Clogs are a type of footwear made in part or from wood. Clogs are used worldwide and although the form may vary by culture, within a culture the form remained unchanged for centuries. Traditional clogs remain in use as protective footwear in agriculture and in some factories and mines. Although clogs are sometimes negatively associated with cheap and folkloric footwear of farmers and the working class, some types of clogs are considered fashion wear today, such as Swedish träskor or Japanese geta. Clogs are used in several different styles of dance; when worn for dancing an important feature is the sound of the clog against the floor. This is one of the fundamental roots of tap, but with the tap shoes the taps are free to click against each other and produce a different sound from clogs; the Oxford English Dictionary defines a clog as a "thick piece of wood", as a "wooden soled overshoe" and a "shoe with a thick wooden sole". Welsh traditional clog maker Trefor Owen identified three main varieties of clogs: wooden upper, wooden soled and overshoes.
Wooden upper clogs. Two main variants can be seen: whole foot clogs, they are known as "wooden shoes". Whole foot clogs can give sufficient protection to be used as safety footwear without additional reinforcements. Half open clogs; the upper is similar in outline to a court shoe. Half open clogs may have additional securing straps in some sort of fabric or leather. Wooden soled clogs. Wooden soled clogs come with a variety of uppers: complete uppers made from leather or similar material, such as English clogs. For more protection, they may have steel toecaps and/or steel reinforcing inserts in the undersides of the soles open sandal type fitting. For example, Japanese geta toe peg styles. For example, Indian paduka Overshoes. Patten style clogs are not used anymore; however the derivative galoshes are common worldwide. These divisions are not fixed: some overshoes look more like whole foot clogs, like Spanish albarca, whilst other wooden soled clogs raise and protect clothing in the way that overshoes do, such as Japanese geta.
The type of upper determines. Whole foot clogs can be secured by curling the toes. In contrast wooden soled clogs are fastened by laces or buckles on the welt and therefore the toes are relaxed as in shoes. Half open clogs may either be secured like whole foot clogs, or have an additional strap over the top of the foot; some sandal types, in particular toe peg styles, are worn more like "flip-flops" and rely on the grip between the big and next toe. Being wood, clogs can not flex under the ball of the foot. To allow the foot to roll forward most clogs have the bottom of the toe curved up, known as the cast; some styles of clogs have "feet", such as Spanish albarca. The clog rotates around the front edge of the front "feet". Japanese and Indian clogs may have "teeth" or high pegs attached to the soles; the clog can rotate around the front edge of the front "tooth" as the wearer strides forward. Some medieval pattens were in heel through to ball and ball to toes. Joining the two was a leather strip forming a hinge, thus allowing the shoe above to flex.
The origin of wooden footwear in Europe is not known. De Boer-Olij reference to the high, thick-soled boots of the Greek tragedy actors in Antiquity and to the shoes worn by Roman soldiers. However, there is a possibility that the Celtic and Germanic peoples from Southern- and Northern Europe were familiar with some sort of wooden foot covering. Archaeological finds of these are not known. Wooden footwear ended up as firewood and, because of its nature, wood will rot away in the long run; the oldest surviving wooden footwear in Europe is found in Amsterdam and Rotterdam, the Netherlands, dates from 1230 and 1280. These finds look similar to the wooden shoes that are still worn in The Netherlands. Since wooden footwear was a hand-made product, the shape of the footwear, as well as its production process showed great local and regional diversity in style. At the beginning of the 20th century machine-made wooden footwear was introduced. After WW2, in particular, wooden shoes disappeared from sight.
They were replaced by synthetic footwear. At present, only the so-called Swedish clogs is still seen as a trendy fashion item as ladies’ high-heeled boots. Traditional wooden footwear is still popular in several regions in Europe and in some occupations, for its practical use; some historic local variations have been replaced by uniform national models. More information on the various methods of manufacture can be found from the gallery below. Presented below are typical clogs from the countries. Like many folk items the boundaries of manufacture and use are regional and therefore do not always follow those of modern states. So, in some countries two or more different types can be found, it is possible that one type can be found in bordering countries. For example, German, Dutch and clogs from Northwest France look quite similar; the links provide access to pages dealing with the different types of clog, their design and manufacture. In the 1970s and 1980s, Swedish clogs became popular fashion accessories f
Pyrography or pyrogravure is the art of decorating wood or other materials with burn marks resulting from the controlled application of a heated object such as a poker. It is known as pokerwork or wood burning; the term graphos. It can be practiced using specialized modern pyrography tools, or using a metal implement heated in a fire, or sunlight concentrated with a magnifying lens. "Pyrography reached its highest standard in the 19th century. In its crude form it is pokerwork." A large range of tones and shades can be achieved. Varying the type of tip used, the temperature, or the way the iron is applied to the material all create different effects. After the design is burned in, wooden objects are coloured. Light-coloured hardwoods such as sycamore, basswood and birch are most used, as their fine grain is not obtrusive. However, other woods, such as maple, pine or oak, are used. Pyrography is applied to leather items, using the same hot-iron technique. Leather lends itself to bold designs, allows subtle shading to be achieved.
Specialist vegetable-tanned leather must be used for pyrography in light colours for good contrast. Pyrography is popular among gourd crafters and artists, where designs are burned onto the exterior of a dried hard-shell gourd; the process has been practiced by a number of cultures including the Egyptians and some African tribes since the dawn of recorded history. Pyrographer Robert Boyer hypothesises that the art form dates back to prehistory, when early humans created designs using the charred remains of their fires, it was known in China from the time of the Han dynasty, where it was known as "Fire Needle Embroidery". During the Victorian era, the invention of pyrography machines sparked a widespread interest in the craft, it was at this time that the term "pyrography" was coined In the late 19th century, a Melbourne architect by the name of Alfred Smart discovered that water-based paint could be applied hot to wood by pumping benzoline fumes through a heated hollow platinum pencil; this improved the pokerwork process by allowing the addition of tinting and shading that were impossible.
In the early 20th century, the development of the electric pyrographic hot wire wood etching machine further automated the pokerwork process, Art Nouveau pyrographic gloveboxes and other works were popular in that era. Pyrography is a traditional folk art in many parts of Europe, including Romania, Poland and Flanders, as well as Argentina and other areas in South America. Traditional pyrography can be performed using any heated metal implement. Modern pyrography machines exist, can be divided into three main categories. Solid-point burners are similar in design to a soldering iron, they have a solid brass tip, heated by an electrical element, operate at a fixed temperature. Wire-nib burners have variable temperature controls; the writing nib is heated by an electric current passing directly through it. Some models have interchangeable nibs to allow for different effects. Laser cutters can be set to scorch the material instead of cutting all the way through it. Many laser cutters provide software facilities to import image files and transfer them onto a sheet of wood.
Some laser systems are sufficiently sensitive to perform pyrography on thin card or paper. Woods differ in hardness, figure, texture and other physical characteristics. Hardness: All woods can be classified into hard or soft. Softwoods are from coniferous trees. You may be aware of a little bit of resin oozing and a slight turpentine smell when you burn on softwood. Hardwoods are from broad-leaved trees; these hardwood trees can be classified into two distinct growing seasons each year such as: Earlywood: lighter in color and weight and only moderately strong Latewood: heavier and much stronger. Softwood will burn faster, it does not require hot temperature to burn as do the hardwoods. Grain: Grain is the direction of the fibrous elements of the wood cells; this is important to sand with the grain. The grain can cause deviation from its intended path with use of woodturning pen unless you apply more pressure and burn slower on the grain. Figure: This is the natural design, or pattern, that you can see on the cut surface of the wood.
The figure present on the wood should always be taken into consideration when you are planning your woodburned design. Texture: There is a texture on the surface of that wood that feels either coarse of fine or uneven; as a beginning woodburner, avoid using fine or intricate designs on uneven, coarse-textured wood. Softwoods are moderately coarse-textured. With some textures it may mean that you will have to compensate when burning it – going slower on the harder summerwood and with a lighter touch on the softer springwood to create an burn overall. Color: Woodburning should be used to enhance the natural beauty of a wooden project, so do not always hide a beautiful figure, luster, or color if it is present; the main hazard to be wary of is the fine wood dust when sanding the wood or in some cases the pitch/sap or resin that emits harmful fumes when burning. All wood dust is hazardous & can cause respiratory problems if you do not wear a mask, some more than others & should be avoided. You should always wear a quality dust mask/respirator while power carving, use a good dust collection system to avoid
Whittling may refer either to the art of carving shapes out of raw wood using a knife or a time-occupying, non-artistic process of shaving slivers from a piece of wood. Casual whittling is performed with a light, small-bladed knife a pocket knife. Specialized whittling knives, with fixed single blades, are preferred for sculpting artistic work, they have thick handles which are easier to grip for long periods and have better leverage, allowing more precise control and pressure. The terms "whittling" and "carving" are used interchangeably, but they are different arts. Carving employs the use of chisels, with or without a mallet, while whittling involves only the use of a knife. Carving involves powered equipment such as lathes. In industrialized areas of the world, whittling is a hobby and not an occupational activity as it was before powered wood working equipment enabled modern production. "Splash whittling" is a historical, decorative technique in Norway using an ax to create a herringbone pattern.
It's a good idea to protect your thumb with a leather thimble, your holding hand with a cut-resistant glove. While any type of wood can be used for whittling, there are woods which are easier to work with and whittle better than others. Soft woods with a small grain, such as basswood, are easier to whittle and are inexpensive. Hardwoods are more difficult to whittle. Wood carving
Paul Nash (artist)
Paul Nash was a British surrealist painter and war artist, as well as a photographer and designer of applied art. Nash was among the most important landscape artists of the first half of the twentieth century, he played a key role in the development of Modernism in English art. Born in London, Nash grew up in Buckinghamshire, he entered the Slade School of Art but was poor at figure drawing and concentrated on landscape painting. Nash found much inspiration in landscapes with elements of ancient history, such as burial mounds, Iron Age hill forts such as Wittenham Clumps and the standing stones at Avebury in Wiltshire; the artworks he produced during World War I are among the most iconic images of the conflict. After the war Nash continued to focus on landscape painting in a formalized, decorative style but, throughout the 1930s, in an abstract and surreal manner. In his paintings he placed everyday objects into a landscape to give them a new identity and symbolism. During World War II, although sick with the asthmatic condition that would kill him, he produced two series of anthropomorphic depictions of aircraft, before producing a number of landscapes rich in symbolism with an intense mystical quality.
These have become among the best known works from the period. Nash was a fine book illustrator, designed stage scenery and posters, he was the older brother of the artist John Nash. Nash was the son of a successful barrister, William Harry Nash, his wife Caroline Maude, the daughter of a Captain in the Royal Navy, he was born in Kensington and grew up in Earl's Court in West London, but in 1902 the family moved to Iver Heath in Buckinghamshire. It was hoped the move to the countryside would help Caroline Nash, showing symptoms of mental illness; the growing cost of Caroline Nash's treatment led to the house at Iver Heath being rented out while Paul and his father lived together in lodgings and his younger sister and brother went to boarding schools. On Valentine's Day 1910, aged forty-nine, Caroline Nash died in a mental institution. Paul Nash was intended for a career in the navy, following the path of his maternal grandfather, but despite additional training at a specialist school in Greenwich, he failed the Naval Entrance Examination and returned to finish his schooling at St Paul's School.
Encouraged by a fellow student at St Paul's, Eric Kennington, Nash considered the possibility of a career as an artist. After studying for a year at the South-Western Polytechnic in Chelsea, he enrolled at the London County Council School of Photo-engraving and Lithography, in Bolt Court off Fleet Street, in the autumn of 1908. Nash spent two years studying at Bolt Court, where he began to write poetry and plays and where his work was spotted and praised by Selwyn Image, he was advised by his friend, the poet Gordon Bottomley, by the artist William Rothenstein, that he should attend the Slade School of Art at University College, London. He enrolled in October 1910, though he recorded that on his first meeting with the Professor of Drawing, Henry Tonks,'It was evident he considered that neither the Slade, nor I, were to derive much benefit'; the Slade was opening its doors to a remarkable crop of young talents – what Tonks described as the school's second and last'Crisis of Brilliance'. Nash's fellow students included Ben Nicholson, Stanley Spencer, Mark Gertler, William Roberts, Dora Carrington, Christopher R. W. Nevinson and Edward Wadsworth.
Nash struggled with figure drawing, spent only a year at the school. Nash had shows in 1912 and 1913, sometimes with his brother John devoted to drawings and watercolours of brooding landscapes, influenced by the poetry of William Blake and the paintings of Samuel Palmer and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Two locations in particular featured in his landscape work at this time, the view from his father's house in Iver Heath and a pair of tree-topped hills in the Thames Valley known as the Wittenham Clumps; these were the first in a series of locations, which would include Ypres, the Romney Marshes and Swanage, that would inspire Nash in his landscape paintings throughout his life. By the summer of 1914 Nash was enjoying some success and during that year he worked at the Omega Workshops under Roger Fry and worked with him on restoring the Mantegna cartoons at Hampton Court Palace, he was elected to The London Group in 1914. On 10 September 1914, shortly after the start of World War I, Nash reluctantly enlisted as a private for home service in the Second Battalion, the Artists' Rifles, part of the 28th London Regiment of Territorials.
Nash's duties, which included guard duty at the Tower of London, allowed him time to continue drawing and painting. In December 1914 Nash married Margaret Odeh, an Oxford-educated campaigner for Women's Suffrage, at St Martin-in-the-Fields, Trafalgar Square, her father, Naser Odeh, had been the priest in charge of St Mary's mission and the pro-cathedral, Cairo. The couple had no children. Nash began officer training in August 1916 and was sent to the Western Front in February 1917 as a second lieutenant in the Hampshire Regiment, he was based at St. Eloi on the Ypres Salient at a quiet time and although the area did come under shelling, no major engagements took place while he was there. Whilst aware of the destruction that had taken place there, he was delighted to see that, with spring arriving, the landscape was recovering from the damage inflicted on it. However, on the night of 25 May 1917, Nash fell into a trench, broke a rib and, by 1 June, had been invalided back to London. A few days the majority of his former unit were killed in an assault o
Woodworking is the activity or skill of making items from wood, includes cabinet making, wood carving, joinery and woodturning. Along with stone and animal parts, wood was one of the first materials worked by early humans. Microwear analysis of the Mousterian stone tools used by the Neanderthals show that many were used to work wood; the development of civilization was tied to the development of greater degrees of skill in working these materials. Among early finds of wooden tools are the worked sticks from Kalambo Falls, Clacton-on-Sea and Lehringen; the spears from Schöningen provide some of the first examples of wooden hunting gear. Flint tools were used for carving. Since Neolithic times, carved wooden vessels are known, for example, from the Linear Pottery culture wells at Kückhofen and Eythra. Examples of Bronze Age wood-carving include tree trunks worked into coffins from northern Germany and Denmark and wooden folding-chairs; the site of Fellbach-Schmieden in Germany has provided fine examples of wooden animal statues from the Iron Age.
Wooden idols from the La Tène period are known from a sanctuary at the source of the Seine in France. There is significant evidence of advanced woodworking in ancient Egypt. Woodworking is depicted in many extant ancient Egyptian drawings, a considerable amount of ancient Egyptian furniture has been preserved. Tombs represent a large collection of these artefacts and the inner coffins found in the tombs were made of wood; the metal used by the Egyptians for woodworking tools was copper and after 2000 BC bronze as ironworking was unknown until much later. Used woodworking tools included axes, chisels, pull saws, bow drills. Mortise and tenon joints are attested from the earliest Predynastic period; these joints were strengthened using pegs and leather or cord lashings. Animal glue came to be used only in the New Kingdom period. Ancient Egyptians invented the art of veneering and used varnishes for finishing, though the composition of these varnishes is unknown. Although different native acacias were used, as was the wood from the local sycamore and tamarisk trees, deforestation in the Nile valley resulted in the need for the importation of wood, notably cedar, but Aleppo pine and oak, starting from the Second Dynasty.
Woodworking was essential to the Romans. It provided, sometimes the only, material for buildings, transportation and household items. Wood provided pipes, waterproofing materials, energy for heat. Although most examples of Roman woodworking have been lost, the literary record preserved much of the contemporary knowledge. Vitruvius dedicates an entire chapter of his De architectura to timber. Pliny, while not a botanist, dedicated six books of his Natural History to trees and woody plants, providing a wealth of information on trees and their uses; the progenitors of Chinese woodworking are considered to be Lu Ban and his wife Lady Yun, from the Spring and Autumn period. Lu Ban is said to have introduced the plane, chalk-line, other tools to China, his teachings were left behind in the book Lu Ban Jing. Despite this, it is believed; this book is filled with descriptions of dimensions for use in building various items such as flower pots, altars, etc. and contains extensive instructions concerning Feng Shui.
It mentions nothing of the intricate glue-less and nail-less joinery for which Chinese furniture was so famous. With the advances in modern technology and the demands of industry, woodwork as a field has changed; the development of Computer Numeric Controlled Machines, for example, has made us able to mass-produce and reproduce products faster, with less waste, more complex in design than before. CNC Routers can carve complicated and detailed shapes into flat stock, to create signs or art. Rechargeable power tools speed up creation of many projects and require much less body strength than in the past, for example when boring multiple holes. Skilled fine woodworking, remains a craft pursued by many. There remains demand for hand crafted work such as furniture and arts, however with rate and cost of production, the cost for consumers is much higher. Woodworkers relied upon the woods native to their region, until transportation and trade innovations made more exotic woods available to the craftsman.
Woods are sorted into three basic types: hardwoods typified by tight grain and derived from broadleaf trees, softwoods from coniferous trees, man-made materials such as plywood and MDF. Hardwoods, botanically known as angiosperms, are deciduous and shed their leaves annually with temperature changes. Softwoods come from trees botanically known as gymnosperms, which are coniferous, cone-bearing, stay green year round. Although a general pattern, softwoods are not always “softer” than hardwoods, vice versa. Softwood is most found in the regions of the world with lower temperatures and is less durable, lighter in weight, more vulnerable to pests and fungal attacks in comparison to hardwoods, they have a paler color and a more open grain than hardwoods, which contributes to the tendency of felled softwood to shrink and swell as it dries. Softwoods have a lower density, around 25-37lb/cu ft, which can compromise its strength. Density, does vary within both softwoods and hardwoods depending on the wood's geographical origin and growth rate.
However, the lower density of softwoods allows it to have a greater strength wi
The art of chainsaw carving is a fast-growing form of art that combines the modern technology of the chainsaw with the ancient art of woodcarving. The oldest chainsaw artist records go back to the 1950s, which include artists Ray Murphy and Ken Kaiser. In 1952 Ray Murphy used his father's chainsaw to carve his name into a piece of wood. In 1961 Ken Kaiser created 50 carvings for the Trees of Mystery. Many new artists began to experiment with chainsaw carving, including Brenda Hubbard, Judy McVay, Don Colp, Cherie Currie, Susan Miller, Mike McVay, Lois Hollingsworth. At this time chainsaw carvers started loading up their carvings in the back of their trucks, functioning as traveling galleries. In the 1980s the art form began to grow with Art Moe getting much exposure for the craft at the Lumberjack World Championships held in Hayward, Wisconsin; this event was broadcast nationally. The addition of carving contests from the west coast to the east coast brought carvers together to test their skills and learn from each other.
The first Chainsaw Carving World Championships was held in 1987 and won by 24-year-old Barre Pinske. The 1980s saw the development of the Cascade Chainsaw Sculptors Guild and their newsletter, The Cutting Edge, mailed out to many members throughout the Pacific Northwest and the rest of the United States; the 80's brought the first book on chainsaw carving and Profitable Chainsaw Carving by William Westenhaver and Ron Hovde, published in 1982. Other books soon followed, including a book by Hal MacIntosh published in 1988 titled Chainsaw Art and in 2001 Chainsaw Carving: The Art and Craft, he published material on chainsaw carving. The first booking agency dedicated to promoting and preserving the integrity of performance chainsaw art was founded by Brian Ruth in 1992, it was appropriately named Masters of the Chainsaw. The company has represented some of the most respected artists in the U. S. such as Brian Ruth, Ben Risney, Josh Landry, Mark Tyoe and Marty Long, as well as select artists from other countries.
In 2007, Masters of the Chainsaw, under the direction of Jen Ruth, created the first international group of female sculptors under the name Chainsaw Chix. Featured in this all-female team are greats like Stephanie Huber, Angela Polglaze, Lisa Foster, Alicia Charlton, Uschi Elias, Sara Winter. Brian Ruth introduced the art as a performance art to Japan in 1995. Since he has established a division of Masters of the Chainsaw and a chainsaw carving school in Tōei, Japan. Although the general impression of the public is that it is performance art, there are a few chainsaw carvers now producing stunning works of art; these works can be produced in a fraction of the time that would be expected if only conventional tools such as mallet and gouges were used. Although many carvers continue to use other tools alongside the chainsaw, the chainsaw remains the primary tool. With the growth of the Internet, chainsaw carving has become a worldwide phenomenon with chainsaw carvers all over the world. In the United Kingdom, the English Open Chainsaw Competition draws thousands of visitors annually.
In 1989 Duncan Kitson was the first British carver, with notable success, to represent Wales and The UK in international competition. His work is recognized for its individual and tactile qualities. English chainsaw artist Matthew Crabb has carved the largest wooden statue of the Virgin Mary in the world, at 9 meters high, in Schochwitz, Germany. Welsh veteran, Harry Thomas of Thomas Carving is respected in the industry and specialises in bears, along with his son Danny Thomas. Harry has appeared on ITV's Daybreak, where he carved Queen Elizabeth II's head, in celebration of her Diamond Jubilee. In Canada, many wooden statues produced by the chainsaw artist Pete Ryan decorate the small town of Hope, British Columbia. Glenn Greensides, another Canadian artist, branched out into Japan in 1995 and visited Japan each year for 12 consecutive years to create one 5 meter tall sculpture from an exported British Columbia log depicting the upcoming year's Japanese zodiac symbol. In Japan, the Toei Chainsaw Art Club established the World Chainsaw Art Competition, the first chainsaw carving competition in the country.
The 2011 World Chainsaw Art Competition at the Toei Dome was to be dedicated to raising money for disaster relief due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster that has affected the country.1999 marked the first year of the Ridgway Chainsaw Carving Rendezvous. Every February hundreds of carvers go to a small town in the mountains of Pennsylvania for this event; the Chainsaw Carver Rendezvous is the biggest gathering of chainsaw carvers in the world and takes over the small town of Ridgway, Pennsylvania. In 2010 American sculptor Bob King was awarded a "Star/Sprocket" on the Carvers Walk of Fame in Mulda, the location of the World Cup competition; this award confirms Bob has won more carving competitions than any other carver in the world to date. In 2013, American chainsaw carver, Josh Landry, was awarded first place at the "Rally in the Valley" chainsaw carving competition. In previous years, Josh Landry was the youngest chainsaw carver participating in national and international chainsaw carving competitions.
As the art has evolved, special chainsaw blades and chains have been developed for carving. In Finland such equipment is affectionally called konepuukko; the chainsaw "blades" are technically known as "guide bars". For chainsaw carving these bars have small noses; this enables the artist to create detail in the carving that would be impossible with a standard guide bar. The chains that a