Independent State of Croatia
The Independent State of Croatia was a World War II fascist puppet state of Germany and Italy. It was established in parts of occupied Yugoslavia on 10 April 1941, after the invasion by the Axis powers, its territory consisted of most of modern-day Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as some parts of modern-day Serbia and Slovenia, but excluded many Croat-populated areas in Dalmatia, Međimurje regions. During its entire existence, the NDH was governed as a one-party state by the fascist Ustaša organization; the Ustaše was led by the Poglavnik, Ante Pavelić. The regime targeted Serbs and Roma as part of a large-scale campaign of genocide, as well as anti-fascist or dissident Croats and Muslims. Between 1941–45, 22 concentration camps existed inside the territory controlled by the Independent State of Croatia, two of which housed only children and the largest of, Jasenovac; the state was a monarchy after the signing of the Laws of the Crown of Zvonimir on 15 May 1941. Appointed by Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta refused to assume the crown in opposition to the Italian annexation of the Croat-majority populated region of Dalmatia, annexed as part of the Italian irredentist agenda of creating a Mare Nostrum.
He briefly accepted the throne due to pressure from Victor Emmanuel III and was titled Tomislav II of Croatia, but never moved from Italy to reside in Croatia. From the signing of the Treaties of Rome on 18 May 1941 until the Italian capitulation on 8 September 1943, the state was a territorial condominium of Germany and Italy. In its judgement in the Hostages Trial, the Nuremberg Military Tribunal concluded that NDH was not a sovereign state. According to the Tribunal, "Croatia was at all times here involved an occupied country". In 1942, Germany suggested Italy take military control of all of Croatia out of a desire to redirect German troops from Croatia to the Eastern Front. Italy however rejected the offer as it did not believe that it could handle the unstable situation in the Balkans alone. After the ousting of Mussolini and the Kingdom of Italy's armistice with the Allies, the NDH on 10 September 1943 declared that the Treaties of Rome were null and void and annexed the portion of Dalmatia, ceded to Italy.
The NDH attempted to annex Zara, a recognized territory of Italy since 1919 but long an object of Croatian irredentism, but Germany did not allow it. Geographically, the NDH encompassed most of modern-day Croatia, all of Bosnia and Herzegovina, part of modern-day Serbia, a small portion of modern-day Slovenia in the Municipality of Brežice, it bordered the Third Reich to the north-west, Kingdom of Hungary to the north-east, Serbian administration to the east, Montenegro to the south-east and Italy along its coastal area. The exact borders of the Independent State of Croatia were unclear. One month after its formation, significant areas of Croat-populated territory were ceded to its Axis allies, the Kingdoms of Hungary and Italy. On 13 May 1941, the NDH government signed an agreement with Nazi Germany which demarcated their borders. On 19 May the Rome contracts were signed by diplomats of the Italy. Large parts of Croatian lands were occupied by Italy, including most of Dalmatia, nearly all the Adriatic islands, some smaller areas such as the Boka Kotorska bay, parts of the Croatian Littoral and Gorski kotar areas.
On 7 June the NDH government issued a decree. On 27 October the NDH and Italy reached an agreement on the Independent State of Croatia's border with Montenegro. On 8 September 1943, Italy capitulated and the NDH considered the Rome contracts to be void, along with the Treaty of Rapallo of 1920 which had given Italy Istria and Zara. German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop approved the NDH acquisition of the Dalmatian territories gained by Italy at the time of the Rome contracts. By now, most such territory was controlled by the Yugoslav Partisans, since the ceding of those areas had made them anti-NDH. By 11 September 1943, NDH foreign minister Mladen Lorković received word from German consul Siegfried Kasche that the NDH should wait before moving on Istria. Germany's central government had annexed Istria and Fiume into the Operational Zone Adriatic Coast a day earlier. Međimurje and southern Baranja were annexed by the Kingdom of Hungary. NDH disputed this and continued to lay claim to both, naming the administrative province centred in Osijek as Great Parish Baranja.
This border was never legislated, although Hungary may have considered the Pacta conventa to be in effect, which delineated the two nation's borders along the Drava river. When compared to the republican borders established in the SFR Yugoslavia after the war, the NDH encompassed the whole of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with its non-Croat majority, as well as some 20 km2 of Slovenian and the whole of Syrmia; the Independent State of Croatia had four levels of administrative divisions: great parishes, districts and municipalities. At the time of i
The Bosnian crisis of 1908–09 known as the Annexation crisis or the First Balkan Crisis, erupted in early October 1908 when Austria-Hungary announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, territories within the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire. This unilateral action—timed to coincide with Bulgaria's declaration of independence from the Ottoman Empire—sparked protestations from all the Great Powers and Austria-Hungary's Balkan neighbours and Montenegro. In April 1909 the Treaty of Berlin was amended to reflect the fait accompli and bring the crisis to an end; the crisis permanently damaged relations between Austria-Hungary and Serbia on one hand and the Russian Empire on the other. It helped lay the grounds for World War I. Although the crisis ended with what appeared to be a total Austro-Hungarian diplomatic victory, Russia became determined not to back down again and hastened its military build-up. Austrian–Serbian relations became permanently stressed; the mid-1870s witnessed a series of violent rebellions against Ottoman rule in the Balkans, violent and repressive responses from the Turks.
The Russian Tsar, Alexander II, wanting to intervene against the Ottomans and obtained an agreement with Austria-Hungary. In the Budapest Conventions of 1877, the two powers agreed that Russia would annex Bessarabia, Austria-Hungary would observe a benevolent neutrality toward Russia in the pending war with the Turks; as compensation for this support, Russia agreed to Austria-Hungary's annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Shortly thereafter, the Russians declared war, after a few setbacks, drove the Turks relentlessly back to within a few miles of Constantinople. What stopped the Russians from driving the Turks out of Europe was the willingness of the other great powers Britain and Austria-Hungary, to enforce an earlier treaty, the London Straits Convention of 1841, which stated that the Straits of Constantinople would be closed to warships during time of war; this had the effect of bottling up the Russian fleet in the Black Sea, but would be worthless if Russian troops gained control of the straits by land.
After their victory in the war, the Russians imposed the Treaty of San Stefano on the Ottomans, which, in part, reneged on pledges made in the Budapest Convention and declared that Bosnia-Herzegovina would be jointly occupied by Russian and Austrian troops. The treaty of San Stefano was overturned by the 1878 Treaty of Berlin. Under article 29, Austria-Hungary received special rights in the Ottoman Empire's provinces of Bosnia-Herzegovina and the Sanjak of Novi Pazar. Article 25 stated: "The provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina shall be occupied and administered by Austria-Hungary", continued "Austria-Hungary reserves the right to maintain garrisons and to have military and trading roads over the whole area of that portion of the ancient Vilayet of Bosnia."The Sanjak of Novi Pazar separated Montenegro from Serbia and prevented the geographic and political union of these two states which were closely aligned. The Austrian occupation of the Sanjak was significant because it provided Austria-Hungary with a staging area for possible future expansion towards the Aegean port of Salonika in Ottoman controlled Macedonia.
The Bosnian population was religiously divided into Muslims and Orthodox Christians. Austria-Hungary exercised its rights, taking firm control of Bosnia-Herzegovina and jointly occupying the Sanjak of Novi Pazar together with the Ottoman Empire; the Treaty of Berlin allowed for sole Austrian occupation of Bosnia-Herzegovina, but did not specify a final disposition of the provinces. This omission was addressed in the Three Emperors' League treaty of 1881, where both Germany and Russia endorsed Austria's right to annex Bosnia-Herzegovina. However, by 1897, under the new Tsar, Nicholas II, the Russian Imperial government had managed, again, to withdraw its support for Austrian annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina; the Russian Foreign Minister, Count Michael Muraviev, stated that an Austrian annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina would raise "an extensive question requiring special scrutiny". In 1903 the King of Serbia was assassinated in a coup and the pro-Russian Karađorđević dynasty came to the throne.
Power shifted to elements interested in expansion into Bosnia. These Serbs wanted to take over the Sanjak of Novi Pazar and Bosnia-Herzegovina from the Austro-Hungarians. Relations between Serbia and Austria-Hungary deteriorated. However, Russia's ability to support Serbia was reduced following military humiliation in the 1905 Russo-Japanese War and the ensuing internal unrest. By 1907, Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister Alois Aehrenthal began formulating a plan to solidify Austria-Hungary's position towards Serbia through annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina, his opportunity came in the form of a letter from Russian Foreign Minister Alexander Izvolsky and a subsequent meeting at Buchlau castle in Moravia, Austria-Hungary. On 2 July 1908, Russian Foreign Minister Alexander Izvolsky sent a letter to Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister Alois Aehrenthal and proposed a discussion of reciprocal changes to the 1878 Treaty of Berlin in favour of the Russian interest in the Straits of Constantinople and Austro-Hungarian interests in the annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina and the Sanjak of Novi Pazar.
On 14 July Aehrenthal responded with guarded acceptance of the proposed discussions. On 10 September, after long and complex discussions within the Imperial Government discussing the Izvolsky proposals to Austria-Hungary, Aehrenthal outlined a different set of counter-proposals to him: he proposed that in exchange for a friendly Russian attitude when Austria-Hun
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the two political entities that compose Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being Republika Srpska. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 10 autonomous cantons with their own governments, it is inhabited by Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats, why it is sometimes informally referred to as the Bosniak-Croat Federation. It is sometimes known by the shorter name Federation of B&H; the Federation was created by the 1994 Washington Agreement, which ended the part of the conflict whereby Bosnian Croats fought with Bosniaks. It established a constituent assembly that continued its work until October 1996; the Federation has a capital, president, parliament and police departments, two postal systems and an airline. It had its own army, the Army of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, merged with the Army of the Republika Srpska to form the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina; the capital and largest city is Sarajevo with 438,443 inhabitants and the total population of 688,354 in its metropolitan area.
The Serb-dominated Yugoslav People's Army attacked Croatia from Herzegovina. Their first target was the village Ravno, attacked on 2 November 1991 and destroyed. Yugoslavia effected an economic blockade of Bosnia and Herzegovina, thus trying to keep it as part of Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia claimed territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina with a Serb majority and the capital Sarajevo. Serb Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was declared on 27 March 1992 with the goal to incorporate parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina into Yugoslavia; the objective of Serbian politics in Bosnia and Herzegovina was to unite Serbian autonomous provinces into a single unit that would join Yugoslavia, with total blockade of Sarajevo, break Bosnia and Herzegovina into smaller and hardly defensible enclaves. Because of superiority in armaments, support from Belgrade and an embargo on the importation of arms into Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbs achieved their goals by June 1992; the Bosniak leadership was still indecisive concerning a major conflict, so the Croats were the first to participate in the war.
They organized military units, Croatian Defence Forces in November 1991 and the Croatian Defence Council in April 1992. Those units were composed of Bosniaks; the Territorial Defence of Bosnia and Herzegovina Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina organized in autumn of 1992. In Serb-controlled areas, Serbs performed mass murders, ethnic cleansing of non-Serbs Bosniaks and Croats, established concentration camps and destroyed Bosniak and Croat cultural inheritance. By November 1992 Serbs had conquered 70% of the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina and held Sarajevo in limbo by terrorizing its population by shelling and constant sniper fire; the creation of a Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia was a matter of dispute for Bosniaks. Croats accused Bosniaks of Islamization of the country and attempts to create Bosniak domination in all areas. So they withdrew the ethnic Croat representatives from Parliament and the Presidency. Due to expulsions by Bosnian Serbs, Bosniaks moved to other areas and thus disrupted the Croats' area and altered their pre-war ratio.
Political disputes and minor incidents in central and northern Bosnia and in northern and central Herzegovina led to Croat-Bosniak War in November 1992. The Vance-Owen plan was presented in January 1993, it was planned to create 10 cantons on the territory of the whole of Herzegovina. This plan increased conflict between Bosniaks; the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina launched four offensives and conquered a large area, under control of HVO. Crimes against civilians were committed on both sides. Hostility between Croats and Bosniaks ended with mediation by the United States and the signing of the Washington Agreement on 18 March 1994; the cooperation between Croats and Bosniaks was renewed, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a Bosniak and Croat controlled area was established. There was a proposal to create a confederation of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republic of Croatia; the joint command of ARBiH, HVO and Croatian Army was established in March 1995. The closer cooperation between Croats and Bosniaks was made through the Split Agreement where Bosnia and Herzegovina's Muslim leaders allowed the Croatian Army to free western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina with cooperation with ARBiH.
After the Operation Storm, the Serbian hoop around Bihać was broken and Croatian and Bosnian armies continued to liberate western Bosnia. The UN unsuccessfully tried to establish peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina by trying to create a successful structure for Bosnia and Herzegovina. Serbs launched an attack on the UN-protected town of Bihać, but they were stopped by the Croatian army during Operation Storm. Joint Croatian-Bosnian military successes made peace negotiations possible; the basis for the creation of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina were laid down by the Washington Agreement of March 1994. Under the agreement, the combined territory held by the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Croati
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina contains a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow right triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag. The remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle; the three points of the triangle stand for the three main ethnic groups of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosniaks and Serbs. The triangle represents the approximate shape of the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina; the stars, representing Europe, are meant to be infinite in number and thus they continue from top to bottom. The flag features colors associated with neutrality and peace – white and yellow, they are colors traditionally associated with Bosnia. The blue background is suggestive of the flag of Europe; the Bosnian national flag is used as the regional flag of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a constituent entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The green flag with the white crescent and star pointing to the left was used by Bosniak landlords in border parts in southern and western Herzegovina.
The flag was most used in wars. It accompanied the troops of the Eyalet of Bosnia during the second siege of Khotyn in Bukowina, it differs from Ottoman flag by size and direction of crescent, but it is swallow-shaped, like some West-European jacks and ensigns. In the 1830s revolt by Husein Gradaščević the green flag with a yellow crescent and star was used; the revolt's aim was for Bosnia to gain autonomy from the Ottoman Empire. In 1878 Bosnia existed as an independent nation, its flag was similar to the flag used by Husein Gradaščević's revolt of 1830. It was a yellow crescent and star on a green background, with the crescent thinner than the previous flag's. Bosnia was independent in 1878 for a few months, after the Ottoman troops left, but shortly afterward the Austro-Hungarians occupied Bosnia after an agreement reached in Berlin among major European powers; the green/golden flag was in use for about only two months. When the Austro-Hungarian Empire annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina the flag was changed.
The province of Bosnia used the flag, red and yellow horizontally, but the province of Herzegovina used the same flag but with reversed colors.. The coat of arms is one of Stjepan Vukčić Kosača, Bosnian noble and duke from 14th century; the original medieval coat of arms had a white background and two red stripes in the top of the shield. After the war, in 1945, the red star flag became universally official, it was given its final shape by enlarging the star and adding a narrow yellow border. The flag was accompanied on official buildings by the flag of the federal republic and the flag of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia; because of this, many buildings in former Bosnia and Herzegovina still carry a three-poled flag holder. A smaller version of the flag served as the civil ensign while an elongated banner version was seen flown in front of the Yugoslav parliament. While being the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina within communist Yugoslavia, the Yugoslav flag stood as a canton, while the rest of the flag was red to symbolise the socialism and communism in Yugoslavia at the time.
Bosnia and Herzegovina had a new coat of arms during the Yugoslav period. It was a symbol of industrialism in Bosnia at the time; this flag is similar to the flag of the Soviet Union and the flag of China. On 6 April 1992 Bosnia and Herzegovina gained its independence from Yugoslavia and a new flag; the flag picked was the arms of the Kings of Bosnia Kotromanić dynasty, who ruled from 1377 until 1463 over the area, present day Bosnia-Herzegovina and Dalmatia, consisted of a blue shield with six gold fleur de lys displayed around a white bend. The flag chosen in 1992 has a white background with the Bosnian Fleur-de-lis in the center. Though it is no longer an official flag of the state, the flag continues to be used unofficially by Bosniak civilians as a sort of ethnic flag, used as part of political rallies and such; the Bosnian Serbs who lived in Bosnia and Herzegovina after the signing of the Dayton Agreement viewed the flag with the six fleurs-de-lys as only representing the Bosniaks of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The flag of the state was changed into the current, post-1999 flag. The current flag was introduced by the UN High Representative after the Parliament of Bosnia and Herzegovina could not decide on a solution, acceptable to all parties; the current flag contains no historical or other references to the Bosnian state. The flag is ever seen in the Republika Srpska, whose residents prefer to fly either that entity's regional flag or the Serbian national flag instead; some Bosniaks dislike or have no particular affinity for the flag, preferring the former Bosnian national flag used from 1992 to 1998, or the former socialist-era Yugoslav flag instead. The first flag, proposed in the First Set of Proposals was the "Czech Pattern", similar to the flag of the Czech Republic, it was intended to represent all three constitutive nations living in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The next proposal was the "Laurel branch", it is based on the light blue colour of the United Nations Flag. It would have had a golden olive branch in the middle.
The olive branch is taken from the United Nations emblem. The flag would have only one branch; the branch was rotated around 30 degrees counterclockwise. The third proposal was the "Map" proposal, it would use the United Nations light blue colour.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995. Following a number of violent incidents in early 1992, the war is viewed as having started on 6 April 1992; the war ended on 14 December 1995. The main belligerents were the forces of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and those of the self-proclaimed Bosnian Serb and Bosnian Croat entities within Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska and Herzeg-Bosnia, which were led and supplied by Serbia and Croatia, respectively; the war was part of the breakup of Yugoslavia. Following the Slovenian and Croatian secessions from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1991, the multi-ethnic Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina –, inhabited by Muslim Bosniaks, as well as Orthodox Serbs and Catholic Croats – passed a referendum for independence on 29 February 1992; this was rejected by the political representatives of the Bosnian Serbs, who had boycotted the referendum.
Following Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of independence, the Bosnian Serbs, led by Radovan Karadžić and supported by the Serbian government of Slobodan Milošević and the Yugoslav People's Army, mobilised their forces inside Bosnia and Herzegovina in order to secure ethnic Serb territory war soon spread across the country, accompanied by ethnic cleansing. The conflict was between the Yugoslav Army units in Bosnia which transformed into the Army of Republika Srpska on the one side, the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, composed of Bosniaks, the Croat forces in the Croatian Defence Council on the other side. Tensions between Croats and Bosniaks increased throughout late 1992, resulting in the Croat–Bosniak War that escalated in early 1993; the Bosnian War was characterised by bitter fighting, indiscriminate shelling of cities and towns, ethnic cleansing and systematic mass rape perpetrated by Serb, to a lesser extent and Bosniak forces. Events such as the Siege of Sarajevo and the Srebrenica massacre became iconic of the conflict.
The Serbs, although militarily superior due to the weapons and resources provided by the JNA lost momentum as the Bosniaks and Croats allied themselves against the Republika Srpska in 1994 with the creation of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina following the Washington agreement. Pakistan defied the UN's ban on supply of arms and airlifted missiles to the Bosnian Muslims, while after the Srebrenica and Markale massacres, NATO intervened in 1995 with Operation Deliberate Force targeting the positions of the Army of the Republika Srpska, which proved key in ending the war; the war was brought to an end after the signing of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina in Paris on 14 December 1995. Peace negotiations were held in Dayton and were finalised on 21 November 1995. By early 2008, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia had convicted 45 Serbs, 12 Croats and 4 Bosniaks of war crimes in connection with the war in Bosnia; the most recent estimates suggest.
Over 2.2 million people were displaced, making it the most devastating conflict in Europe since the end of World War II. In addition, an estimated 12,000–20,000 women were raped, most of them Bosniak. There is debate over the start date of the Bosnian War. Clashes between Bosnian Muslims and Croats started in late February 1992, "full-scale hostilities had broken out by 6 April", the same day that the United States and European Economic Community recognised Bosnia and Herzegovina. Misha Glenny gives a date of 22 March, Tom Gallagher gives 2 April, while Mary Kaldor and Laura Silber and Allan Little give 6 April. Philip Hammond the British Chancellor of the Exchequer, claimed that the most common view is that the war started on 6 April 1992. Serbs consider the Sarajevo wedding shooting, when a groom's father was killed on the second day of the Bosnian independence referendum, 1 March 1992, to have been the first victim of the war; the Sijekovac killings of Serbs took place on the Bijeljina massacre on 1 -- 2 April.
On April 5, when a huge crowd approached a barricade, a demonstrator was killed by Serb forces. The war was brought to an end by the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, negotiated at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio between 1 and 21 November 1995 and signed in Paris on 14 December 1995; the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina came about as a result of the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. A crisis emerged in Yugoslavia as a result of the weakening of the confederational system at the end of the Cold War. In Yugoslavia, the national communist party, the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, was losing its ideological potency. Meanwhile, ethnic nationalism experienced a renaissance in the 1980s, after violence broke out in Kosovo. While the goal of Serbian nationalists was the centralisation of Yugoslavia, other nationalities in Yugoslavia aspired to the federalisation and the decentralisation of the state. Bosnia and Herzegovina, a former Ottoman province, has been a multi-ethnic state.
According to the 1991 census, 44% of the population considered themselves Muslim, 32.5% Serb and 17% Croat, with 6% describing themselves as Yugoslav. In March 1989, the crisis in Yugoslavia deepened after the adoption of amendments to the Serbian Constitution which allowed the government of Serbia to dominate the provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina; until Kosovo and Vojvodina's decision-making had been independent and both autonomous provinc
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Pannonia was a province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. Pannonia was located over the territory of the present-day western Hungary, eastern Austria, northern Croatia, north-western Serbia, northern Slovenia, western Slovakia and northern Bosnia and Herzegovina. Julius Pokorny believed the name Pannonia is derived from Illyrian, from the Proto-Indo-European root *pen-, "swamp, wet". Others believe that the name is related to the god of the nature and shepherds Pan and/or pan, the Proto-Slavic/Proto-Indo-European word for lord/master, which could mean Pan's Land or Land of the Master, more probable due the fact the Ionian fleet supplied Pannonia via the Black Sea and Danube, Panionium festivities were well known in the region to its Celtic, Adriatic Veneti and Scythian inhabitants. Pliny the Elder, in Natural History, places the eastern regions of the Hercynium jugum, the "Hercynian mountain chain", in Pannonia and Dacia.
He gives us some dramaticised description of its composition, in which the close proximity of the forest trees causes competitive struggle among them. He mentions its gigantic oaks, but he—if the passage in question is not an interpolated marginal gloss—is subject to the legends of the gloomy forest. He mentions unusual birds, which have feathers that "shine like fires at night". Medieval bestiaries named these birds the Ercinee; the impenetrable nature of the Hercynian Silva hindered the last concerted Roman foray into the forest, by Drusus, during 12–9 BC: Florus asserts that Drusus invisum atque inaccessum in id tempus Hercynium saltum patefecit. The first inhabitants of this area known to history were the Pannonii, a group of Indo-European tribes akin to Illyrians. From the 4th century BC, it was invaded by various Celtic tribes. Little is heard of Pannonia until 35 BC, when its inhabitants, allies of the Dalmatians, were attacked by Augustus, who conquered and occupied Siscia; the country was not, definitively subdued by the Romans until 9 BC, when it was incorporated into Illyricum, the frontier of, thus extended as far as the Danube.
In AD 6, the Pannonians, with the Dalmatians and other Illyrian tribes, engaged in the so-called Great Illyrian Revolt, were overcome by Tiberius and Germanicus, after a hard-fought campaign, which lasted for three years. After the rebellion was crushed in AD 9, the province of Illyricum was dissolved, its lands were divided between the new provinces of Pannonia in the north and Dalmatia in the south; the date of the division is unknown, most after AD 20 but before AD 50. The proximity of dangerous barbarian tribes necessitated the presence of a large number of troops, numerous fortresses were built on the bank of the Danube; some time between the years 102 and 107, between the first and second Dacian wars, Trajan divided the province into Pannonia Superior, Pannonia Inferior. According to Ptolemy, these divisions were separated by a line drawn from Arrabona in the north to Servitium in the south; the whole country was sometimes called the Pannonias. Pannonia Superior was under the consular legate, who had administered the single province, had three legions under his control.
Pannonia Inferior was at first under a praetorian legate with a single legion as the garrison. The frontier on the Danube was protected by the establishment of the two colonies Aelia Mursia and Aelia Aquincum by Hadrian. Under Diocletian, a fourfold division of the country was made: Pannonia Prima in the northwest, with its capital in Savaria / Sabaria, it included Upper Pannonia and the major part of Central Pannonia between the Raba and Drava, Pannonia Valeria in the northeast, with its capital in Sopianae, it comprised the remainder of Central Pannonia between the Raba and Danube, Pannonia Savia in the southwest, with its capital in Siscia, Pannonia Secunda in the southeast, with its capital in SirmiumDiocletian moved parts of today's Slovenia out of Pannonia and incorporated them in Noricum. In 324 AD, Constantine I enlarged the borders of Roman Pannonia to the east, annexing the plains of what is now eastern Hungary, northern Serbia and western Romania up to the limes that he created: the Devil's Dykes.
In the 4th-5th century, one of the dioceses of the Roman Empire was known as the Diocese of Pannonia. It had its capital in Sirmium and included all four provinces that were formed from historical Pannonia, as well as the provinces of Dalmatia, Noricum Mediterraneum and Noricum Ripense. During the Migrations Period in the 5th century, some parts of Pannonia was ceded to the Huns in 433 by Flavius Aetius, the magister militum of the Western Roman Empire. After the collapse of the Hunnic empire in 454, large numbers of Ostrogoths were settled by Marcian in the province as foederati; the Eastern Roman Empire controlled it for a time in the 6th century, a Byzantine province of Pannonia with its capital at Sirmium was temporarily restored, but it included only a small southeastern part of historical Pannonia. Afterwards, it was again invaded by the Avars in the 560s, the Slavs, who first settled c. 480s but became independent only from the 7th century, the Franks, who named a frontier march the March of Pannonia in the late 8th century.
The term Pannonia wa