Soca music is a genre of music that originated within a marginalized subculture in Trinidad and Tobago in the early 1970s, developed into a range of styles by the 1980s and later. Soca was developed by Lord Shorty in the early 1970s in an effort to revive traditional calypso, the popularity of, flagging amongst younger generations in Trinidad by the start of the 1970s due to the rise in popularity of reggae from Jamaica and soul and funk from USA. Soca is an offshoot of kaiso/calypso, with influences from Latin, cadence and soul. Soca has evolved since the 1980s through musicians from various Anglophone Caribbean countries not only from its birthplace Trinidad and Tobago but from Antigua and Barbuda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Grenada, Saint Lucia, US and British Virgin Islands, The Bahamas and Belize. There have been significant productions from artists in Venezuela, Panama, the United States, the United Kingdom and Japan. Soca grew in popularity through the 1970s. Soca's development as a musical genre included its fusion with calypso, soul/funk, Latin and traditional West African rhythms.
A sound project was started in 1970 at KH Studios, Sea Lots in Trinidad, to find a way to record the complex calypso rhythm in a new multi-track era. Musicians involved in the initiative were Robin Imamshah, Angus Nunez, Errol Wise, Vonrick Maynard, Clarence James, Carl Henderson, David Boothman; some of the early songs recorded at the KH Studios that benefited from this recording project are “Indrani” by Lord Shorty and "Calypso Zest" by Sensational Roots both recorded in 1972. Came the soca hits “Endless Vibrations” and “Sweet Music” by Lord Shorty recorded in 1974 and 1975 and “Second Fiddle” by Ella Andall recorded in 1975. In 1976 “Savage” by Maestro and “Trinidad Boogie” by Last Supper benefitted from the improving multi-track recording technology at KH Studios. Soca has grown since its inception to incorporate elements of funk, soul and dance music genres, continues to blend in contemporary music styles and trends. Soca has been experimented with in Bollywood films, Bhangra, in new Punjabi pop, in disco music in the United States.
The "father" of soca was a Trinidadian man named Garfield Blackman who rose to fame as "Lord Shorty" with his 1964 hit "Cloak and Dagger" and took on the name "Ras Shorty I" in the early 1980s. He started out performing in the calypso genre. A prolific musician and innovator, Shorty experimented with fusing calypso and elements of Indo-Caribbean music for nearly a decade from 1965 before unleashing "the soul of calypso", soca music by the early 1970s. Shorty was the first to define his music as "soca" during 1975 when his hit song “Endless Vibrations” was causing major musical waves on radio stations and at parties and clubs not just throughout his native T&T but in far off metropolitan cities like New York and London. Soca was spelled Sokah which stands for the “Soul of Calypso” with the “kah” part being taken from the first letter in the Sanskrit alphabet and representing the Power of movement as well as the East Indian rhythmic influence that helped to inspire the new soca beat. Shorty stated in a number of interviews that the idea for the new soca beat started with the rhythmic fusion of Calypso rhythms with East Indian rhythms that he used in his hit "Indrani" recorded in 1972.
The soca beat was solidified as the popular new beat that most of the T&T Calypso musicians would start adopting by the time Shorty had recorded his big crossover hit “Endless Vibrations” in 1974. Shorty recorded a mid-year album in 1975 called “Love In The Caribbean” that contains a number of crossover soca tracks before setting off on an album distribution and promotion tour. During his 1975 “Love In The Caribbean” album promotion and distribution tour Shorty passed through the isle of Dominica on his way back to Trinidad and saw Dominica's top band Exile One perform at the Fort Young Hotel. Shorty was inspired to compose and record a Soca and Cadence-lypso fusion track called “E Pete” or “Ou Petit” which can be viewed as the first of its kind in that particular Soca style. Shorty sought and got help with the Creole lyrics he used in the chorus of his “E Pete” song by consulting with Dominica's 1969 Calypso King, Lord Tokyo, two creole lyricists, Chris Seraphine and Pat Aaron while he was in Dominica.
The song “E Pete” thus contains genuine Creole lyrics in the chorus like "Ou dee moin ou petit Shorty", is a combination of Soca, Cadence-lypso and Creole. Shorty's 1974 Endless Vibrations and Soul of Calypso brought Soca to regional and international attention and fame and helped to solidify the growing Soca Movement led by Shorty. Soca means the "Soul of Calypso", but the name has nothing to do with the fusion of American soul music and calypso as soca is rhythmically a fusion of African/calypso rhythms and East Indian rhythms. Soca's history is multi-faceted. Regarding its name, Lord Shorty spelled his musical hybrid as "sokah" and stated in a 1979 interview with Carnival Magazine that "I came up with the name soca. I invented soca, and I never spelt it s-o-c-a. It was s-o-k-a-h to reflect the East Indian influence." The s-o-c-a spelling became the popular spelling after a journalist called Ivor Ferreira interviewed Shorty for an article on his new style of calypso music he was doing, published during the 1976 T&T Carnival season.
The Bossier City Municipal Building, at 630 Barksdale Boulevard in Bossier City, was built in 1926. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2002, it is a two-story brick building which included city offices, an auditorium/council chamber, a jail and a fire station. It was converted in the 1980s to be home for the Bossier Arts Council, it was designed by architects Jones, Olschner & Wiener with some elements that can be termed Renaissance Revival in style. According to its NRHP nomination, ithas a romantic and evocative style that partakes of the Italian Renaissance and Baroque, although the effect is dependent upon accent features rather than overall design. Despite some admittedly significant alterations over the years, the building retains the bulk of its original exterior character and would be recognizable to someone from the historic period. Hence it conveys its identity and historical significance as a “coming of age” for Bossier City; the Municipal Building’s Italian flavor can be seen in its villa-like asymmetrical massing under a low, broadly overhanging roof with spaced extended brackets.
The asymmetry is nonetheless convincing when seen from a three-quarter view. Massing takes the form of a large, low-pitch, gable-fronted main block with a one story projection on the east side and a two story projection containing the staircase on the west side. At the rear is a flat roofed fire station wing; the one story addition spanning the western elevation of the main block, behind the staircase “tower,” dates from the historic period. Its brickwork and windows are identical to the original construction. A series of great round arch windows on the second story facade and side elevations light what was the council chamber. Five of these windows span the façade. Above them, in the low gable, is a cast stone tablet with classical details identifying the building. National Register of Historic Places listings in Bossier Parish, Louisiana
Peace Trail is the 36th studio album by Canadian singer-songwriter Neil Young, released on December 9, 2016 on Reprise Records. Co-produced by Young and John Hanlon, the album was recorded at record producer Rick Rubin's Shangri-La Studios. Described as a "primarily acoustic" album, Young recorded Peace Trail with drummer Jim Keltner and bass guitarist Paul Bushnell. Peace Trail was written and recorded following the release of Young's live album, Earth, in 2016. Despite working extensively with Promise of the Real throughout 2015 and 2016, Young opted to record a solo album with session musicians Jim Keltner and Paul Bushnell; the album was recorded in four days. Peace Trail received mixed reviews upon its release. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album has received an average score of 57, based on 18 reviews, indicating "mixed or average reviews". In a positive review for Uncut, Damien Love expressed surprise that Young opted not to record with his current backing band Promise of the Real, but praised the album's collaborators, Paul Bushnell and Jim Keltner: "Bushnell provides that perfect kind of bass you notice.
Keltner’s percussion is a different story. Captured in first or second takes, he doesn’t so much keep the beat as respond to what Young is doing, an improvised interplay of odd, shaggy patterns; the record becomes a duet between Young and Keltner." In another positive review for Classic Rock Magazine, Rob Hughes wrote: "While it may not be the most musically involved album of his 50-year career, it’s persuasive evidence that Young still has a lot to offer."In a positive review for Pitchfork, Sam Sodomsky praised Young's dedication to releasing politically-charged albums and his prolific output: "While Young’s voice has never sounded older than it does here, there’s something youthful about his energy. Besides the fact that his two-album-a-year-clip keeps him in pace with your Ty Segalls or John Dwyers, his music is guided by a restless determination to cover new ground and speak his mind."In a negative review for Allmusic, Stephen Thomas Erlewine suggests that the album's recording process was rushed: "It's interesting aesthetically, but the problem with Peace Trail isn't the concept, it's the execution.
Stewart Murray "Skip" Alexander, Jr. was an American collegiate and professional golfer. Alexander was born in Philadelphia, but was raised in Durham, North Carolina, he attended Duke University from 1937 to 1940. During that time, he helped Duke win the Southern Conference Championship in golf three times, won the individual conference title twice, was a two-time Southern Intercollegiate medalist and twice reached the quarter-finals of the National Intercollegiate Tournament. Alexander turned professional in 1941 and joined the PGA Tour in 1946. In 1948 he won the Tucson Open, he would win twice more on tour. On September 24, 1950, Alexander was the lone survivor of a plane crash in which he was burned over 70% of his body. After 17 operations, one of, to permanently freeze his badly burned fingers around the grip of a golf club instead of removing them, he returned to help the United States win the 1951 Ryder Cup. Sam Snead, the Ryder Cup captain that year, paired Alexander against the British champion, John Panton, in the singles portion of the competition.
Although the thought was that it might well be a throwaway match, it would at least save their other players from playing Panton, beating everyone at that time. Alexander, with both hands bleeding, won the match by the largest margin in Ryder Cup history to that point, 8 & 7. Alexander served as the golf pro at Lakewood Country Club in St. Petersburg, Florida starting in 1951, served in that capacity for 34 years. Alexander was awarded the 1959 Ben Hogan Award for golfers who make a comeback after suffering a physical handicap, he was inducted into the Carolinas Golf Hall of Fame in 1986 and in 1987 was inducted for into the North Carolina Sports Hall of Fame as well as the Duke Hall of Fame. His son Buddy, a former U. S. Amateur champion was the head golf coach at the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida from 1988–2014, he coached at Georgia Southern University and Louisiana State University. Alexander died at his home in St. Petersburg; this list may be incomplete 1941 North and South Amateur 1948 Tucson Open, National Capital Open 1950 Empire State Open this list may be incomplete 1946 Carolinas Open, Gainesville Open Ryder Cup: 1949, 1951
Akira Kuroiwa is a former speed skater from Japan, who represented his native country at two consecutive Winter Olympics, starting in 1984 in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia. In 1988, he won the bronze medal in the men's 500 metres, after having captured two world titles at the Sprints Championships. At the 1984 Winter Olympics, Kuroiwa placed 10th in the men's 500 m. Kuroiwa was a coach for the Japanese team during the 1998 Winter Olympics. In Japan, Kuroiwa made headlines in 2000 when he tried to shield Daisuke Matsuzaka from an illegal driving charge by taking the blame for himself. Akira Kuroiwa at the International Skating Union Akira Kuroiwa at the International Olympic Committee Akira Kuroiwa at the Olympic Channel Akira Kuroiwa at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com
Marianne Smit is a Dutch harpist. Marianne Smit has played the harp since 1995, she got her first harp lessons from her mother Gertru Smit-Pasveer. After one year she became student of Anke Anderson; as of September 1998 she became a student of Erika Waardenburg, first in the Young-Talent department in the pre-music-academy of Amsterdam. In June 2007 she graduated ‘cum laude’ on her Bachelor exam. She's in the second year of studies for a Masters diploma. Marianne has participated in an audition training with Petra van der Heide. In this course she won the first prize which resulted in her participation in two concerts with the Dutch Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, she played several times in productions with the Dutch Radio Philharmonic Orchestra. World-renowned composer Karlheinz Stockhausen composed a piece for Esther Kooi; this new composition, Freude for two harps from the Klang cycle, premiered on June 7, 2006 in the Duomo of Milan. Karlheinz Stockhausen - Freude für 2 Harfen, 2. Stunde aus Klang, Marianne Smit and Esther Kooi Strings Attached, Dutch Youth String Orchestra, conductor Johannes Leertouwer, with Marianne Smit and Giselle Boeters in Concertino in an Old Style by Maciej Malecki Prinses Christina Concours: 1st prize 1998 & 2002 SJMN Musictalent Concours: 1st prize 1998, 2002 & 2004 Dutch National Harpconcours: Finalist 2000 Freude - Stockhausen: World Premiere Milan 2006 Royal Philharmonic Society Music Award: Nomination for performance in season 2008 Marianne Smit - Official website "Marianne Smit - Official Website", "Royal Philharmonic Society, winners 2009", "Stockhausen on Freude für Zwei Harfen", "Program Pause Milan 2006", "Stockhausen complete CD catalog - CD 84, Joy for two harps", "NJSO CD's - Strings Attached"