A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors, sets of dyadic ties, other social interactions between actors. The social network perspective provides a set of methods for analyzing the structure of whole social entities as well as a variety of theories explaining the patterns observed in these structures; the study of these structures uses social network analysis to identify local and global patterns, locate influential entities, examine network dynamics. Social networks and the analysis of them is an inherently interdisciplinary academic field which emerged from social psychology, sociology and graph theory. Georg Simmel authored early structural theories in sociology emphasizing the dynamics of triads and "web of group affiliations". Jacob Moreno is credited with developing the first sociograms in the 1930s to study interpersonal relationships; these approaches were mathematically formalized in the 1950s and theories and methods of social networks became pervasive in the social and behavioral sciences by the 1980s.
Social network analysis is now one of the major paradigms in contemporary sociology, is employed in a number of other social and formal sciences. Together with other complex networks, it forms part of the nascent field of network science; the social network is a theoretical construct useful in the social sciences to study relationships between individuals, organizations, or entire societies. The term is used to describe a social structure determined by such interactions; the ties through which any given social unit connects represent the convergence of the various social contacts of that unit. This theoretical approach is relational. An axiom of the social network approach to understanding social interaction is that social phenomena should be conceived and investigated through the properties of relations between and within units, instead of the properties of these units themselves. Thus, one common criticism of social network theory is that individual agency is ignored although this may not be the case in practice.
Because many different types of relations, singular or in combination, form these network configurations, network analytics are useful to a broad range of research enterprises. In social science, these fields of study include, but are not limited to anthropology, communication studies, geography, information science, organizational studies, social psychology and sociolinguistics. In the late 1890s, both Émile Durkheim and Ferdinand Tönnies foreshadowed the idea of social networks in their theories and research of social groups. Tönnies argued that social groups can exist as personal and direct social ties that either link individuals who share values and belief or impersonal and instrumental social links. Durkheim gave a non-individualistic explanation of social facts, arguing that social phenomena arise when interacting individuals constitute a reality that can no longer be accounted for in terms of the properties of individual actors. Georg Simmel, writing at the turn of the twentieth century, pointed to the nature of networks and the effect of network size on interaction and examined the likelihood of interaction in loosely knit networks rather than groups.
Major developments in the field can be seen in the 1930s by several groups in psychology and mathematics working independently. In psychology, in the 1930s, Jacob L. Moreno began systematic recording and analysis of social interaction in small groups classrooms and work groups. In anthropology, the foundation for social network theory is the theoretical and ethnographic work of Bronislaw Malinowski, Alfred Radcliffe-Brown, Claude Lévi-Strauss. A group of social anthropologists associated with Max Gluckman and the Manchester School, including John A. Barnes, J. Clyde Mitchell and Elizabeth Bott Spillius are credited with performing some of the first fieldwork from which network analyses were performed, investigating community networks in southern Africa and the United Kingdom. Concomitantly, British anthropologist S. F. Nadel codified a theory of social structure, influential in network analysis. In sociology, the early work of Talcott Parsons set the stage for taking a relational approach to understanding social structure.
Drawing upon Parsons' theory, the work of sociologist Peter Blau provides a strong impetus for analyzing the relational ties of social units with his work on social exchange theory. By the 1970s, a growing number of scholars worked to combine the different traditions. One group consisted of sociologist Harrison White and his students at the Harvard University Department of Social Relations. Independently active in the Harvard Social Relations department at the time were Charles Tilly, who focused on networks in political and community sociology and social movements, Stanley Milgram, who developed the "six degrees of separation" thesis. Mark Granovetter and Barry Wellman are among the former students of White who elaborated and championed the analysis of social networks. Beginning in the late 1990s, social network analysis experienced work by sociologists, political scientists, physicists such as Duncan J. Watts, Albert-László Barabási, Peter Bearman, Nicholas A. Christakis, James H. Fowler, others and applying new models and methods to emerging data available about online social networks, as well as "digital traces" regarding face-to-face networks.
In general, social networks are self-organizing, em
A startup ecosystem is formed by people, startups in their various stages and various types of organizations in a location, interacting as a system to create and scale new startup companies. These organizations can be further divided into categories such as universities, funding organizations, support organizations, research organizations, service provider organizations and large corporations. Local Governments and Government organizations such as Commerce / Industry / Trade departments play an important role in startup ecosystem. Different organizations focus on specific parts of the ecosystem function and startups at their specific development stage. Ideas and research i.e. Intellectual property rights Entrepreneurship Education Startups at various stages Entrepreneurs Start up team members Angel investors Startup mentors Startup advisors Other business-oriented people People from other organizations with start-up activities Startup events Universities Investors from these roles are linked together through shared events, activities and interactions.
Startup ecosystems encompass the network of interactions between people and their environment. Any particular start-up ecosystem is defined by its collection of specific cities or online communities. In addition, resources like skills and money are essential components of a start-up ecosystem; the resources that flow through ecosystems are obtained from the meetings between people and organizations that are an active part of those startup ecosystems. These interactions help to create new potential startups and/or to strengthen the existing ones. Startup ecosystems are controlled by both internal factors. External factors, such as financial climate, big market disruptions and significant transitions, control the overall structure of an ecosystem and the way things work within it. Start-up ecosystems are dynamic entities which progress from formation stages to periodic disturbances and to recovering processes. Several researchers have created lists of essential internal attributes for startup ecosystems.
Spigel suggests that ecosystems require cultural attributes, social attributes that are accessed through social ties and material attributes grounded in a specific places. Stam distinguishes between framework conditions of ecosystems with systematic conditions of networks, finance, talent and support services. Startup ecosystems in similar environments but located in different parts of the world can end up doing things differently because they have a different entrepreneurial culture and resource pool; the introduction of non-native peoples' knowledge and skills can cause substantial shifts in the ecosystem's functions. Internal factors act as feedback loops inside any particular startup ecosystem, they not only control ecosystem processes, but are controlled by them. While some of the resource inputs are controlled by external processes like financial climate and market disruptions, the availability of resources within the ecosystem are controlled by every organization's ability to contribute towards the ecosystem.
Although people exist and operate within ecosystems, their cumulative effects are large enough to influence external factors like financial climate. Employee diversity affects startup ecosystem functions, as do the processes of disturbance and succession. Startup Ecosystems provide a variety of goods and services upon which other people and companies depend on. Thus, the principles of start-up ecosystem management suggest that rather than managing individual people or organizations, resources should be managed at the level of the startup ecosystem itself. Classifying start-up ecosystems into structurally similar units is an important step towards effective ecosystem managing. There are several independent studies made to evaluate start-up ecosystems to better understand and compare various start-up ecosystems and to offer valuable insights of the strengths and weaknesses of different start-up ecosystems. Startup ecosystems can be studied through a variety of approaches - theoretical studies, studies monitoring specific start-up ecosystems over long periods of time and those that look at differences between start-up ecosystems to elucidate how they work.
Since 2012, San Francisco-based Startup Genome has been the first organization to release comprehensive research reports that benchmark startup ecosystems globally. Led by JF Gauthier and Marc Penzel, the San Francisco-based startup has been the first organization to capture the requirements of a startup ecosystem in a data-driven framework. Startup Genome's work influenced startup policies globally and is supported by thought leaders such as Steve Blank and has appeared in leading business media such as The Economist and Harvard Business Review. Since 2017, Zurich-based StartupBlink has been publishing reports ranking the startup ecosystems of 1,000 cities and 100 countries. Led by Eli David, the latest report of 2019 has revealed that the USA, ranked 1st in the country rankings, has 441 cities ranked, compared to 48 ranked cities in the United Kingdom, the 2nd ranked country. A Beginner's Guide to the Nordic Startup Ecosystem - Forbes Knowledge Commercialization and Valorization in Regional Economic Dev
Terry Leahy was an Australian rules footballer who played for Melbourne and South Melbourne in the VFL. His brothers John and Brian played with Melbourne. On Monday, 25 April 1966, Terry Leahy made his VFL debut in Melbourne's Round 1 loss to St Kilda at the MCG, he continued to play all of Melbourne's 18 games for the year, kicking a total of six goals and earning one Brownlow Medal vote. Leahy won the Keith'Bluey' Truscott Medal for being voted Melbourne's best and fairest during the 1966 season. During the 1967 season Leahy only played eight games, kicking two goals in the process – one against Geelong in Round 2, the other during the Round 16 win against Footscray. Melbourne "dismissed" Leahy at the end of the 1967 season as a "disciplinary measure". Leahy subsequently moved to South Melbourne for the 1968 season, where he remained until the end of his VFL career in 1970. In the 1968 season he played twelve games, kicked four goals and earned one Brownlow Medal vote; the following season he played 19 of South Melbourne's 20 games, kicking three goals and earning two Brownlow votes.
In his final season he kicked two goals in the eight games played and did not play again after South Melbourne's Round 13 win over North Melbourne. List of Australian rules football families Terry Leahy's playing statistics from AFL Tables
James Robert Dell is a Canadian soccer player who plays for Chattanooga Red Wolves in the USL League One. Dell played four years of college soccer at the University of North Carolina at Wilmington between 2011 and 2014. Dell appeared for Premier Development League side Forest City London in 2014; the 22-year-old attended high school in Chapel Hill, NC and graduated from the University of North Carolina in Wilmington last year. Dell's high school soccer career was spent at Chapel Hill High School, where he thrived in his senior year by scoring 24 goals and picking up 16 assists; this brought his total up to 50 goals scored and 51 assists made during his high school playing time. Dell went on to play in 70 matches for UNCW, where he tallied 18 goals and 11 assists, with nine being game winners. Dell scored a team high 10 goals his senior year. Six of those were game winners, tied for 3rd most in the country in 2014. Dell was a two-time 1st team All-CAA selection, his senior year he was named NSCAA 3rd team All-American.
He was named Team MVP his senior year, the winner of the UNCW Mosely Award, which recognizes the top student athlete at UNCW in all sports. His solid performances allowed him to be chosen for First-team All-CAA selection. Dell was part of the RailHawks' U-23 side for one year and has been rewarded for his hard work and ability by being brought up to the RailHawks first team. Dell signed for North American Soccer League side Carolina RailHawks on April 29, 2015. Dell signed with FC Cincinnati of the United Soccer League on February 1, 2016. In 2017, Dell spent the whole season there. In 2018 he played for Seaford Rangers FC in Australia. Dell moved back to the United States and joined USL League One side Chattanooga Red Wolves SC on March 19, 2019. Jamie Dell at USL League One Seahawks bio
The Calrossy Anglican School is an independent, Anglican and boarding school for boys and girls and incorporates a primary and preschool. Calrossy is located in East Tamworth, a suburb of Tamworth, a city in the New England region of New South Wales, Australia. Established in 1919, the school has a non-selective enrolment policy, caters for 470 secondary girls and 155 secondary boys and 375 primary students. With 180 boarders, Calrossy has one of the largest boarding enrolments among New South Wales boarding schools. In 2006, Calrossy joined with William Cowper Anglican Boys High School and William Cowper Primary School, to create the Calrossy Anglican School; the school now incorporates a secondary day and boarding school for girls, a secondary day and boarding school for boys, a co-educational prep and primary school, a co-educational preschool, with total enrolments of 1000. The school is affiliated with the Junior School Heads Association of Australia, the Australian Boarding Schools' Association, the Alliance of Girls' Schools Australasia, is an affiliate member of the Association of Heads of Independent Girls' Schools.
Calrossy is administered by the Anglican Diocese of Armidale. The school was named as the Tamworth Church of England Girls' School, by a group of parishioners from St John's Parish Church, led by the Vicar, Canon Rupert Fairbrother with seventeen foundation students; the school occupied a site close to the church in East Tamworth. Lessons were held in the church hall, the boarding house was an old building on the corner of Brisbane and Carthage Streets; the school moved to its present site in Brisbane Street in 1923, to a property owned by John Patterson. His home, the centrepiece of the new school, was named'Calrossy' after his family property in Scotland; the school adopted the name in 1969. TCEGS remained a parish school until 1936, when it was taken over by the Diocese of Armidale and administered in a similar way to the Diocese' other schools, The Armidale School and the New England Girls' School. In 2006, Calrossy joined with William Cowper Anglican Boys High School and William Cowper Primary School, to create the Tamworth Anglican College, subsequently the school's name was changed to Tamworth Anglican College - Calrossy Campus.
The amalgamation created a Pre-school to Year 12 with school, with a co-educational primary school and two single-sex high schools. Each sub-school has retained traditions. In 2007, the name "Tamworth Anglican College" was changed to Calrossy Anglican School; the senior school for girls is now therefore named Calrossy Anglican School - Brisbane Street Campus. Calrossy Anglican School is registered and accredited with the New South Wales Board of Studies, therefore follows the mandated curriculum for all years; the school offers core and elective subjects designed to prepare students for a range of opportunities in tertiary studies and career pathways. Students in Years 11 and 12 may follow different Higher School Certificate pathways, complete vocational courses at TAFE or at school. Students may undertake school-based traineeships, linking HSC studies with workplace developed competencies. Current subject choices include Agriculture, Agricultural Technology and Ancient History, Australian History, Geography and Citizenship, Chemistry, Business Studies, Christian Studies, Commerce and Technology, Earth Sciences, English, Food Technology, Hospitality and Software Technology and Design, Music, Personal Development and Physical Education, Photography and Culture, Studies in Religion, Textiles Technology and Design and Visual Arts.
Extra-curriculum activities include music groups, sporting teams, public speaking and drama. The school offers music ensembles, such as orchestra, jazz band, string ensemble, cello choir, woodwind ensemble and choir. Links with the Tamworth Regional Conservatorium of Music enable the school to provide private tuition in piano, violin, flute and drums on the school grounds. Music activities include a house music competition, carol service, Creative Skills week and recital evenings. Calrossy offers sports, from beginners to advanced level, offers pathways into professional sporting accolades; the school participates in local community sporting associations, where competition takes place throughout the week outside school hours. Calrossy is an affiliate member of the Hunter Region Independent Schools group which provides a sporting pathway to state and national levels as part of the Combined Independent School Sporting Association. There is an opportunity for students to represent HRIS and AICES in hockey, waterpolo, athletics, cross-country and tennis.
Other sports available include touch football, soccer and softball. Calrossy holds annual inter-house competitions in swimming and athletics, a Sports Day involving a range of sports in term three. Students may participate and compete in public speaking activities, including Mock Trials, Model United Nations, local and national debating and public speaking. An overseas exchange program is in place for students in Years 11 and 12, whereby students may attend schools in England or Canada; some students arrange short term stays at the completion of their Year 10 School Certificate course. Alumnae of Calrossy were known as Old Girls and were part of the school's alumni association, the Old Girls' Union. Given the amalgamation with William Cowper Anglican School in 2005, the group has been renamed Calrossy alumni association and it incorporates ex-s
S. B. Elliott State Park is a 318-acre Pennsylvania state park located in Pine Township, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania in the United States; the park is surrounded by Moshannon State Forest. The park is wooded with second growth forests of hardwood and oak. S. B. Elliott State park is 9 miles north of Clearfield on Pennsylvania Route 153 just off exit 111 of Interstate 80. By the mid-19th century, the demand for lumber reached Clearfield County, where white pine and hemlock covered the mountainsides. Lumbermen harvested the trees; the Central Pennsylvania Lumber Company and Goodyear Lumber Company owned thousands of acres in Clearfield and surrounding counties. They distribute the timber; the lumber boom era was not to last, soon all the trees were gone. Once the trees disappeared, the people were soon to follow; the lumbermen left behind a barren landscape, devastated by erosion and wildfires. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania burned land; the state began the massive project of reforesting the land.
The forest is part of Moshannon State Forest. The park is named for the Honorable Simon B. Elliott, he was a member of the Pennsylvania General Assembly, a conservationist who promoted the idea of replanting the forests in order to limit erosion and fires. The park was built in 1933 by the Civilian Conservation Corps; the young men of Camp S-116-PA built many of the cabins, roads and trails that exist at the park today. They cleared brush, cleaned streams, built roads and bridges, planted trees as part of a reforestation effort; the CCC placed a plaque honoring Simon B. Elliott in the woods on the northern edge of the park. Fishing at S. B. Elliott State Park is a popular recreational activity. There is a population of stocked trout in the small mountain streams of the park, they can only be accessed by hiking through the woods on one of the three miles of hiking trails. The park is a trailhead for the Quehanna Trail System; this trail is a 75-mile trail. It connects with the Susquehannock Trail system near Sinnemahoning State Park.
The CCC built several pavilions that are available for camping and picnicking. There is a 25 site rustic campground at S. B. Elliott State Park. There is a modern restroom near the camping area. Hunting is permitted on about 234 acres of S. B. Elliott State Park. Hunters are expected to follow the regulations of the Pennsylvania State Game Commission; the common game species are ruffed grouse, eastern gray squirrel, wild turkey, white-tailed deer, common pheasant. Many more acres of forested woodlands are available for hunting on the grounds of the adjacent Moshannon State Forest; the following state parks are within 30 miles of S. B. Elliott State Park: "S. B. Elliott State Park official map"