HMS Dolphin (1751)
HMS Dolphin was a 24-gun sixth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy. Launched in 1751, she was used as a ship from 1764. She was the first ship to circumnavigate the world twice and she remained in service until she was paid off in September 1776, and she was broken up in early 1777. Built to the 1745 Establishment, Dolphin was originally ordered from the yard of Earlsman Sparrow in Rotherhithe. Following Sparrows bankruptcy in 1748, the order was moved to Woolwich Dockyard, in order to reduce the likely incidence of shipworm, Dolphins hull was copper-sheathed ahead of her first voyage of circumnavigation in 1764. Not long after her commissioning, the hostilities of the Seven Years War had escalated and spread to Europe, the Pacific Ocean was beginning to be opened up by exploratory European vessels, and interest had developed in this route as an alternate to reach the East Indies. No longer in a state of war, the Admiralty had more funds, accordingly, an expedition was soon formed with instructions to investigate and establish a South Atlantic base from which Britain could keep an eye on voyages bound for the Pacific.
Another purpose was to explore for unknown lands which could be claimed and exploited by the Crown. The Dolphin was selected as lead vessel for this voyage, and her captain was Commodore John Byron, a 42-year-old veteran of the sea, and younger brother to the profligate William Byron, 5th Baron Byron. Between June 1764 and May 1766 HMS Dolphin completed the circumnavigation of the globe and this was the first such circumnavigation of less than 2 years. Later Byron visited islands of Tuamotus and Nikunau in the Gilbert Islands, putting them on European maps for the first time, Dolphin circumnavigated the world for a second time, under the command of Samuel Wallis. Her masters mate, John Gore, was among a number of the crew from Byrons circumnavigation who crewed with Wallis. The master on this voyage, George Robertson, subsequently wrote a book The discovery of Tahiti, Dolphin round the world under the command of Captain Wallis, R. N. in the years 1766,1767, and 1768, written by her master. Dolphin sailed in 1766 in the company of HMS Swallow, under the command of Philip Carteret, Dolphin dropped anchor at the peninsula of Tahiti Iti on 17 June 1767 but quickly left to find a better anchorage.
Wallis chose Matavai Bay on 23 June, although the Spanish had visited the Marquesas Islands in 1595, some 170 years earlier, Wallis officially took possession of Otaheiti, which he named King George III Island. Early on a large canoe approached Dolphin and at a signal its occupants launched a storm of stones at the British, Dolphins gunnery cut the canoe in two, killing most of its occupants. Wallis sent his carpenters ashore to cut the eighty-some canoes there in half, friendly relations were established between the British sailors and the locals. The relationships became particularly friendly when the sailors discovered that the women were eager to exchange sex for iron and this trade became so extensive that the loss of nails started to threaten Dolphins physical integrity
Windward Islands (Society Islands)
The Windward Islands are the eastern group of the Society Islands in French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France in the southern Pacific Ocean. These islands were named the Georgian Islands in honor of King George III of England. Tahiti and Mehetia are high islands and Maiao are coral atolls. The majority of the population speaks French and Tahitian, the Windward Islands form the administrative subdivision of the Windward Islands, one of French Polynesias five administrative subdivisions
HMS Discovery (1774)
HMS Discovery was the consort ship of James Cooks third expedition to the Pacific Ocean in 1776–1780. Like Cooks other ships, Discovery was a Whitby-built collier originally named Diligence when she was built in 1774, purchased in 1775, the vessel was measured at 299 tons burthen. Originally a brig, Cook had her changed to a full rigged ship and she was commanded by Charles Clerke, who had previously served on Cooks first two expeditions, and had a complement of 70. When Cook was killed in a skirmish with natives of Hawaii, Clerke transferred to the expeditions flagship HMS Resolution and she became a dockyard craft at Woolwich, and was broken up at Chatham Dockyard in October 1797. European and American voyages of scientific exploration Kidnapping of Kalaniʻōpuʻu by Captain James Cook Colledge, J. J. Warlow, Ships of the Royal Navy, The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy. Rif Winfield, British Warships in the Age of Sail, 1714-1792, the Life of Captain James Cook. Ships of the World entry Digitised copies of the logs of HMS Discovery
Founded in November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as The Royal Society. The society is governed by its Council, which is chaired by the Societys President, according to a set of statutes and standing orders. The members of Council and the President are elected from and by its Fellows, the members of the society. As of 2016, there are about 1,600 fellows, allowed to use the postnominal title FRS, there are royal fellows, honorary fellows and foreign members, the last of which are allowed to use the postnominal title ForMemRS. The Royal Society President is Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, who took up the post on 30 November 2015, since 1967, the society has been based at 6–9 Carlton House Terrace, a Grade I listed building in central London which was previously used by the Embassy of Germany, London. The Royal Society started from groups of physicians and natural philosophers, meeting at variety of locations and they were influenced by the new science, as promoted by Francis Bacon in his New Atlantis, from approximately 1645 onwards.
A group known as The Philosophical Society of Oxford was run under a set of rules still retained by the Bodleian Library, after the English Restoration, there were regular meetings at Gresham College. It is widely held that these groups were the inspiration for the foundation of the Royal Society, I will not say, that Mr Oldenburg did rather inspire the French to follow the English, or, at least, did help them, and hinder us. But tis well known who were the men that began and promoted that design. This initial royal favour has continued and, since then, every monarch has been the patron of the society, the societys early meetings included experiments performed first by Hooke and by Denis Papin, who was appointed in 1684. These experiments varied in their area, and were both important in some cases and trivial in others. The Society returned to Gresham in 1673, there had been an attempt in 1667 to establish a permanent college for the society. Michael Hunter argues that this was influenced by Solomons House in Bacons New Atlantis and, to a lesser extent, by J. V.
The first proposal was given by John Evelyn to Robert Boyle in a letter dated 3 September 1659, he suggested a scheme, with apartments for members. The societys ideas were simpler and only included residences for a handful of staff and these plans were progressing by November 1667, but never came to anything, given the lack of contributions from members and the unrealised—perhaps unrealistic—aspirations of the society. During the 18th century, the gusto that had characterised the early years of the society faded, with a number of scientific greats compared to other periods. The pointed lightning conductor had been invented by Benjamin Franklin in 1749, during the same time period, it became customary to appoint society fellows to serve on government committees where science was concerned, something that still continues. The 18th century featured remedies to many of the early problems
Tahiti is the largest island in the Windward group of French Polynesia, this overseas collectivity of the French Republic is sometimes referred to as a French overseas country. The island was formed from volcanic activity and is high and mountainous with surrounding coral reefs, the population is 183,645 inhabitants, making it the most populous island of French Polynesia and accounting for 68.5 percent of its total population. Tahiti is the economic and political centre of French Polynesia, the capital, Papeete, is located on the northwest coast with the only international airport in the region, Faaā International Airport, situated 5 km from the town centre. Tahiti was originally settled by Polynesians between 300 and 800 CE and they represent about 70 percent of the islands population with the rest made up of Europeans and those of mixed heritage. The island was part of the Kingdom of Tahiti until its annexation by France in 1880, when it was proclaimed a colony of France, French is the only official language although the Tahitian language is widely spoken.
Tahiti is the highest and largest island in French Polynesia lying close to Moorea island and it is located 4,400 kilometres south of Hawaii,7,900 km from Chile and 5,700 km from Australia. The island is 45 km across at its widest point and covers an area of 1,045 km2, the highest peak is Mont Orohena. Mount Roonui, or Mount Ronui in the southeast rises to 1,332 m, the island consists of two roughly round portions centred on volcanic mountains and connected by a short isthmus named after the small town of Taravao, situated there. The northwestern portion is known as Tahiti Nui, while the much smaller portion is known as Tahiti Iti or Taiarapū. Tahiti Nui is heavily populated along the coast, especially around the capital, the interior of Tahiti Nui is almost entirely uninhabited. Tahiti Iti has remained isolated, as its half is accessible only to those travelling by boat or on foot. The rest of the island is encircled by a road which cuts between the mountains and the sea. A scenic and winding road climbs past dairy farms and citrus groves with panoramic views.
Tahitis landscape features lush rainforests and many rivers and waterfalls, including the Papenoo River on the side. November to April is the wet season, the wettest month of which is January with 13.2 in of rain in Papeetē, August is the driest with 1.9 inches. The average temperature ranges between 21 and 31 °C with little seasonal variation, the lowest and highest temperatures recorded in Papeete are 16 and 34 °C, respectively. The first Tahitians arrived from Southeast Asia in about 200 BCE and this hypothesis of an emigration from Southeast Asia is supported by a number of linguistic and archaeological proofs. For example, the languages of Fiji and Polynesia all belong to the same Oceanic sub-group, Fijian-Polynesian, in 1769, for instance, James Cook mentions a great traditional ship in Tahiti that was 33 m long, and could be propelled by sail or paddles
Mehetia or Meetia is a volcanic island in the Windward Islands, in the east of the Society Islands in French Polynesia. This island is a young active stratovolcano 110 kilometres east of the Taiarapu Peninsula of Tahiti. It belongs to the Teahitia-Mehetia hotspot, the island has an area of 2.3 square kilometres and its highest point is 435 metres. Mehetias well-defined volcanic crater contains an active hot point. In 1981 the island was the centre of earthquakes, the first European sighting was by the Spanish expedition of Pedro Fernández de Quirós on 9 February 1606, that charted it as Decena. Later on it was sighted by Samuel Wallis in HMS Dolphin 1767 and it was sighted by Spanish navigator Domingo de Boenechea on November 6,1772 on ship Aguila. He named this island San Cristóbal, Mehetia is administratively part of the commune of Taiarapu-Est and of its easternmost commune associée Tautira. The island is uninhabited and doesnt have much vegetation but has a coral reef on the underwater slopes.
List of volcanoes in French Polynesia Global Volcanism Program, Mehetia Spanish voyages Mehetia in Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program database Mehetia
Bora Bora is a 29.3 km2 island in the Leeward group in the western part of the Society Islands of French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France in the Pacific Ocean. The island, located about 230 kilometres northwest of Papeete, is surrounded by a lagoon, in the centre of the island are the remnants of an extinct volcano rising to two peaks, Mount Pahia and Mount Otemanu, the highest point at 727 metres. Bora Bora is an international tourist destination, famous for its aqua-centric luxury resorts. The major settlement, Vaitape, is on the side of the main island. Produce of the island is limited to what can be obtained from the sea and the plentiful coconut trees. According to a 2008 census, Bora Bora has a permanent population of 8,880, in ancient times the island was called Pora pora mai te pora, meaning created by the gods in the local Tahitian dialect. This was often abbreviated Pora Pora meaning simply first born, because of ambiguities in the phonemes of the Tahitian language, this could be pronounced Bola Bola or Bora Bora.
When explorer Jacob Roggeveen first landed on the island, he, the island was inhabited by Polynesian settlers around the 4th century C. E. The first European sighting was made by Jakob Roggeveen in 1722, james Cook sighted the island in 1770 and landed that same year. The London Missionary Society arrived in 1820 and founded a Protestant church in 1890, Bora Bora was an independent kingdom until 1888 when its last queen Teriimaevarua III was forced to abdicate by the French who annexed the island as a colony. In World War II the United States chose Bora Bora as a South Pacific military supply base, and an oil depot, seaplane base, and defensive fortifications were constructed. Known as Operation Bobcat, it maintained a force of nine ships,20,000 tons of equipment. Seven artillery guns were set up at points around the island to protect it against potential military attack. However, the island saw no combat as the American presence on Bora Bora went uncontested over the course of the war, the base was officially closed on June 2,1946.
The atoll of Tupai has no permanent population apart from about 50 workers in the coconut plantations. The surrounding islets include, Motu Tapu, Motu Ahuna, Motu Tane, Motu Mute, Motu Tufari, Motu Tehotu, Motu Pitiaau, Sofitel Motu, Motu Toopua, and Toopuaiti. The island is part of the commune of Bora-Bora, itself in the administrative subdivision of the Leeward Islands. President of French Polynesia Édouard Fritch is the current mayor of Bora Bora in addition to being the President, today the islands economy is driven almost solely by tourism
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands. The word archipelago is derived from the Greek ἄρχι- – arkhi-, in Italian, possibly following a tradition of antiquity, the Archipelago was the proper name for the Aegean Sea and, usage shifted to refer to the Aegean Islands. It is now used to refer to any group or, sometimes. Archipelagos may be isolated in large amounts of water or neighbouring a large land mass. For example, Scotland has more than 700 islands surrounding its mainland which form an archipelago, archipelagos are often volcanic, forming along island arcs generated by subduction zones or hotspots, but may be the result of erosion and land elevation. Depending on their origin, islands forming archipelagos can be referred to as oceanic islands, continental fragments. Oceanic islands are mainly of volcanic origin, continental fragments correspond to land masses that have separated from a continental mass due to tectonic displacement.
Indonesia, Taiwan, the Philippines, New Zealand, the Bahamas, Hawaii, the largest archipelagic state in the world by area and population is Indonesia. Island arc List of landforms List of archipelagos by number of islands List of archipelagos List of islands Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Archipelago
Raiātea, is the second largest of the Society Islands, after Tahiti, in French Polynesia. A traditional name for the island is believed to be Havaii, situated on the south east coast is the historical Taputapuātea which was established by 1000AD. The main township on Raiātea is Uturoa, the centre for the Leeward Islands. There are colleges which serve as the main location for secondary schools for students from the regional islands of Pora Pora, Huahine. The proper spelling of the name in the Tahitian language is Raiātea, meaning bright sky, the extinct Ulieta bird originated from this island, along with other unknown species, there is only one drawing of it in the world which is in the Natural History Museum London. The islands of Raiātea and Tahaa are enclosed by a coral reef. Raiātea is both the largest and most populated island in the Leeward Islands, with an area of 167.7 km2. The population density is 72 inhabitants per km², the largest commune of Raiātea is Uturoa on the north side of Raiātea and has a population of nearly 10,000.
The first European to record sighting Raiātea was Pedro Fernandes de Queirós in 1606, the Polynesian navigator, who sailed with explorer James Cook, was born in Raiātea around 1725. Omai, another man from Raiātea, travelled with European explorers to London in 1774 and served as an interpreter to Captain Cook on his second. King Tamatoa VI was the last monarch, reigning from 1884-1888, Raiātea has a small road that runs around the entire island. Raiātea Airport is an airport in Uturoa, the island is divided into three administration communes, Uturoa Taputapuātea Tūmāraa These three communes are inside the administrative subdivision of the Leeward Islands. The island economy is agricultural with exports of vanilla, pineapple. The plant Nono is grown, faaroa Valley is a large and important agricultural region with the rural economy and the cultivation of vanilla supported by a local research facility. Pearl farming is an important industry while farming cattle, there is less tourism compared to the other islands in the archipelago.
The local tourist infrastructure comprises boarding houses, two marinas, a four star hotel, The Hawaiki Nui and a port for visiting cruise ships, there is a fledgling local industry in the maintenance of yachts and shipbuilding. The main source of employment is the public service and the consumer market. List of volcanoes in French Polynesia Hawaiki 48 hours live to tell and we had just left an island called Raiātea, which was about 300 miles west of Tahiti
Leeward Islands (Society Islands)
The Leeward Islands are the western part of the Society Islands in French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France in the South Pacific. They lie south of the Line Islands, east of the Cooks and their area is 395 km² with a population of over 33,000. The islands to the west comprise a three atoll group, Motu One atoll, lying most northerly of the Leeward Islands, the archipelago comprises an administrative division of French Polynesia. The capital of the Leeward Islands administrative subdivision is Uturoa, the Leeward Islands are one of French Polynesias five administrative subdivisions. The administrative subdivision is identical with the district of the Leeward Islands. The first European to encounter the archipelago was James Cook on 12 April 1769 during the British expedition to observe the transit of Venus, on this first voyage, he named the Leeward group of islands Society in honor of the Royal Society. France eventually broke the agreement, and the islands were annexed and became a colony in 1888 after many native resistances and conflicts called the Leewards War, the islands are mountainous, consisting of volcanic rock.
They are formed of trachyte and basalt, there are raised coral beds high up the mountains, and lava occurs in a variety of forms, even in solid flows. Volcanic activity ceased so long ago that the craters have been almost entirely obliterated by erosion, flora includes breadfruit and coconut palms. The limited terrestrial fauna includes feral pigs and small lizards, tourism is the mainstay of the economy. Agriculturally, the products are copra, rum, mother-of-pearl
Taha’a is an island located among the western group, the Leeward Islands, of the Society Islands in French Polynesia, an overseas territory of France in the Pacific Ocean. The islands of Taha’a and neighboring Raiatea to the south are enclosed by the same coral reef. Tahaa has 5,000 people living on 90 square kilometres and it is known as the Vanilla Island and produces pearls of exceptional quality. Administratively, Taha’a and the surrounding islets emerging from the coral reef form a part of the administrative subdivision of the Leeward Islands. Tahaa consists of the associated communes, Faaaha Haamene Hipu Iripau Niua Ruutia Tapuamu Vaitoare The administrative centre of the commune of Tahaa is the settlement of Patio. Taha’a produces 70-80% of all French Polynesias vanilla, because of the pervasive aroma of vanilla, Taha’a is known as the Vanilla Island. Taha’as pearls are of exceptional quality, Taha’a and its small islets can be reached by boat and outrigger from Raiatea. The short sail drops visitors on a beach with a small lagoon, and in the near distance.
These parts of the Society Islands are less modernized, Taha’a is spelled in Tahitian using the apostrophe to represent the glottal stop, as promoted by the Académie Tahitienne and accepted by the territorial government. This apostrophe, however, is often omitted, in old travelogues, the transcription Oataha is sometimes used