Society of the Cincinnati

The Society of the Cincinnati is a hereditary society with branches in the United States and France, founded in 1783, to preserve the ideals and fellowship of officers of the Continental Army who served in the Revolutionary War. Now in its third century, the Society promotes the public interest in the Revolution through its library and museum collections and other activities, it is the oldest hereditary society in the United States. The Society does not allow women to join, though there is a partnership society called Daughters of the Cincinnati which permits all female descendants of Continental officers; the Society is named after Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus, who left his farm to accept a term as Roman Consul and served as Magister Populi. He assumed lawful dictatorial control of Rome to meet a war emergency; when the battle was won, he went back to plowing his fields. The Society's motto reflects that ethic of selfless service: Omnia reliquit servare rempublicam; the Society has had three goals: "To preserve the rights so dearly won.

The concept of the Society of the Cincinnati was that of Major-General Henry Knox. The first meeting of the Society was held in May 1783 at a dinner at Mount Gulian in Fishkill, New York, before the British evacuation from New York City; the meeting was chaired by Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Hamilton, the participants agreed to stay in contact with each other after the war. Membership was limited to officers who had served at least three years in the Continental Army or Navy. Officers in the Continental Line who died during the War were entitled to be recorded as members, membership would devolve to their eldest male heir. Members of the larger fighting forces comprising the Colonial Militias and Minutemen were not entitled to join the Society. Within 12 months of the founding, a constituent Society had been organized in each of the 13 states and in France. Of about 5,500 men eligible for membership, 2,150 had joined within a year. King Louis XVI ordained the French Society of the Cincinnati, organized on July 4, 1784.

Up to that time, the King of France had not allowed his officers to wear any foreign decorations, but he made an exception in favor of the badge of the Cincinnati. In the 18th century, the Society's rules adopted a system of primogeniture wherein membership was passed down to the eldest son after the death of the original member. Present-day hereditary members must be descended from an officer who served in the Continental Army or Navy for at least three years, from an officer who died or was killed in service, or from an officer serving at the close of the Revolution; each officer may be represented by only one descendant at any given time, following the rules of primogeniture. The requirement for primogeniture made the society controversial in its early years, as the new states did away with laws supporting primogeniture as remnants of the English feudal system. George Washington was elected the first President General of the Society, he served from December 1783 until his death in 1799. The second President General was Alexander Hamilton.

Upon Hamilton's death the third President General of the Society was Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. The society's members have included notable military and political leaders, including 23 of the 39 signers of the United States Constitution. On June 19, 1783, the General Society of the Cincinnati adopted the bald eagle as its insignia, it is an important piece of American iconography. It is the second official American emblem to use the bald eagle, following the Great Seal of the United States; the insignia may have been derived from the same discourse. The suggestion of the bald eagle as the Cincinnati insignia was made by Major Pierre L'Enfant, a French officer who joined the American Army in 1777, served in the Corps of Engineers, became one of the first members of the Society, he observed that "he Bald Eagle, unique to this continent, is distinguished from those of other climates by its white head and tail, appears to me to deserve attention." In 1783, L'Enfant was commissioned to travel to France to have the first Eagle badges made, based on his design.

The medallions at the center of the Cincinnati American Eagle depict, on the obverse, Cincinnatus receiving his sword from Roman senators and, on the reverse, Cincinnatus at his plow being crowned by the figure of Pheme. The Society's colors, light blue and white, symbolize the fraternal bond between the United States and France. A specially commissioned "Eagle" worn by President General George Washington was presented to Marquis de Lafayette in 1824 during his grand tour of the United States; this badge remained in possession of the Lafayette family until sold at auction on December 11, 2007, for 5.3 million USD by Lafayette's great-great granddaughter. Together with what are believed to be the original ribbon and red leather box, the badge was purchased by the Josée and René de Chambrun Foundation for display in Lafayette's bedroom at Chateau La Grange, hi

List of sequenced plant genomes

This list of sequenced plant genomes contains plant species known to have publicly available complete genome sequences that have been assembled and published. Unassembled genomes are not included, nor are organelle only sequences. For all kingdoms, see the list of sequenced genomes. Unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes. For a more complete list, see List of sequenced algae genomes. Not meeting criteria of the first paragraph of this article in being nearly full sequences with high quality, published and publicly available; this list includes species where sequences are announced in press releases or websites, but not in a data-rich publication in a refereed peer-review journal with DOI. Corchorus olitorius, fibre plant 2017 Corchorus capsularis 2017 Fraxinus excelsior, European ash List of sequenced eukaryotic genomes List of sequenced animal genomes List of sequenced archaeal genomes List of sequenced bacterial genomes List of sequenced fungi genomes List of sequenced plastomes List of sequenced protist genomes

Count of Miranda do Corvo

Count of Miranda do Corvo was a Portuguese title of nobility created by a royal decree, dated from March 21, 1611, by King Philip II of Portugal known as Philip III of Spain, granted to Dom Henrique de Sousa Tavares. Henrique was 26th Lord of the House of Sousa, Lord of Miranda do Alcaide of Arronches; the Prince Regent Pedro, Duke of Beja, on behalf of King Afonso VI of Portugal, granted the new title of Marquis of Arronches by a royal decree dated from June 27, 1674 to Henrique de Sousa Tavares, 3rd Count of Miranda do Corvo. On May 13, 1796, a royal decree issued by Queen Maria I of Portugal, upgraded the title of Count of Miranda do Corvo to Duke of Miranda do Corvo, who should be beard by the Duke of Lafões heir during his father's life. Henrique de Sousa Tavares, 1st Count of Miranda do Corvo. List of Marquesses in Portugal List of Countships in Portugal Duke of Lafões Duke of Miranda do Corvo ”Nobreza de Portugal e do Brasil" – Vol. II, pages 322/324 and 747/748. Published by Zairol Lda.

Lisbon 1989. Genealogy of the Counts of Miranda do Corvo, in Portuguese Genealogy of the Marquesses of Arronches, in Portuguese