Social stratification

Social stratification refers to society's categorization of its people into groups based on socioeconomic factors like wealth, race, gender and social status, or derived power. As such, stratification is the relative social position of persons within a social group, geographic region, or social unit. In modern Western societies, social stratification is defined in terms of three social classes: the upper class, the middle class, the lower class. Moreover, a social stratum can be formed upon the bases of kinship, tribe, or caste, or all four; the categorization of people by social strata occurs most in complex state-based, polycentric, or feudal societies, the latter being based upon socio-economic relations among classes of nobility and classes of peasants. Whether or not hunter-gatherer and band societies can be defined as stratified, or if social stratification otherwise began with agriculture and large-scale means of social exchange, remains a debated matter in the social sciences. Determining the structures of social stratification arises from inequalities of status among persons, the degree of social inequality determines a person's social stratum.

The greater the social complexity of a society, the more social stratification exists, by way of social differentiation. Social stratification is a term used in the social sciences to describe the relative social position of persons in a given social group, geographical region or other social unit, it derives from the Latin strātum referring to a given society's categorization of its people into rankings of socioeconomic tiers based on factors like wealth, social status and power. In modern Western societies, stratification is broadly classified into three major divisions of social class: upper class, middle class, lower class; each of these classes can be further subdivided into smaller classes. Social may be delineated on the basis of kinship ties or caste relations; the concept of social stratification is used and interpreted differently within specific theories. In sociology, for example, proponents of action theory have suggested that social stratification is found in developed societies, wherein a dominance hierarchy may be necessary in order to maintain social order and provide a stable social structure.

Conflict theories, such as Marxism, point to the inaccessibility of resources and lack of social mobility found in stratified societies. Many sociological theorists have criticized the fact that the working classes are unlikely to advance socioeconomically while the wealthy tend to hold political power which they use to exploit the proletariat. Talcott Parsons, an American sociologist, asserted that stability and social order are regulated, in part, by universal values; such values are not identical with "consensus" but can indeed be an impetus for social conflict, as has been the case multiple times through history. Parsons never claimed that universal values, in and by themselves, "satisfied" the functional prerequisites of a society. Indeed, the constitution of society represents a much more complicated codification of emerging historical factors. Theorists such as Ralf Dahrendorf alternately note the tendency toward an enlarged middle-class in modern Western societies due to the necessity of an educated workforce in technological economies.

Various social and political perspectives concerning globalization, such as dependency theory, suggest that these effects are due to changes in the status of workers to the third world. Four principles are posited to underlie social stratification. First, social stratification is defined as a property of a society rather than individuals in that society. Second, social stratification is reproduced from generation to generation. Third, social stratification is universal but variable. Fourth, social stratification involves not just quantitative inequality but qualitative beliefs and attitudes about social status. Although stratification is not limited to complex societies, all complex societies exhibit features of stratification. In any complex society, the total stock of valued goods is distributed unequally, wherein the most privileged individuals and families enjoy a disproportionate share of income and other valued social resources; the term "stratification system" is sometimes used to refer to the complex social relationships and social structures that generate these observed inequalities.

The key components of such systems are: social-institutional processes that define certain types of goods as valuable and desirable, the rules of allocation that distribute goods and resources across various positions in the division of labor, the social mobility processes that link individuals to positions and thereby generate unequal control over valued resources. Social mobility is the movement of individuals, social groups or categories of people between the layers or within a stratification system; this movement can be intergenerational. Such mobility is sometimes used to classify different systems of social stratification. Open stratification systems are those that allow for mobility between by placing value on the achieved status characteristics of individuals; those societies having the highest levels of intragenerational mobility are considered to be the most ope

River Corrib

The River Corrib in the west of Ireland flows from Lough Corrib through Galway to Galway Bay. The river is among the shortest in Europe, with only a length of six kilometres from the lough to the Atlantic, it is popular with local whitewater kayakers as well as pleasure craft. The depth of this river reaches up to 94 feet; the Corrib drains a catchment area of 3,138 km2. Although the Corrib is one of Ireland's shortest rivers, it has a mean long-term flow rate of 104.8 m3/s, making it Ireland's second-largest river, only surpassed by the River Shannon. The translation of the Irish name of the river is Galway river i.e. from Gaillimh. In Irish it is sometimes called An Ghaillimh and incorrectly called Abhainn na Coiribe; the legend concerning its naming states that it was called after Gaillimh inion Breasail, the daughter of a Fir Bolg chieftain who drowned in the river. The word Gaillimh is believed to mean "stony" as in "stony river"; the held myth that the city takes its name from the Irish word Gallaibh, "foreigners" i.e. "the town of the foreigners" is incorrect as the name Gaillimh was applied to the river first and later onto the town.

Indeed, the earliest settlement at Galway was called Dún Bhun na Gaillimhe, or "the fort at the end of the Galway". The river gave its name to the town, which grew to a city, from c. 1570 onwards, the city gave its name to the county. It aided massively in the industrial development of the town, allowing it to develop electrical power before London. At the height of water power, there were over twenty water wheels in operation from races built on the river and its accompanying cut, the Eglinton Canal, built as part of the "Drainage and Navigation scheme of Lough Carra, Lough Corrib and Lough Mask" in the mid-19th century; the canal, about three-quarters of a mile long, had a sea-lock, a large basin, a second lock at Parkavore and five swivelling bridges. It is still in water but the swivelling bridges have been replaced by fixed bridges. Lough Corrib is the anglicised form of Loch Coirib which itself is a corruption of Loch nOrbsean which according to placename lore is named after the Irish god of the sea.

There is good fishing to be had on both the river. Ptolemy's Geography described a river called Αυσοβα which referred to the River Corrib; the part of the river that flows from the southern end of the lake to the Salmon Weir is known as the Upper Corrib. The weir, a set of weir gates built during the above navigation scheme, was built from stone and timber but now only two of these gates remain and are only opened in times of flood; the rest have been replaced by fourteen steel gates. The main channel leaving Lough Corrib is called Friars' Cut or Friars' River as it is the result of a early piece of canal engineering. In 1178 the friars of Claregalway Abbey, being tired of the long detour they had to make to the west to enter the river, asked permission from the Blakes of Menloe to make an artificial cut, which in time became the main course of the river and was widened; the section of the river that runs from the Salmon Weir through Galway city and out into Galway Bay is known as the Lower Corrib.

Three bridges cross the Lower – the Salmon Weir Bridge, William O'Brien Bridge and Wolfe Tone Bridge. The only tributary of the Lower Corrib is Sruthán na gCaisleáin known by whitewater kayakers as the Shit Chute and the access point to the river, a small stream that flows through Newcastle, the grounds of NUI, empties into the Lower just downstream of King's weir known as the fish gates. Four bridges span Corrib in Galway; these are the Wolfe Tone Bridge, the William O'Brien Bridge, the Salmon Weir Bridge, the Quincentenary Bridge. Rivers of Ireland List of rivers in Ireland List of loughs in Ireland Lower Corrib River Guide Canoeing at O'Brien's Bridge, Galway Surfing O'Brien's Wave on the Lower Corrib from YouTube - No longer available 01Jul17 Jes Rowing on the Corrib Salmon fishing on the River Corrib, from Salmon Ireland The Eglinton Canal

Sabino Ocan Odoki

Sabino Ocan Odoki, is a Roman Catholic priest, who serves as the Bishop of Roman Catholic Diocese of Arua, since 18 December 2010. He was born at Layibi Village, Gulu District, in the Acholi sub-region, in the Northern Region of Uganda, on 8 August 1957, he was ordained priest on 10 September 1983 at Gulu. He earned qualifications in canon law from the Pontifical Urban University in Rome, he was appointed auxiliary bishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Gulu on 22 July 2006, by Pope Benedict XVI and ordained bishop on 21 October 2006 at Gulu, by His Grace John Baptist Odama assisted by His Eminence Emmanuel Cardinal Wamala and the Apostolic Nuncio in Uganda at the time, His Excellency Christophe Pierre. He was appointed as the Apostolic Administrator of Arua Diocese, on 19 August 2009 by Pope Benedict XVI and confirmed as the Bishop of Arua Diocese, he was installed as Bishop of Arua Diocese on 18 December 2010, at Arua. Uganda Martyrs Roman Catholicism in Uganda Row over bishop threatens to split diocese As of 18 September 2013