They are named after Julius Caesar, who founded the municipium of Cividale del Friuli at the foot of the mountains. A large part of the Julian Alps is included in Triglav National Park, the second highest peak of the range, the 2,775 m high Jôf di Montasio, lies in Italy. The Julian Alps cover an estimated 4,400 km2 and they are located between the Sava Valley and Canale Valley. They are divided into the Eastern and Western Julian Alps, there are many peaks in the Eastern Julian Alps over 2,000 m high, and they are mainly parts of ridges. The most prominent peaks are visible by their height and size, there are high plains on the eastern border like Pokljuka, Mežakla and Jelovica. Only the Kanin group lies in part in Slovenia, the main peaks by height are, Jôf di Montasio Jof Fuart High Mount Kanin Important passes of the Julian Alps are, The Vršič Pass,1,611 m, links the Sava and Soča valleys. It is the highest mountain pass in Slovenia
Kingdom of Italy
The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866, Italian troops entered Rome in 1870, ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power. Italy entered into a Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1882, victory in the war gave Italy a permanent seat in the Council of the League of Nations. Fascist Italy is the era of National Fascist Party rule from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as head of government, according to Payne, Fascist regime passed through several relatively distinct phases. The first phase was nominally a continuation of the parliamentary system, came the second phase, the construction of the Fascist dictatorship proper from 1925 to 1929. The third phase, with activism, was 1929–34. The war itself was the phase with its disasters and defeats. Italy was allied with Nazi Germany in World War II until 1943 and it switched sides to the Allies after ousting Mussolini and shutting down the Fascist party in areas controlled by the Allied invaders.
Shortly after the war, civil discontent led to the referendum of 1946 on whether Italy would remain a monarchy or become a republic. Italians decided to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic, the Kingdom of Italy claimed all of the territory which is modern-day Italy. The development of the Kingdoms territory progressed under Italian re-unification until 1870, the state for a long period of time did not include Trieste or Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, which are in Italy today, and only annexed them in 1919. After the Second World War, the borders of present-day Italy were founded, the Kingdom of Italy was theoretically a constitutional monarchy. Executive power belonged to the monarch, as executed through appointed ministers, two chambers of parliament restricted the monarchs power—an appointive Senate and an elective Chamber of Deputies. The kingdoms constitution was the Statuto Albertino, the governing document of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In theory, ministers were responsible to the king.
However, in practice, it was impossible for an Italian government to stay in office without the support of Parliament, members of the Chamber of Deputies were elected by plurality voting system elections in uninominal districts. A candidate needed the support of 50% of those voting, and of 25% of all enrolled voters, if not all seats were filled on the first ballot, a runoff was held shortly afterwards for the remaining vacancies. After a brief multinominal experimentation in 1882, proportional representation into large, Socialists became the major party, but they were unable to form a government in a parliament split into three different factions, with Christian Populists and classical liberals
Gorizia listen is a town and comune in northeastern Italy, in the autonomous region of Friuli Venezia Giulia. It is located at the foot of the Julian Alps, bordering Slovenia and it is the capital of the Province of Gorizia and a local center of tourism and commerce. Since 1947, a town of Nova Gorica has developed on the other side of the modern-day Italian–Slovenian border. Taken together, the two towns constitute a conurbation, which includes the Slovenian municipality of Šempeter-Vrtojba. Since May 2011, these three towns are joined in a common trans-border metropolitan zone, administered by a joint administration board, Gorizia is located at the confluence of the Isonzo and Vipava Valleys. It lies on a plain overlooked by the Gorizia Hills, sheltered from the north by a mountain ridge, Gorizia is protected from the cold Bora wind that affects most of the neighbouring areas. The town thus enjoys a mild Mediterranean climate throughout the year, the name of the town comes from the Slovene word gorica meaning little hill, which is a very common toponym in Slovene-inhabited areas.
The document referred to Gorizia as the known as Goriza in the language of the Slavs. From the 11th century, the town had two different layers of development, the castle district and the village beneath it. The first played a role and the second a rural-commercial role. In 1500, the dynasty of the Counts of Gorizia died out and their County passed to Austrian Habsburg rule, under Habsburg dominion, the town spread out at the foot of the castle. Many settlers from northern Italy moved there and started their commerce, Gorizia developed into a multi-ethnic town, in which Friulian, Venetian and Slovene language was spoken. In mid-16th century, Gorizia emerged as a centre of Protestant Reformation, the prominent Slovene Protestant preacher Primož Trubar visited and preached in the town. By the end of the century, Catholic Counter-Reformation had gained force in Gorizia, led by the local dean Janez Tavčar, Tavčar was instrumental in bringing the Jesuit order to the town, which played a role in the education and cultural life in Gorizia thereafter.
Gorizia was at first part of the County of Görz and since 1754, a new town quarter developed around the Cathedral where many treasures from the Basilica of Aquileia were transferred. Many new villas were built conveying to the town the typical late Baroque appearance, a synagogue was built within the town walls, which was another example of Gorizias relatively tolerant multi-ethnic nature. During the Napoleonic Wars, Gorizia was incorporated to the French Illyrian Provinces between 1809 and 1813, after the restoration of the Austrian rule, the Gorizia and its County were incorporated in the administrative unit known as the Kingdom of Illyria. During this period, Gorizia emerged as a summer residence of the Austrian nobility
Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavians power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power, the imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empires existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, following Octavians victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. Vespasian emerged triumphant in 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his son Titus and his short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated.
The senate appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus, Commodus assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine I. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour and it remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine adopted Christianity which became the state religion of the empire. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos.
The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history, at its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the entire population. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, then, it was an empire long before it had an emperor
Kobarid is a settlement in Slovenia, the administrative centre of the Municipality of Kobarid. Kobarid is known for the 1917 Battle of Caporetto, where the Italian retreat was documented by Ernest Hemingway in his novel A Farewell to Arms, the battle is well documented in the museum in the centre of Kobarid. The museum won a Council of Europe award in 1993, Kobarid was attested in written sources as Kauoretum in 1184. The Slovenian name is derived from *Koboridъ, borrowed from Old Friulian *Kaborệdu, the original Romance form of the name, *Caprētum, is probably derived from Latin caper goat and refers to a place where there are goats. The town is known as Cjaurêt in Friulian, Karfreit in German, the municipality is the westernmost in Slovenia, situated within the Julian Alps in the Upper Soča Valley, at the confluence with the Nadiža River, close to the border with Italy. In the southwest, the leads to the neighbouring Italian comune of Pulfero. The area is located in the north of the historic Goriška region, Kobarid has been inhabited since prehistoric times.
Archaeological remains from the Hallstatt period have been found in the area, the nearby Tonocov Grad archaeological site has remains of 5th-century Roman buildings, when the area was located in the forefront of the Claustra Alpium Iuliarum defense system. The settlement was an important base on the Roman road from Forum Iulii up to the Predil Pass, in the 6th century, the area was settled by Slavic tribes, ancestors of the modern Slovenes. When Kobarid was first mentioned in 1184, it was part of the Patria del Friuli ruled by the Patriarchs of Aquileia. With the exception of a period between 1809 and 1813, when it was included under the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy, Kobarid remained under Austrian rule until 1918. In the mid-19th century, the became an important centre of the Slovene national revival. At the outset of World War I, the area saw one of the first victims of the conflict, Countess Lucy Christalnigg, during the war, the whole area was the theatre of the Battles of the Isonzo, fought between the Kingdom of Italy and Austria-Hungary.
The town was almost completely destroyed between 1915 and 1917, Kobarid was a comune of the Province of Gorizia, except during the period between 1924 and 1927, when the Province of Gorizia was abolished and annexed to the Province of Udine. Between 1922 and 1943, Kobarid was submitted to a policy of violent Fascist Italianization, the town became one of the crucial centres of recruitment and activity of the militant anti-fascist organization TIGR, which carried out an underground fight against the Italian Fascist regime. During the Italian administration, Kobarid became an important symbolic place for the Fascist authorities because of its role in World War I, an Italian military ossuary was built on the hill above the town, and Benito Mussolini visited Kobarid in 1938. During this period, almost all Italian families that settled in Kobarid during the 25 years of Italian administration left the town. In early November 1943, Nazi German forces took over the town and established their rule until May 1945, in early June 1945, Kobarid came under joint British–U. S
Aquileia was founded as a colony by the Romans in 180/181 BC along the Natiso River, on land south of the Julian Alps but about 13 kilometres north of the lagoons. In fact, the chosen for Aquileia was about 6 km from where an estimated 12,000 Celtic Taurisci nomads had attempted to settle in 183 BC. However, since the 13th century BC, the site, on the river and it is, theoretically not unlikely that Aquileia had been a Gallic oppidum even before the coming of the Romans. However, few Celtic artifacts have been discovered from 500 BC to the Roman arrival, each of the men had first hand knowledge of Cisalpine Gaul. Nasica had conquered the Boii in 191, flaminius had overseen the construction of the road named after him from Bologna to Arezzo. Acidinus had conquered the Taurisci in 183, the triumvirate led 3,000 families to settle the area meaning Aquileia probably had a population of 20,000 soon after its founding. Meanwhile, based on the evidence of names chiseled on stone, the majority of colonizing families came from Picenum and Campania, among these colonists, pedites received 50 iugera of land each, centuriones received 100 iugera each, and equites received 140 iugera each.
Either at the founding or not long afterward, colonists from the nearby Veneti supplemented these families, roads soon connected Aquileia with the Roman colony of Bologna probably in 173 BC. The construction of the Via Popilia from the Roman colony of Ariminium to Ad Portum near Altinum in 132 BC improved communications still further. In the 1st century AD, the Via Gemina would link Aquileia with Emona to the east of the Julian Alps and it had, in times at least, considerable brickfields. In 90 BC, the original Latin colony became a municipium, the customs boundary of Italy was close by in Ciceros day. Caesar visited the city on a number of occasions and pitched winter camp nearby in 59-58 BC, although the Iapydes plundered Aquileia during the Augustan period, subsequent increased settlement and no lack of profitable work meant the city was able to develop its resources. Jewish artisans established a trade in glasswork. Metal from Noricum was forged and exported, the ancient Venetic trade in amber from the Baltic continued.
Wine, especially its famous Pucinum was exported, oil was imported from Proconsular Africa. By sea, the port of Aquae Gradatae, modern Grado, augustus was the first of a number of emperors to visit Aquileia, notably during the Pannonian wars in 12‑10 BC. It was the birthplace of Tiberius son by Julia, in the latter year, the Roman poet Martial praised Aquileia as his hoped for haven and resting place in his old age. In terms of religion, the populace adopted the Roman pantheon, although the Celtic sungod, Jews practiced their ancestral religion and it was perhaps some of these Jews who became the first Christians
Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia, is a nation state in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the south and southeast, and it covers 20,273 square kilometers and has a population of 2.06 million. It is a republic and a member of the United Nations, European Union. The capital and largest city is Ljubljana, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia. The country, marked by a significant biological diversity, is one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a river network, a rich aquifer system. Over half of the territory is covered by forest, the human settlement of Slovenia is dispersed and uneven. Slovenia has historically been the crossroads of South Slavic, Romance, although the population is not homogeneous, the majority is Slovene. South Slavic language Slovene is the language throughout the country.
Slovenia is a largely secularized country, but its culture and identity have been influenced by Catholicism as well as Lutheranism. The economy of Slovenia is small and export-oriented and has strongly influenced by international conditions. It has been hurt by the Eurozone crisis, started in the late 2000s. The main economic field is services, followed by industry and construction, the current territory of Slovenia was part of many different state formations, including the Roman Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, followed by the Habsburg Monarchy. In October 1918, the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the State of Slovenes, Croats, in December 1918, they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. During World War II, Slovenia was occupied and annexed by Germany and Hungary, with a tiny area transferred to the Independent State of Croatia, in June 1991, after the introduction of multi-party representative democracy, Slovenia split from Yugoslavia and became an independent country.
Present-day Slovenia has been inhabited since prehistoric times, and there is evidence of habitation from around 250,000 years ago. A pierced cave bear bone, dating from 43100 ±700 BP, in the 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the Cro-Magnon such as pierced bones, bone points, and needle were found by archaeologist Srečko Brodar in Potok Cave. It shows that wooden wheels appeared almost simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe, in the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Archaeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found, particularly in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situlas in Novo Mesto, in the Iron Age, present-day Slovenia was inhabited by Illyrian and Celtic tribes until the 1st century BC
The Solkan Bridge is a 219. 7-metre arch bridge over the Soča River near Nova Gorica in western Slovenia. With an arch span of 85 metres, it is the longest stone bridge among train bridges built of stone blocks and it holds the record as construction technology used reinforced concrete to build bridges. It was originally built in the time of the Secession, between 1900 and 1905, and officially opened in 1906, the bridge was designed by the architect Rudolf Jaussner and engineer Leopold Örley, initially with an 80 m stone arch. The bridge was built by the Viennese construction company Brüder Redlich und Berger between 1904 and 1905, in the spring of 1904 the builders had to change the project because of the light soil and increased the arch to 85 meters. It is built of 4,533 stone blocks, on July 19,1906, the railway from Jesenice to Gorizia was inaugurated. In August 1916, during the First World War, Austrian soldiers destroyed the bridge as they left Solkan to prevent the forces from using it.
After the war the Italians first built a steel construction where the bridge once stood and in April 1925 started to build a new bridge and this bridge was very similar to the first one, with the exception of having only four sub-arches instead of the original five. During the Second World War the bridge suffered only minimal damage from bomb attacks, on August 10,1944, bombs didnt hit the bridge, on March 15,1945, a bomb having hit the bridge didnt explode. Gorazd Humar, Kamniti velikan na Soči, Nova Gorica 1996, ISBN 961-6079-30-1. Gorazd Humar, Bogdan Kladnik, Slovenski Mostovi, Bridges of Slovenia, teil 2, Štajerska, Gorenjska, Prekmurje. Eduard Jordan, Der Eisbahnviadukt von Solkan/Salcano Walther Schaumann, Die Bahnen zwischen Ortler und Isonzo 1914 -1918, media related to Solkan Bridge at Wikimedia Commons
Tolmin is a small town in northwestern Slovenia. It is the centre of the Municipality of Tolmin. Tolmin is situated on the rim of the Julian Alps. It is located on a terrace above the confluence of the Soča and Tolminka rivers, the old town gave its name to the entire Tolmin area as its economic and administrative centre. The area is located in the historic Goriška region, itself part of the larger Slovene Littoral, in the north, the road leads further up the Soča River to Bovec, with an eastern branch-off to Škofja Loka and Idrija. Early inhabitants were Illyrians in Tolmin area, ancestors of Slovenes had come to this area during the Slavic settlement of the Eastern Alps from about 600 onwards, embattled by Avar raids. It was passed to Middle Francia in 843 after the Treaty of Verdun and in 952 passed to the vast March of Verona, which was initially ruled by the Dukes of Bavaria, from 976 by the Carinthian dukes. King Henry IV of Germany ceded it to the newly established Patria del Friuli in 1077, finally the Tolmin area was conquered by the Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I during the War of the League of Cambrai in 1509.
Tolmin was ruled with the possessions of the extinct Counts of Gorizia as part of the Inner Austrian territories of the Habsburg Monarchy, in 1713 it was the centre of a peasant revolt against increased taxation and the local Count Coronini. It was part of the Illyrian Provinces, which were part of Napoleonic French Empire between 1809 and 1814 before returning to Austrian rule. Until 1918, the town was part of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy and head of the district of the same name, a post-office was opened in October 1850 under the German name. After World War I it was ruled by the Kingdom of Italy between 1918 and 1943 and it was a county center in Province of Gorizia between 1918 and 1923 and again between 1927 and 1943 and in Province of Friuli between 1923 and 1927 during Italian rule as Tolmino. After the Italian caputilation, it was occupied by Nazi Germany in 1943 and was part of Operational Zone of the Adriatic Littoral before liberation by Yugoslav partisans, after temporary division of Julian March by Morgan Line, Tolmin was part of Zone-B, which was under Yugoslav administrators.
It was officially passed from Italy to Yugoslavia in 1947 after the Treaty of Paris, finally Tolmin was passed to Slovenia after breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991. Tolmins main sights are its old centre, a modern sports park. The area is home to a multitude of vestiges from World War I, the museum, library and the town’s open spaces provide venues for a variety of events and presentations all year round. The Tolmin region is a destination for artists from Slovenia. The parish church in the town is dedicated to the Assumption of Mary, Tolmin is known for the Metalcamp festival since 2004, which since 2013 is called Metaldays, which every year attracts about 10,000 people from whole Europe and other parts of world
The Trenta Valley is a valley in the Julian Alps in the northern part of the traditional Gorizia region of Slovenia. The source of the Soča River and the settlements of Soča, the Vršič Pass connects the valley with Upper Carniola to the east. The Soča flows generally southwest through the valley and onwards to Bovec, the name Trenta is of Friulian origin and was borrowed into Slovene. The name developed from *Tridenta, meaning three-tooth or divided into three teeth and this reflects the geography because the valley splits into the Soča and Zadnjica valleys, and the latter is soon split again by White Creek, creating three closely spaced summits. Media related to Trenta at Wikimedia Commons Soča - Trenta Tourist Association official website
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany