Socialism is a political and economic philosophy encompassing a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production and workers' self-management of enterprises. It includes the political movements associated with such systems. Social ownership can be public, cooperative or of equity. While no single definition encapsulates many types of socialism, social ownership is the one common element, it aims to circumvent the inefficiencies and crises traditionally associated with capital accumulation and the profit system in capitalism. Socialist systems are divided into market forms. Non-market socialism involves replacing factor markets and money with engineering and technical criteria based on calculation performed in-kind, thereby producing an economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws from those of capitalism; the socialist calculation debate, originated by the economic calculation problem, concerns the feasibility and methods of resource allocation for a planned socialist system.
By contrast, market socialism retains the use of monetary prices, factor markets and in some cases the profit motive, with respect to the operation of owned enterprises and the allocation of capital goods between them. Profits generated by these firms would be controlled directly by the workforce of each firm or accrue to society at large in the form of a social dividend. Socialist politics has been both nationalist in orientation. Social democracy originated within the socialist movement, supporting economic and social interventions to promote social justice. While retaining socialism as a long-term goal, since the post-war period it has come to embrace a Keynesian mixed economy within a predominantly developed capitalist market economy and liberal democratic polity that expands state intervention to include income redistribution, regulation and a welfare state. Economic democracy proposes a sort of market socialism, with more democratic control of companies, currencies and natural resources.
The socialist political movement includes a set of political philosophies that originated in the revolutionary movements of the mid-to-late 18th century and out of concern for the social problems that were associated with capitalism. By the late 19th century, after the work of Karl Marx and his collaborator Friedrich Engels, socialism had come to signify opposition to capitalism and advocacy for a post-capitalist system based on some form of social ownership of the means of production. By the 1920s, communism and social democracy had become the two dominant political tendencies within the international socialist movement, with socialism itself becoming "the most influential secular movement of the twentieth century". While the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally socialist state led to socialism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model, some economists and intellectuals argued that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism or a non-planned administrative or command economy.
Socialist parties and ideas remain a political force with varying degrees of power and influence on all continents, heading national governments in many countries around the world. Today, many socialists have adopted the causes of other social movements such as environmentalism and progressivism. For Andrew Vincent, "he word'socialism' finds its root in the Latin sociare, which means to combine or to share; the related, more technical term in Roman and medieval law was societas. This latter word could mean companionship and fellowship as well as the more legalistic idea of a consensual contract between freemen". Socialism was coined by Henri de Saint-Simon, one of the founders of what would be labelled utopian socialism. Simon coined the wordas a contrast to the liberal doctrine of individualism that emphasized the moral worth of the individual whilst stressing that people act or should act as if they are in isolation from one another; the original utopian socialists condemned this doctrine of individualism for failing to address social concerns during the Industrial Revolution, including poverty and vast inequalities in wealth.
They viewed their society as harming community life by basing society on competition. They presented socialism as an alternative to liberal individualism based on the shared ownership of resources. Saint-Simon proposed economic planning, scientific administration and the application of scientific understanding to the organisation of society. By contrast, Robert Owen proposed to organise ownership via cooperatives. Socialism is attributed in France to Pierre Leroux and Marie Roch Louis Reybaud while in Britain it is associated to Owen, who became one of the fathers of the cooperative movement; the definition and usage of socialism settled by the 1860s, replacing associationist, co-operative and mutualist, used as synonyms while communism fell out of use during this period. An early distinction between communism and socialism was that the latter aimed to only socialise production while the former aimed to socialise both production and consumption. By 1888, Marxists employed socialism in place of communism as the latter had come to be considered an old-fashion synonym for socialism.
It was not until after the Bolshevik Revolution that socialism was appropriated by Vladimir Lenin to mean a stage between capitalism and communism. He used it to defend the Bolshevik program from Marxist crit
The Generations Project is a reality television series produced by and shown on BYU Television that helps those who have questions about their family history investigate their own identities by embarking on a journey to uncover the lives and stories of their ancestors. During this journey each participant attempts to retrace their ancestors footsteps participating in immersion experiences, meeting experts, sometimes connecting with family they never knew they had; as each participant on the show sets out on their journey they discover new details about the lives of their ancestors, answer questions about identity, about time and place, discover things about themselves. Overall this journey helps participants learn where they have been and make their own conclusions about where they are going, it premiered on January 4, 2010. As of January 2012 the show is with a total 33 shows produced. Official website BYU Broadcasting program page Facebook fan page Twitter page YouTube channel
The Friday the 13th Motorcycle Rally is a motorcycle rally held every Friday the 13th in Port Dover, Canada since 1981. Its typical summer attendance exceeds 100,000 bikers; the event has been described as "the biggest single-day motorcycle event in the world," a title claimed by the Rolling Thunder rally in the United States. Although hundreds of attendees arrive during winter months, attendance is at its highest when the date falls on a summer day. In August 2010, the rally drew more than 150,000 attendees. Estimates for the July 2012 event ranged from 90,000 to more than 170,000. An attempt in 2008 to surpass the previous Guinness world record for the largest motorcycle parade failed due to a technicality. More than 10,000 motorcycles would have exceeded the record set in 2006 by the Republic of Texas Biker Rally. Although the organizers were able to document participation by more than 12,000 motorcycles at Port Dover, they entered through multiple portals to the city and were disqualified by Guinness as a single parade.