Social media

Social media are interactive computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation or sharing of information, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks. The variety of stand-alone and built-in social media services available introduces challenges of definition. User-generated content, or user-shared content, such as text posts or comments, digital photos or videos, data generated through all online interactions, is the lifeblood of social media. Users create service-specific profiles and identities for the website or app that are designed and maintained by the social media organization. Social media facilitate the development of online social networks by connecting a user's profile with those of other individuals or groups. Users access social media services via web-based technologies on desktops and laptops, or download services that offer social media functionality to their mobile devices; as users engage with these electronic services, they create interactive platforms through which individuals and organizations can share, co-create, discuss and modify user-generated content or self-curated content posted online.

Networks formed through social media change the way groups of people interact and communicate or stand with the votes. They "introduce substantial and pervasive changes to communication between organizations and individuals." These changes are the focus of the emerging fields of technoself studies. Social media differ from paper-based media and traditional electronic media such as TV broadcasting, Radio broadcasting in many ways, including quality, frequency, usability and performance. Social media outlets operate in a dialogic transmission system; this is in contrast to traditional media which operates under a mono-logic transmission model, such as a newspaper, delivered to many subscribers, or a radio station which broadcasts the same programs to an entire city. Some of the most popular social media websites, with over 100 million registered users, include Facebook, YouTube, WeChat, Instagram, QQ, QZone, Twitter, Telegram, Baidu Tieba, LinkedIn, WhatsApp, LINE, Pinterest, Viber, VK, more. Observers have noted a wide range of negative impacts of social media use.

Social media can help to improve an individual's sense of connectedness with real or online communities and can be an effective communication tool for corporations, non-profit organizations, advocacy groups, political parties, governments. Social media may have roots in the 1840s introduction of the telegraph, which connected the United States; the PLATO system launched in 1960, developed at the University of Illinois and subsequently commercially marketed by Control Data Corporation, offered early forms of social media features with 1973-era innovations such as Notes, PLATO's message-forum application. ARPANET, which first came online in 1967, had by the late 1970s developed a rich cultural exchange of non-government/business ideas and communication, as evidenced by the network etiquette described in a 1982 handbook on computing at MIT's Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. ARPANET evolved into the Internet following the publication of the first Transmission Control Protocol specification, RFC 675, written by Vint Cerf, Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine in 1974.

This became the foundation of Usenet, conceived by Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis in 1979 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University, established in 1980. A precursor of the electronic bulletin board system, known as Community Memory, had appeared by 1973. True electronic bulletin board systems arrived with the Computer Bulletin Board System in Chicago, which first came online on February 16, 1978. Before long, most major cities had more than one BBS running on TRS-80, Apple II, Atari, IBM PC, Commodore 64, similar personal computers; the IBM PC was introduced in 1981, subsequent models of both Mac computers and PCs were used throughout the 1980s. Multiple modems, followed by specialized telecommunication hardware, allowed many users to be online simultaneously. Compuserve, Prodigy and AOL were three of the largest BBS companies and were the first to migrate to the Internet in the 1990s. Between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, BBSes numbered in the tens of thousands in North America alone.

Message forums arose with the BBS phenomenon throughout early 1990s. When the Internet proliferated with the World Wide Web in the mid-1990s, message forums migrated online, becoming Internet forums due to cheaper per-person access as well as the ability to handle far more people than telco modem banks. Digital imaging and semiconductor image sensor technology facilitated the development and rise of social media. Advances in metal-oxide-semiconductor semiconductor device fabrication, reaching smaller micron and sub-micron levels during the 1980s–1990s, led to the development of the NMOS act

Iñaki Bollaín

José Ignacio Bollaín Ochoa known as Iñaki, is a Spanish footballer who plays for SD Noja as a right defender. Born in Santander, Cantabria, Iñaki made his senior debuts in the 1992–93 season with local CD Laredo, in Tercera División. One year he first arrived in Segunda División B, signing with neighbouring Gimnástica de Torrelavega. In the 1994 summer, Iñaki joined Racing de Santander: on 4 September he appeared in his first La Liga game, playing the last 20 minutes in a 0–0 home draw against Real Valladolid. On 8 January of the following year he scored his first goal in the top flight, netting the third in a 3–2 home win over Valencia CF. In December 1997 Iñaki moved in Segunda División. In his first year he played 20 matches but suffered team relegation, after leaving in the 1999 summer, resumed his career in the third and fourth levels, representing Jerez CF, SD Noja, Novelda CF, Burgos CF, CF Palencia, Sangonera Atlético CF, Granada CF and CD Roquetas. Iñaki Bollaín at BDFutbol Futbolme profile


Carkeel is a hamlet north of Saltash in southeast Cornwall, England. Carkeel Roundabout is the first roundabout road users reach when arriving in Cornwall if travelling from Plymouth across the Tamar Bridge on the A38; the A388 road connects Carkeel to the north of the county. Carkeel is just under a mile from the village of Botus Fleming and close to the hamlet of Hatt. To the immediate south of the hamlet is an industrial and retail estate which includes a large branch of Waitrose, a B & M store and the Tamar Tyre Centre. There are services including a Travelodge and a BP service station, together with branches of Burger King and Subway. To the north of the hamlet, along Callington Road, is Tamar View Nurseries, together with a number of other shops. In early 2018 plans were approved by Cornwall Council to build a large retail park on the opposite side of Carkeel Roundabout from the existing industrial estate. Building work began in August 2018 and it is anticipated that 165 jobs for local people will be created at planned branches of McDonald's, Costa Coffee, Home Bargains and an Iceland