank, take-over the current berths of China Merchants and QQCTN

Sree Bhushan Raju

Sree Bhushan Raju M. D. D. M. Diplomate of National Board, is a nephrologist from India, he is Professor and Head, Dept of Nephrology, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences Panjagutta, Hyderabad. Which is largest teaching Department in India having eight DM seats, he is one of the principal investigators of CKD task force by Indian Council of Medical Research to evaluate the prevalence of CKD in adult urban population in India. Doctor Sree Bhushan Raju was born in Vanaparthi village in a lower-middle-class background family; this village is located at Bhongir mandal of Nalgonda district of Telangana. After primary school education, he pursued medical education in Gandhi Medical College and completed the course in 1993, he was awarded various gold medals for his academic excellence during the MBBS curriculum. He secured a top rank in All India competitive examination and joined the Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad for his post-graduation, he completed the M. D at NIMS in 1998, he joined the prestigious All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi and completed the D.

M. in nephrology. He scored highest marks and earned a gold medal in the D. N. B examination held on September 2002, he is one of the few specialists with MBA in health care management in the country. Main areas of interest are clinical nephrology, CAPD, CRRT, he was served as elected NIMS faculty association President. He has written more than 100 publications in various national and international journals and has attended conferences and workshops abroad both as a delegate and speaker/moderator since the last 15 years, he is a regular writer in popular print media and educates the public on various Kidney diseases through electronic media. Along with seeing patients daily, he specializes in Peritoneal dialysis, he is known for his minimal use of immunosuppressive drugs without induction agents in organ transplantation. He has performed more than 250 kidney transplantations, 5000 renal biopsies, 700 CAPD patients, since 2011. Under his leadership and commitment, the department is became one of the largest in the country with 8 faculty and 18 fellows.

The department caters to 25000 new patients every year and active inpatient care as well as clinical research. He has conducted regular free medical camps for the people of his village and surrounding villages, he extended his service by providing basic amenities to the nephrology departments like renovation of the ARCU and other essential things for patients. He advocates that Peritoneal dialysis is ideal for kidney patients who find it difficult to travel to hospitals; the nephrology department of NIMS — the largest peritoneal dialysis centre in the country – trains 80 patients to 100 patients every year in the procedure. NIMS Hospital has become the first centre in South India to receive recognition from the International Society of Peritoneal Dialysis as a training centre for peritoneal dialysis; the efficient training and treatment protocols employed for patients made the department the only centre in South India to bag ISPD's recognition. FISOT: Fellowship of Indian Society of Organ Transplantation 2017 FICP: Indian College of Physicians Association of Physicians of India, January 2012.

FIACM: Fellowship of Indian Association of Clinical Medicin, October 2012. FISN: Fellowship of Indian Society of Nephrology, December 2012. Goli R. "Monoclonal Gammopathy of Renal Significance Presenting as Cryoglobulinemic Glomerulonephritis: A Case Report and Review of Literature". Indian Journal of Nephrology. 28: 229–231. Doi:10.4103/ijn. IJN_166_16. PMC 5998724. PMID 29962675. Post renal transplant diabetes mellitus and hepatitis C: Is there any association. Raju DSB, Agarwal SK, Gupta S, Dash SC, Bhowmick D, Tiwari SC, Guleria S, Mehta SN. Presented as poster in Congress Asian Society of Transplantation, 2002 held at New Delhi. Post-transplant hypertension at one year: Impact on long-term graft survival. Raju DSB, Agarwal SK, Gupta S, Dash SC, Bhowmick D, Tiwari SC, Guleria S, Mehta SN. Presented as poster in Congress Asian society of Transplantation, 2002 held at New Delhi. Prevalence of CRF in India. Agarwal SK, Dash SC, Raju DSB, Irshad M. Presented in racial and ethnic minority groups, official satellite conference in the world congress of Nephrology, 18–20 October 2001, Santaffi, USA.

Prevalence of chronic renal failure in adults in Delhi, India. Agarwal SK, Dash SC, Irshad M, Raju S, Singh R, Pandey RM, Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2005 Aug. Rituximab in the treatment of refractory late acute antibody-mediated rejection: Our initial experience. Surendra M, Raju SB, Raju N, Chandragiri S, Mukku KK, Uppin MS. Indian J Nephrol. 2016 Sep. Kalle A, Gudipati A, Raju SB, Kalidindi K, Guditi S, Taduri G, Uppin MS. J Lab Physicians. 2018 Apr-Jun. Management of statin intolerance. Raju SB, Varghese K, Madhu K. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Nov. Doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.122602