South Sudan known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa. The country gained its independence from the Republic of the Sudan in 2011, making it the newest country with widespread recognition, its capital and largest city is Juba. South Sudan is bordered by Sudan to the north, Ethiopia to the east, Kenya to the southeast, Uganda to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southwest and the Central African Republic to the west, it includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd, formed by the White Nile and known locally as the Bahr al Jabal, meaning "Mountain Sea". Sudan was occupied by Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty and was governed as an Anglo-Egyptian condominium until Sudanese independence in 1956. Following the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. A second Sudanese civil war soon broke out; that year, southern autonomy was restored when an Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed.
South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011, following 98.83% support for independence in a January 2011 referendum. South Sudan has a population of 12 million of the Nilotic peoples. Christianity is the majority religion. In September 2017 the UN Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict said that half of South Sudan's inhabitants are under 18 years old, it is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the East African Community and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development. In July 2012, South Sudan signed the Geneva Conventions. South Sudan has suffered ethnic violence and has been in a civil war since 2013; as of 2018, South Sudan ranks third lowest in the latest UN World Happiness Report, has the highest score on the American Fund for Peace's Fragile States Index. The Nilotic people of South Sudan—the Acholi, Bari, Nuer, Shilluk and others—first entered South Sudan sometime before the 10th century coinciding with the fall of medieval nubia. During the period from the 15th to the 19th centuries, tribal migrations from the area of Bahr el Ghazal, brought the Anyuak, Dinka and Shilluk to their modern locations of both Bahr El Ghazal and Upper Nile Regions, while the Acholi and Bari settled in Equatoria.
The Azande, Mundu and Baka, who entered South Sudan in the 16th century, established the region's largest state of Equatoria Region. The Dinka are the largest, Nuer the second largest, the Azande the third-largest and the Bari are the fourth-largest ethnic group in the country, they are found in the Maridi and Tombura districts in the tropical rainforest belt of Western Equatoria, the Adio of Azande client in Yei, Central Equatoria and Western Bahr el Ghazal. In the 18th century, the Avungara sib rose to power over the rest of Azande society and this domination continued into the 20th century. Geographical barriers, including the swamplands along the White Nile and the British preference for sending Christian missionaries to the southern regions, including its Closed District Ordinance of 1922, helped to prevent the spread of Islam to the southerners, thus enabling them to retain their social and cultural heritage, as well as their political and religious institutions; the major reasons include the long history of British policy preference toward developing the Arab north and its ignoring the Black south.
After Sudan's first independent elections in 1958, the continued ignoring of the south by Khartoum led to uprisings and the longest civil war on the continent. As of 2012, peoples include Acholi, Azande, Balanda Bviri, Boya, Dinka, Kaligi, Lotuka, Murie, Nuer, Shilluk and Zande. Slavery had been an institution of Sudanese life throughout history; the slave trade in the south intensified in the 19th century, continued after the British had suppressed slavery in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Annual Sudanese slave raids into non-Muslim territories resulted in the capture of countless thousands of southern Sudanese, the destruction of the region's stability and economy; the Azande have had good relations with the neighbors, namely the Moru, Mundu, Pöjulu, Avukaya and the small groups in Bahr el Ghazal, due to the expansionist policy of their king Gbudwe, in the 18th century. In the 19th century, the Azande fought the French, the Belgians and the Mahdists to maintain their independence. Egypt, under the rule of Khedive Ismail Pasha, first attempted to control the region in the 1870s, establishing the province of Equatoria in the southern portion.
Egypt's first governor was Samuel Baker, commissioned in 1869, followed by Charles George Gordon in 1874 and by Emin Pasha in 1878. The Mahdist Revolt of the 1880s destabilized the nascent province, Equatoria ceased to exist as an Egyptian outpost in 1889. Important settlements in Equatoria included Lado, Gondokoro and Wadelai. European colonial maneuverings in the region came to a head in 1898, when the Fashoda Incident occurred at present-day Kodok. In 1947, British hopes to join South Sudan with Uganda, as well as leaving Western Equatoria as part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, were dashed by the Rajaf Conference to unify North and South Sudan. South Sudan has an estimated population of 8 million, given the lack of a census in several decades, this estimate may be distorted; the economy relies chiefly on subsistence farming. Around 2005, the economy began a transition from this rural dominance, urban areas within South Suda
The Jur River is a river in western South Sudan, flowing through the Bahr el Ghazal and Equatoria regions. About 485 kilometres long, it flows north and northeast, joining the Bahr el Ghazal River on the western side of the Sudd wetlands; the Jur River is part of the Nile basin. The Jur is a seasonal stream, its discharge can reach 400 m3/s in September. The upper course of the Jur is called the Sue; the Jur River's headwaters flow from the Congo-Nile Divide, which separates the Nile and Congo River basins, along South Sudan's border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Central African Republic. The main tributaries being the Sue River, Busseri River, Wau River, Numatinna River; the spelling and precise meaning of these river names differ among sources. The tributaries come together near the capital of the state of Western Bahr el Ghazal. Below Wau the Jur River bends eastward. Due to the nature of the wetlands it is not always clear whether one river flows into another or merges in the general Sudd swamps.
Some sources cite the Lol River as a tributary of the Jur. Some sources say the Jur joins the Bahr al-Arab and the confluence marks the start of the Bahr el Ghazal, but more recent sources say that the Jur joins the Bahr el Ghazal at Lake Ambadi and that the Bahr al-Arab joins the Bahr el Ghazal some distance downriver from Lake Ambadi. According to author Mamdouh Shahin, the Lol, Tonj, Bahr al-Arab, others streams, are all tributaries of the Bahr el Ghazal, but that their channels disappear in the wetlands before reaching any outlet. Among the ethnic groups living in the Jur basin are the Dinka, Jurchol who call themselves Jo-luo. "Jur" is a Dinka word for "alien" or "non-Dinka". The Jur River was explored by John Petherick between 1853 and 1865. In 1897–98 the Jur River was surveyed throughout its course by Lieutenant A. H. Dyé and other members of a French mission under Jean-Baptiste Marchand during the Scramble for Africa. List of rivers of South Sudan
The Pibor River is a river in eastern South Sudan, which defines part of South Sudan's border with Ethiopia. From its source near Pibor Post it flows north for about 320 kilometres, joining the Baro River to form the Sobat River, a tributary of the White Nile; the Pibor and its tributaries drain a watershed 10,000 km2 in size. The river's mean annual discharge at its mouth is 98 m³/s; the Pibor River is formed by various streams that come together at Pibor Post, a colonial era outpost built in 1912 and called Fort Bruce. The Pibor flows north. Continuing north the Pibor receives the Gilo River and Bela Rivers on the right joins the Baro River, forming the Sobat River; the Pibor, Baro and Akobo rivers all drain the Ethiopian Highlands. The Baro River is by far the largest, contributing 83% of the total water flowing into the Sobat River. During the rainy season, between June and October, the Baro River alone contributes about 10% of the Nile's water at Aswan, Egypt. In contrast, these rivers have low flow during the dry season.
The boundary between Sudan and Ethiopia was defined for the region near the Pibor River in 1899 by Major H. H. Austin and Major Charles W. Gwynn of the British Royal Engineers, they had no knowledge of the land, its inhabitants, or their languages, were short on supplies. Rather than defining a line based on ethnic groups and traditional territories along the escarpment that separates the Ethiopian Highlands and the plains of the Sudanian Savanna, they proposed a line drawn down the middle of the Akobo River and parts of the Pibor and Baro rivers; this boundary was consummated in the Anglo-Ethiopian Treaty of 1902, resulting in an area in Ethiopian Gambela Region called the Baro Salient. This area is more connected to South Sudan than Ethiopia, both in terms of natural features and people; the Baro Salient was used as a sanctuary by Sudanese insurgents during the country's long civil wars. It was difficult for Sudan to exert authority over a region, part of Ethiopia, Ethiopia was reluctant to police this remote region and become involved in the politics of Sudan's internal conflicts.
List of rivers of South Sudan List of rivers of Ethiopia C. R. K. B. "Correspondence: the Pibor River", Sudan Notes and Records, 4, pp. 237 – 240. Thorburn, D. Hay. "The Pibor River". The Geographical Journal. 60: 210–217. Doi:10.2307/1781056. ISSN 0016-7398. JSTOR 1781056
A river is a natural flowing watercourse freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, brook and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the scientific study of rivers, while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, as a means of disposing of waste.
A river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, ends at a mouth or mouths. The water in a river is confined to a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel; this distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred in urban areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become developed by housing and industry. Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys or along plains, can create canyons or gorges; the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i.e. against the direction of flow. The term downriver describes the direction towards the mouth of the river, in which the current flows; the term left bank refers to the left bank in the direction of right bank to the right. The river channel contains a single stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water, producing a braided river.
Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide, such as the South Island of New Zealand. They occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are quite rare, they have multiple sinuous channels carrying large volumes of sediment. There are rare cases of river bifurcation in which a river divides and the resultant flows ending in different seas. An example is the bifurcation of Nerodime River in Kosovo. A river flowing in its channel is a source of energy which acts on the river channel to change its shape and form. In 1757, the German hydrologist Albert Brahms empirically observed that the submerged weight of objects that may be carried away by a river is proportional to the sixth power of the river flow speed; this formulation is sometimes called Airy's law. Thus, if the speed of flow is doubled, the flow would dislodge objects with 64 times as much submerged weight. In mountainous torrential zones this can be seen as erosion channels through hard rocks and the creation of sands and gravels from the destruction of larger rocks.
A river valley, created from a U-shaped glaciated valley, can easily be identified by the V-shaped channel that it has carved. In the middle reaches where a river flows over flatter land, meanders may form through erosion of the river banks and deposition on the inside of bends. Sometimes the river will cut off a loop, shortening the channel and forming an oxbow lake or billabong. Rivers that carry large amounts of sediment may develop conspicuous deltas at their mouths. Rivers whose mouths are in saline tidal waters may form estuaries. Throughout the course of the river, the total volume of water transported downstream will be a combination of the free water flow together with a substantial volume flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels that underlie the river and its floodplain. For many rivers in large valleys, this unseen component of flow may exceed the visible flow. Most but not all rivers flow on the surface. Subterranean rivers flow underground in caverns; such rivers are found in regions with limestone geologic formations.
Subglacial streams are the braided rivers that flow at the beds of glaciers and ice sheets, permitting meltwater to be discharged at the front of the glacier. Because of the gradient in pressure due to the overlying weight of the glacier, such streams can flow uphill. An intermittent river only flows and can be dry for several years at a time; these rivers are found in regions with limited or variable rainfall, or can occur because of geologic conditions such as a permeable river bed. Some ephemeral rivers flow during the summer months but not in the winter; such rivers are fed from chalk aquifers which recharge from winter rainfall. In England these rivers are called bournes and give their name to places such as Bournemouth and Eastbourne. In humid regions, the location where flow begins in the smallest tributary streams moves upstream in response to precipitation and downstream in its absence or when active summer vegetation diverts water for evapotrans
The Blue Nile is a river originating at Lake Tana in Ethiopia. With the White Nile, it is one of the two major tributaries of the Nile; the Blue Nile supplies about 80% of the water in the Nile during the rainy season. The Blue Nile is so-called because floods during the summer monsoon erode a vast amount of fertile soil from the Ethiopian Highlands and carry it downstream as silt, turning the water dark brown or black; the distance of the river from its source to its confluence has been variously reported as being between 1,460 kilometres and 1,600 kilometres. This uncertainty over the length might result from the fact that the river flows through a series of impenetrable gorges cut in the Ethiopian Highlands to a depth of some 1,500 metres —a depth comparable to that of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River in the United States. According to materials published by the Central Statistical Agency, the Blue Nile has a total length of 1,450 kilometres, of which 800 kilometres are inside Ethiopia.
The Blue Nile flows south from Lake Tana and west across Ethiopia and northwest into Sudan. Within 30 km of its source at Lake Tana, the river enters a canyon about 400 km long; this gorge is a tremendous obstacle for travel and communication from the north half of Ethiopia to the southern half. The canyon was first referred to as the "Grand Canyon" by the British team that accomplished the first descent of the river from Lake Tana to near the end of the canyon in 1968. Subsequent river rafting parties called this the "Grand Canyon of the Nile"; the power of the Blue Nile may best be appreciated at the Blue Nile Falls, which are 45 metres high, located about 40 kilometres downstream of Lake Tana. Although there are several feeder streams that flow into Lake Tana, the sacred source of the river is considered to be a small spring at Gish Abay, situated at an altitude of 2,744 metres; this stream, known as the Gilgel Abay, flows north into Lake Tana. Other affluents of this lake include, in clockwise order from Gorgora, the Magech River, the Northern Gumara, the Reb River, the southern Gumara River, the Kilte.
Lake Tana's outflow flows some 30 kilometres before plunging over the Blue Nile Falls. The river loops across northwest Ethiopia through a series of deep valleys and canyons into Sudan, by which point it is only known as the Blue Nile. There are numerous tributaries of the Abay between the Sudanese border; those on its left bank, in downstream order, include the Wanqa River, the Bashilo River, the Walaqa River, the Wanchet River, the Jamma River, the Muger River, the Guder River, the Agwel River, the Nedi River, the Didessa River and the Dabus River. Those on the right side in downstream order, include the Handassa, Abaya, Tammi, Shita, Muga, Temcha, Katlan, Chamoga and the Beles. After flowing past Er Roseires inside Sudan, receiving the Dinder on its right bank at Dinder, the Blue Nile joins the White Nile at Khartoum and, as the Nile, flows through Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea at Alexandria; the flow of the Blue Nile reaches maximum volume in the rainy season, when it supplies 70-80% of the water of the Nile proper.
The Blue Nile was a major source of the flooding of the Nile that contributed to the fertility of the Nile Valley and the consequent rise of Ancient Egypt and Egyptian mythology. With the completion in 1970 of the Aswan Dam in Egypt, the Nile floods ended for lower Egypt; the Blue Nile is vital to the livelihood of Egypt. The Blue Nile, the most significant tributary of the Nile, contributes more than half of the Nile's streamflow. Though shorter than the White Nile, 59% of the water that reaches Egypt originates from the Blue Nile branch of the great river; the river is an important resource for Sudan, where the Roseires Dam and Sennar Dams produce 80% of the country's power. These dams help irrigate the Gezira Scheme, most famous for its high quality cotton; the region produces wheat and animal feed crops. In November 2012, Ethiopia began a six-year project for the construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, a 6000-megawatt hydroelectric dam on the river; the dam is expected to be a boost for the Ethiopian economy.
Sudan and Egypt, voiced their concern over a potential reduction in water available. The first European to have seen the Blue Nile in Ethiopia and the river's source was Pedro Páez, a Spanish Jesuit who reached the river's source 21 April 1613; the Portuguese João Bermudes, the self-described "Patriarch of Ethiopia," provided the first description of the Blue Nile Falls in his memoirs published in 1565, a number of Europeans who lived in Ethiopia in the late 15th century such as Pêro da Covilhã could have seen the river long before Páez, but not reached its places of source. The source of the Blue Nile was reached in 1629 by the Portuguese Jesuit missionary Jerónimo Lobo and in 1770 by James Bruce. Although a number of European explorers contemplated tracing the course of the Blue Nile from its confluence with the White Nile to Lake Tana, its gorge, which begins a few kilometres inside the Ethiopian border, has discouraged all attempts since Frédéric Cailliaud's attempt in 1821; the first serious attempt by a non-local to explore this reach of the river was undertaken by the American W.
W. Macmillan in 1902, assisted by the Norwegian explorer B. H. Jenssen. However, Jenssen's boats were blocked by t
The Kidepo River is a seasonal river along the Kidepo Valley in the Karamoja region of Uganda, in East Equatoria area of South Sudan. Seasonal rivers of Uganda include Agago river,Lumansi river, Kidepo river List of rivers of Uganda List of rivers of South Sudan