Maurice Bokanowski was a French lawyer and left-wing Republican politician who served as Minister of the Navy in 1924, was Minister of Commerce and Industry in 1926–28. He began a reorganization of aviation in France. Maurice Bokanowski was born Moïse Bokanowski in Le Havre, Seine-Maritime on 31 August 1879, he was the sixth child of seven. His parents were Léon Bokanowski, an ice vendor, Julie Rasskowska, they had married in Paris on 21 April 1868. Both his parents were Polish in origin, they wanted to move to America, had gone to Le Havre to try to find a passage. They could not afford the cost, soon moved to Toulon, where Moïse's father founded a novelty shop. Léon Bokanowski died in 1891. Bokanowski undertook his military service in Toulon in 1899. Bokanowski attended the Ecole de commerce in Marseille, he went to Paris, where he studied Law and at the same time took a course in Chinese at the National School of Modern Oriental Languages. He studied at the free school of Political Sciences. Moïse adopted the first name "Maurice" around 1903, since a Jewish name would interfere with his planned political career.
On 20 July 1903, he was initiated into the Freemason lodge L'Action of the Grand Orient de France. He would remain a Freemason throughout the war, but resigned in June 1919. Bokanowski became an advocate in the Paris court of appeal in 1904, he submitted his thesis at the Faculty of Law of the University of Paris on 19 March 1908, on the subject of Commissions internationales d'enquête. In his thesis he argued for a Societé des Nations whose laws would govern states and ensure universal peace in the same way that individuals submit to the laws of their country. Bokanowski was a member of the General Association of Parisian Students, a committee member of the Association of former pupils of H. E. C, he married Marguerite Wolff on 14 April 1908. They would have three sons, Jean-Francois, Olivier and one daughter, Anne. Bokanowski competed in the legislative elections of 24 April and 8 May 1910 as a radical socialist in the third district of Saint-Denis, he lost, but ran in the legislative elections of 26 April and 10 May 1914 for the fourth district of Saint-Denis after campaigning for three years military service.
In the Chamber of Deputies he joined the Radical Socialist group. He was appointed to the committee of commerce and industry, to the committee of insurance and social welfare. In the pre-war years he was a secretary of the Republican league for electoral reform and a member of the executive council of the Peace Through Law Association. Germany declared war on France on 3 August 1914 at the start of World War I; as a deputy, Bokanowski was exempt from military service, but joined the army and in October 1914 was a second lieutenant of infantry on the Argonne front. He was assigned to the staff of the 42nd Division. In 1916 he was appointed to the General Staff of the Eastern Army under the command of General Maurice Sarrail, was decorated with the Legion of Honour. After the sinking of the SS Provence on which he was travelling to his post by a torpedo, he was cited for the order of the army and the navy. In 1917 he was on the staff of the army corps of General Auguste Hirschauer, participated in the Champagne offensive.
He returned to the Chamber of Deputies. Bokanowski was appointed to the committees of the budget, he was active, focusing on economic activities on laws related to checks and patents, on questions of national defense. After the debate about the Bolo Pasha and "Bonnet rouge" affairs, the Chamber of Deputies adopted his resolution of confidence in the government of Paul Painlevé to deliver the full rigors of the law against anyone guilty of passing intelligence to the enemy or engaging in propaganda that would weaken the resistance of the nation, he questioned "the action the Government intends to take to thwart the diplomatic maneuvers of Germany" and "the use of the economic weapon in the fight against Germany." On November 16, 1919 Bokanowski was reelected in the Seine on the platform of the Union républicaine et sociale. He was appointed of industry, he distinguished himself as assistant Rapporteur-General and as Rapporteur-General. He supported solid fiscal management and a balanced budget that did not depend on German reparations.
He was in favor of raising indirect taxes, but wanted to expand the base of direct taxation and improve its administration. In 1921 Bokanowski was one of the founding members and a member of the directing committee of the National Association of Advocates, he was a member of the legal council of the Syndicat of Journalists and Writers. He founded a think tank, he became President of the Société des artistes décorateurs. On 29 March 1924 Raymond Poincaré made Bokanowski Minister of the Navy, a post he held until the cabinet resigned on 1 June 1924 after the elections. Bokanowski was reelected in the general elections of 11 May 1924 as a radical Republican, he joined the Left Democratic Republicans in the chamber, resumed his positions on the committees of finance and commerce and of industry. He questioned the government several times on its financial policy, he was concerned both to balance the budget and to improve social conditions those of women and the family, During the financial crisis in 1925 he toured the country preaching confidence in the franc.
The crisis was resolved when Raymond Poincaré returned to power in 1926. He gave Bokanowski the portfolio of Trade and Industry, responsibility for Posts and Telegraphs and for Aviatio
André Pierre Gabriel Amédée Tardieu was three times Prime Minister of France and a dominant figure of French political life in 1929–1932. He was a moderate conservative with a strong intellectual reputation, but became a weak prime minister at the start of the worldwide Great Depression. Tardieu was a graduate of the elite Lycée Condorcet, he was accepted by the more prestigious École Normale Supérieure, but instead entered the diplomatic service. He left the service and became famous as foreign affairs editor of the newspaper Le Temps, he founded the conservative newspaper L'Echo National in association with Georges Mandel. In 1914 Tardieu was elected to the Chamber of Deputies from the département of Seine-et-Oise, as a candidate of the center-right Democratic Republican Alliance, he retained this seat till 1924. From 1926 to 1936, he represented the département of Territoire de Belfort; when World War I broke out Tardieu enlisted in the army, serving in the army, before being wounded and invalided home in 1916.
He returned to politics. He served as Georges Clemenceau's lieutenant in 1919 during the Paris Peace Conference and as Commissioner for Franco-American War Cooperation. On 8 November 1919, he became Minister of Liberated Regions, administering Alsace and Lorraine, serving until Clemenceau's defeat in 1920. In 1926, Tardieu returned to government as Minister of Transportation under Raymond Poincaré. In 1928, he moved to Minister of the Interior, continuing under Poincaré's successor Aristide Briand. In November 1929 Tardieu himself succeeded Briand as Président du Conseil, while remaining Interior Minister. Though considered a conservative, as Prime Minister he introduced a program of welfare measures, including public works, social insurance, free secondary schooling, he encouraged modern techniques in industry. On 11 March 1932, legislation was passed that established universal family allowances for all wage earners in business and industry with at least two children, he hoped to replace the old ideological standoff between the right and left to a more relevant division based on the modern economy.
He argued that "a more dynamic capitalism would dry up the Marxism of the working classes." The goal of his leadership was prosperity. When the Great Depression began in 1929 his goal was to evade a depression in France, which happened for several years. Monique Clague, says "An obstinate deflationist throughout the thirties Tardieu would not have given France a new deal." In the election of 1932 "he acknowledged the responsibility of the modern state for curing unemployment, devoted to the Poincaré franc, he would have sacrificed employment to the maintenance of the gold standard."Tardieu was displaced from both offices for ten days in February–March 1930 by Radical Camille Chautemps, but returned till that December. He was subsequently Minister of Agriculture in 1931, Minister of War in 1932, again Prime Minister, from 30 February to 3 June 1932, until the AD and its coalition partners were defeated in the May elections. Due this premiership Tardieu served for three days as the Acting President of the French Republic, between the assassination of Paul Doumer and the election of Albert Lebrun.
He was a Minister of State without portfolio in 1934. His political activity was concerned with containing and responding to German expansion. In his two-volume book La Révolution à refaire, Tardieu criticized the French parliamentary system. Couple of the books he wrote include: La France et les alliances. André Tardieu - President of the Council and Minister of Interior Aristide Briand - Minister of Foreign Affairs André Maginot - Minister of War Henri Chéron - Minister of Finance Louis Loucheur - Minister of Labour, Welfare Work, Social Security Provisions Lucien Hubert - Minister of Justice Georges Leygues - Minister of Marine Louis Rollin - Minister of Merchant Marine Laurent Eynac - Minister of Air Pierre Marraud - Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts Claudius Gallet - Minister of Pensions Jean Hennessy - Minister of Agriculture François Piétri - Minister of Colonies Georges Pernot - Minister of Public Works Louis Germain-Martin - Minister of Posts and Telephones Pierre Étienne Flandin - Minister of Commerce and Industry André Tardieu - President of the Council and Minister of the Interior Aristide Briand - Minister of Foreign Affairs André Maginot - Minister of War Paul Reynaud - Minister of Finance Louis Germain-Martin - Minister of Budget Pierre Laval - Minister of Labour and Social Security Provisions Raoul Péret - Minister of Justice Jacques-Louis Dumesnil - Minister of Marine Louis Rollin - Minister of Merchant Marine Laurent Eynac - Minister of Air Pierre Marraud - Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts Auguste Champetier de Ribes - Minister of Pensions Fernand David - Minister of Agriculture François Piétri - Minister of Colonies Georges Pernot - Minister of Public Works Désiré Ferry - Minister of Public Health André Mallarmé - Minister of Posts and Telephones Pierre Étienne Flandin - Minister of Commerce and IndustryChanges 17 November 1930 - Henri Chéron succeeds Péret as Minister of Justice.
André Tardieu - President of the Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs Paul Reynaud - Vice President of the Council and Minister of Justice François Piétri - Minister of National Defense Albert Mahieu - Minister
Francis Jourdain was a painter, furniture maker, interior designer, maker of ceramics, other decorative arts, a left-wing political activist. Francis Jourdain was born on 2 November 1876, son of the architect Frantz Jourdain, his father was the founder of the Salon d'Automne collection. He benefited from the relationship of his parents with the era's famous artists. Jourdain said of the society in which he grew up that it was dominated by people who were opionated and quick to take sides. Although its members pretended to be in favor of liberty and compassion, he saw it as tainted by prejudices and extreme emotion, his father was much typical of this society. Jourdain became a painter, was a pioneer of the Art Nouveau style, in which he was distinguished as a decorator of the Villa Majorelle in Nancy. A stenciled panel by Jourdain with elegant, cleanly silhouetted images was shown at the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris. In 1911 Jourdain began to design furniture, following the teachings of Adolf Loos.
He opened Les Ateliers Modernes in a small furniture factory. He designed modular wooden furniture for working-class people, advertising in the socialist paper L'Humanité. With his built-in furniture and storage systems he was able to make small areas appear spacious, he owned a furniture shop by Chez Francis Jourdain. Jourdain was a regular exhibitor from 1913–28 at the Salon d'Automne and the Societé des Artistes Décorateurs. Jourdain published many articles on modern art and aesthetics in which he attacked the ostentatious luxury, typical of contemporary French design, his own designs were simple, with straightforward construction. He collaborated with Le Corbusier in 1920 in publishing a journal titled L'esprit nouveau, subsidized by the government, it advocated standardization and industrial production as an alternative to individual design, required to rebuild the shattered French society and economy of the years following World War I. At the 1925 Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes Jourdain's "Physical Culture Room", unlike other exhibits, did not emphasize luxury living.
His design used smooth wood paneling on the walls and ceilings that resembled riveted sheets of metal. He worked with Robert Mallet-Stevens between 1925 and 1930. An interior he designed for an Intellectual Worker was exhibited in 1937 at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne in Paris. Starting in the 1930s Jourdain became involved in politics and joined the French Communist Party. In 1939 he was Secretary General of the World Committee Against Fascism; the committee's letterhead showed Henri Barbusse as Founder and Romain Rolland as Honorary President. The council included Paul Langevin, Jean Longuet and André Malraux of France, Sir Norman Angell of England, Heinrich Mann of Germany, Harry F. Ward, Sherwood Anderson and John dos Passos of the United States and A. A. MacLeod of Canada. Francis Jourdain invited Professor J. B. S. Haldane to attend a great International Conference in Defence of Peace and Humanity, to be held in Paris on 13–14 May 1939. Haldane declined the invitation.
Jourdain was a prolific writer on art in the period after World War II. At the end of his life, Jourdain acted as president of the Secours populaire français, he died in Paris on 31 December 1958 at the age of 82
Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, jewelry, cars, movie theatres, ocean liners, everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners, it took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes held in Paris in 1925. It combined modern styles with rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour and faith in social and technological progress. Art Deco was a pastiche of many different styles, sometimes contradictory, united by a desire to be modern. From its outset, Art Deco was influenced by the bold geometric forms of Cubism, it featured rare and expensive materials, such as ebony and ivory, exquisite craftsmanship. The Chrysler Building and other skyscrapers of New York built during the 1920s and 1930s are monuments of the Art Deco style. In the 1930s, during the Great Depression, the Art Deco style became more subdued.
New materials arrived, including chrome plating, stainless steel, plastic. A sleeker form of the style, called Streamline Moderne, appeared in the 1930s. Art Deco is one of the first international styles, but its dominance ended with the beginning of World War II and the rise of the functional and unadorned styles of modern architecture and the International Style of architecture that followed. Art Deco took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, though the diverse styles that characterize Art Deco had appeared in Paris and Brussels before World War I; the term arts décoratifs was first used in France in 1858. In 1868, Le Figaro newspaper used the term objets d'art décoratifs with respect to objects for stage scenery created for the Théâtre de l'Opéra. In 1875, furniture designers, textile and glass designers, other craftsmen were given the status of artists by the French government. In response to this, the École royale gratuite de dessin founded in 1766 under King Louis XVI to train artists and artisans in crafts relating to the fine arts, was renamed the National School of Decorative Arts.
It took its present name of ENSAD in 1927. During the 1925 Exposition the architect Le Corbusier wrote a series of articles about the exhibition for his magazine L'Esprit Nouveau under the title, "1925 EXPO. ARTS. DÉCO." which were combined into a book, "L'art décoratif d'aujourd'hui". The book was a spirited attack on the excesses of the lavish objects at the Exposition; the actual phrase "Art déco" did not appear in print until 1966, when it featured in the title of the first modern exhibit on the subject, called Les Années 25: Art déco, Stijl, Esprit nouveau, which covered the variety of major styles in the 1920s and 1930s. The term Art déco was used in a 1966 newspaper article by Hillary Gelson in the Times, describing the different styles at the exhibit. Art Deco gained currency as a broadly applied stylistic label in 1968 when historian Bevis Hillier published the first major academic book on the style: Art Deco of the 20s and 30s. Hillier noted that the term was being used by art dealers and cites The Times and an essay named "Les Arts Déco" in Elle magazine as examples of prior usage.
In 1971, Hillier organized an exhibition at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, which he details in his book about it, The World of Art Deco. The emergence of Art Deco was connected with the rise in status of decorative artists, who until late in the 19th century had been considered as artisans; the term "arts décoratifs" had been invented in 1875, giving the designers of furniture and other decoration official status. The Société des artistes décorateurs, or SAD, was founded in 1901, decorative artists were given the same rights of authorship as painters and sculptors. A similar movement developed in Italy; the first international exhibition devoted to the decorative arts, the Esposizione international d'Arte decorative moderna, was held in Turin in 1902. Several new magazines devoted to decorative arts were founded in Paris, including Arts et décoration and L'Art décoratif moderne. Decorative arts sections were introduced into the annual salons of the Sociéte des artistes français, in the Salon d'automne.
French nationalism played a part in the resurgence of decorative arts. In 1911, the SAD proposed the holding of a major new international exposition of decorative arts in 1912. No copies of old styles were to be permitted; the exhibit was postponed until 1914 because of the war, postponed until 1925, when it gave its name to the whole family of styles known as Déco. Parisian department stores and fashion designers played an important
Frantz Jourdain was a Belgian architect and author. He is best known for La Samaritaine, an Art Nouveau department store built in the 1st arrondissement of Paris in three stages between 1904 and 1928, he was respected as an authority on Art Nouveau. Frantz Jourdain was born in 1847. In the 1860s he studied in Paris at the École des Beaux-Arts, he obtained French citizenship in 1870. Jourdain was a theoretician of Art Nouveau, he began writing on the arts in 1875, by the end of his life had published about two hundred articles in sixty magazines and newspapers, at first news items but critical articles in which he expressed his thoughts on art. Some of these were gathered into collections in 1886 and 1931, his writings were eclectic. Apart from writing on artistic questions he published a picareque romance, two collections of short stories, a novel, a play and two collections of portraits of artists. Between 1880 and 1910 Jourdain was at the forefront of the movement to renew and synthesize the arts, played an important role in introducing new ideas.
He discovered unknown painters of the late 19th century and was a great admirer of the Galerie des machines of the Exposition Universelle, designed by Ferdinand Dutert and Victor Contamin. In 1887 he was admitted to the Société des gens de lettres, he had become a prominent and quoted art critic by the 1890s, an opponent of academic training and of the English Arts and Crafts movement. He was hostile to institutions such as the Beaux-Arts, which stifled new talent, thought the Prix de Rome which sent artists to the Villa Medici to study the well-known antiquities was a waste of time. La Samaritaine, a department store, was founded by Ernest Cognacq in 1870 when he leased a small part of a building for commercial use, he bought the building, in stages bought the building that faces it on the rue de la Monnaie. In 1885 he engaged Jourdain to redesign the original building, at the same time began to improve the exterior of the building. In 1904 Cognacq decided to expand the store. Jourdain was given the job of creating the maximum amount of space as and cheaply as possible, designed a radical steel structure.
The flamboyant exterior decoration was executed by his son, the decorator Francis Jourdain, the painter Eugène Grasset, the metalworker Edouard Schenck and the ceramist Alexandre Bigot. His use of glass and an exposed steel frame in this design was both radical and functional, although soon after completion it drew criticism from a new generation of architects that rejected Art Nouveau. La Semeuse de Paris was built between 1910 and 1912 to house the credit department of La Samaritaine department stores for lending to the poorest customers; the art nouveau building contained apartments. It was listed as a historical monument on 11 December 2000. In 1925 Cognacq was authorized to construct a second building. Jourdain and Henri Sauvage began work in January 1926, completed it in September 1928 after many changes from the original plan. At the request of the prefecture the steel frame was given a cream-colored stone exterior. Jourdain built Store 3 on the lot bounded by the rues de Rivoli, Pont-Neuf and Boucher between 1930 and 1933.
The interior is best preserved in Store 2, with a glass roof, wide staircases and characteristic bright blue and orange colors. From 1903 Jourdain was president of the Salon d'Automne, he was a founding member of the Société du Nouveau Paris, a group that promoted modernization of Paris. Frantz Jourdain died in 1935, his son Francis Jourdain was a designer and painter. Francis Jourdain said of the society in which he grew up that it was dominated by people who were opionated and quick to take sides. Although its members pretended to be in favor of liberty and compassion, he saw it as tainted by prejudices and extreme emotion, his father was much typical of this society. 1876 Restoration of the castle of La Roche-Guyon, Val-d'Oise 1878 Chapel of the Dida family in Draveil, Essonne c. 1887 Villa in Chelles, Seine-et-Marne 1887 Seven-story tenement, 9 rue Galilée – rue Hamelin, 16th arrondissement of Paris, with Henri Fivaz 1888 Factory in Pantin, Seine-Saint-Denis 1893 Restoration of the Château de Verteuil, Charente 1893 Imprimerie Nouvelle, 9–11 rue Cadet, 9th arrondissement of Paris 1894 Town house of the iron dealer Schenck, 9 rue Vergniaud, 13th arrondissement of Paris 1898 Grave of Alphonse Daudet in Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris, in collaboration with the sculptor Alexandre Falguière 1899 Expansion of the department store La Samaritaine to two floors, 75 rue de Rivoli, 1st arrondissement of Paris 1902 Grave of Émile Zola in Montmartre Cemetery, Paris 1905–07 Reconstruction of La Samaritaine, rue Baillet – rue de l'Arbre Sec – rue de la Monnaie, 1st arrondissement of Paris 1910–12 La Semeuse de Paris, 16 rue du Louvre, 1st arrondissement of Paris 1914–17 Department store La Samaritaine de Luxe, 27 boulevard des Capucines, 2nd arrondissement of Paris 1926–28 Extension of La Samaritaine, rue du Pont Neuf – quai du Louvre, 1st arrondissement of Paris, in collaboration with Henri Sauvage 1930–33 Extension of La Samaritaine, rue de Rivoli – rue du Pont-Neuf – rue Boucher, 1st arrondissement of Paris Date unknown.
Restoration of the castle Châteauneuf-sur-Sarthe, Maine-et-Loire
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC