SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Society of Antiquaries of London

The Society of Antiquaries of London is a learned society "charged by its Royal Charter of 1751 with'the encouragement and furtherance of the study and knowledge of the antiquities and history of this and other countries'." It is based at Burlington House, London, is a registered charity. Members of the society are known as fellows and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FSA after their names. Fellows are elected by existing members of the society, to be elected persons shall be "excelling in the knowledge of the antiquities and history of this and other nations" and be "desirous to promote the honour and emoluments of the Society." The society retains a selective election procedure, in comparison with many other learned societies. Nominations for fellowship can come only from existing fellows of the society, must be signed by at least five and up to twelve existing fellows, certifying that, from their personal knowledge, the candidate would make a worthy fellow. Elections occur by anonymous ballot, a candidate must achieve a ratio of two'yes' votes for every'no' vote cast by fellows participating in the ballot to be elected as a fellow.

Fellowship is thus regarded as recognition of significant achievement in the fields of archaeology, antiquities and heritage. The first secretary for the society was William Stukeley; as of 2017, the society has a membership of 3,055 fellows. A precursor organisation, the College of Antiquaries, was founded c. 1586 and functioned as a debating society until it was forbidden to do so by King James I in 1614. The first informal meeting of the modern Society of Antiquaries occurred at the Bear Tavern on The Strand on 5 December 1707; this early group, conceived by John Talman, John Bagford, Humfrey Wanley, sought a charter from Queen Anne for the study of British antiquities. The proposal for the society was to be advanced by Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford, but his dismissal from government caused it to become idle; the formalisation of proceedings occurred in 1717, the first minutes at the Mitre Tavern, Fleet Street, are dated 1 January 1718. Those attending these meetings examined objects, gave talks, discussed theories of historical sites.

Reports on the dilapidation of significant buildings were produced. The society was concerned with the topics of heraldry and historical documents. In 1751, a successful application for a charter of incorporation was sought by its long-serving vice president Joseph Ayloffe, which allowed the society to own property; the society began to gather large collections of manuscripts and artefacts, housing such gifts and bequests while a proper institution for them did not exist. The acquisition of a large group of important paintings in 1828 preceded the establishment of the National Portrait Gallery by some 30 years. A gift of Thomas Kerrich, which included portraits of Edward IV, Mary Tudor, two of Richard III, reveal anti-Tudor bias in their portrayal. Following the London Blitz, the society organized many of the excavations of Roman and medieval ruins exposed by the bombing of the City, with annual surveys performed every year between 1946 and 1962. Among other finds, they discovered the unknown London citadel in the northwest corner of the London Wall.

The findings were summarized in 1968 by W. F. Grimes. In 2007, the society celebrated its tercentennial year with an exhibition at the Royal Academy entitled Making History: Antiquaries in Britain 1707–2007; the tercentenary was marked by two substantial publications: a collection of seventeen scholarly essays on the parallel themes of the history of the society itself and changing interpretations of the material relics of the past over the three centuries of its existence. The society faced controversy in 2019, when its council was unable to pass a resolution to eject fellow Hubert Chesshyre. In 2015, a trial of the facts had reached the verdict that Chesshyre had committed child sexual abuse offences, leading to a recommendation from the Honours Committee that he be stripped of honours; the council issued a statement saying that it "regrets that a majority of those present did not see fit to support the resolution" and that the incident showed "need to modernise the society’s statutes and governance procedures".

The society's library is the major archaeological research library in the UK. Having acquired material since the early 18th century, the Library's present holdings number more than 100,000 books and around 800 received periodical titles; the catalogue include rare drawings and manuscripts, such as the inventory of all Henry VIII's possessions at the time of his death. As the oldest archaeological library in the country, the Library holds an outstanding collection of British county histories, a fine collection of 18th- and 19th-century books on the antiquities of Britain and other countries and an exceptionally wide-ranging collection of periodical titles with runs dating back to the early to mid-19th century. In 1718, the society began to publish a series of illustrated papers on ancient buildings and artefacts those of Britain and written by members of the society, under the title Vetusta Monumenta; the series continued to appear on an irregular basis until 1906. The papers were published in a folio format, were notable for the inclusion of finely engraved views and reproductions of artefacts.

An engraver was employed by the society from i

Lazarus (comics)

Lazarus is a dystopian science fiction comic book series created by writer Greg Rucka and artist Michael Lark. The two partnered with colorist Santi Arcas to finish the art. Image Comics has been publishing the book since the first issue was released on June 23, 2013. Other creators were brought in to assist with lettering and inking. A six-issue spin-off limited series, Lazarus: X+66, was released monthly in 2017 between issues 26 and 27 of the regular series. Rucka said the series could run for up to 150 issues, but reduced the estimate by half. Lazarus is being collected into paperback and hardcover editions, which sell better than the monthly issues. In the series, the world has been divided among sixteen rival families, who run their territories in a feudal system; the main character is the military leader of the Carlyle family. The major themes of Lazarus are the meaning of "family" and nature versus nurture. Critics have given it positive reviews and have praised its worldbuilding, although it is sometimes criticized for slow pace.

It has received particular attention for its political themes, comparisons have been drawn between elements of the story and the presidency of Donald Trump. Lazarus is being adapted into other media. Green Ronin Publishing is using the plot as a campaign setting for their Modern AGE role-playing game in 2018. A television adaptation is in development with Legendary Amazon Studios. American writer Greg Rucka and artist Michael Lark had collaborated on the comic series Gotham Central for DC Comics between 2002 and 2004 and various small projects for Marvel Comics in the years following. Lark wanted to work with Rucka on a creator-owned comic because he felt he was at his best drawing the kind of stories Rucka writes. In June 2012, Rucka was in Dallas as part of a book-signing tour, he had dinner with Lark, who lived nearby, shared an idea for a scene involving a woman, shot rising from the dead and pursuing her attackers. Lark committed to drawing the comic as soon as a full script was ready. Although Rucka had published his creator-owned material through Oni Press, his friend Ed Brubaker had been pushing him to work with Image Comics.

When they contacted Image's Eric Stephenson and pitched the project as "The Godfather meets Children of Men", he expressed interest. The project, titled Lazarus, was announced at the San Diego Comic Con on July 14, 2012; the announcement was accompanied by promotional artwork colored by American Elizabeth Breitweiser and featured a prototype logo design and typeface. Image Comics provided David Brothers to serve as the series' editor. Unlike traditional comic editors who focus on coordinating schedules and pushing deadlines, Brothers only reviews the work and provides responses that help the team create better work with more internal consistency. Eric Trautmann, who had edited two of Rucka's novels, was recruited to help with research and design work. Lark wanted to work with a European colorist to provide a look distinct from traditional American comics. Rucka suggested Santi Arcas, a Spanish colorist he had worked with in the past, Lark liked Arcas' skies and textures. Rucka and Lark developed the setting for Lazarus by looking at the Occupy movement and the underlying economics asking themselves "What happens if it goes horribly wrong?"

They decided. They gave their lead character the name Endeavor, but Rucka changed the name to Forever to avoid a conflict with a different comic being developed at the same time about a young Inspector Morse. Lark based her body type on the soccer player Hope Solo. Lark was disappointed by the first script as he felt none of the characters were likable, the scene described to him over dinner was not included. In response, Rucka wrote a new draft restoring the missing opening scene. Lark began drawing the first issue in January 2013, basing the opening scene on the reconstruction sequence in 1997 film The Fifth Element; when writing a new script, Rucka tries to follow the world-building model used by William Gibson in his 1984 novel Neuromancer and provide information about the environment through context instead of exposition. His biggest struggle is delivering details while maintaining a proper narrative pace, he sometimes self-censors "exceptionally dark" material because he does not want to make Lark draw it.

After Lark receives a new script, the collaboration between them is "immediate and constant". Lark questions Rucka about characterization and the direction of the story, leading Rucka to rewrite scripts resulting in what he believes is a better final product. Lark refuses to read scripts in advance so he will stay focused on what is in front of him, not what he will be drawing next. Rucka says Lark intuitively knows what is happening in the story when it isn't scripted. Rucka and Lark have an ongoing conversation about how to show the injustice in the way Forever is treated without being complicit in it themselves. For example, medics must remove Forever's clothes to treat her wounds. Lark wanted to avoid sexualizing the images, but avoid being "coy" by blocking parts of her body with another character's arm; the script gives Lark no direction for aspects like clothing, or vehicle design. Designing these technical details involves research into prototype technology and takes as long as drawing the actual pages for the comics.

The time required to create the sets is the primary reason. Lark works on Lazarus ten or more hours per day, he uses photo references and digital tools in the early stages of his art

Banco Privado Português

Banco Privado Português was a private Portuguese bank, based in Lisbon. Founded by João Rendeiro it's in liquidation. On 24 July 2009, Paulo Guichard and Salvador Fezas Vital, two former board committee members of BPP were suspended by Banco de Portugal, joined João Rendeiro in the BPP case, to be indicted for falsifying accounts, tax crimes and money laundering. On 15 April 2010, the Banco de Portugal, Portugal central bank, "after verifying the impossibility of recapitalization and recovery efforts of this institution", ordered the liquidation of the Banco Privado Português. On 11 October 2010, the Polícia Judiciária conducted searches at the homes of former officials of the BPP under the scope of an investigation into suspected money laundering and fraud. On 11 February 2013, João Rendeiro, Fezas Vital and Paul Guichard, former members of the board committee were charged by the Public Ministry with fraud, in a matter of a Collective investment scheme that damaged hundreds of clients for an estimated 41 million euros.

In May 2015, assets from João Rendeiro were seized to pay a 4.7 million euro fine from the Bank of Portugal. BPP Homepage