Sodium chloride known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. With molar masses of 22.99 and 35.45 g/mol 100 g of NaCl contains 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g Cl. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of seawater and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. In its edible form of table salt, it is used as a condiment and food preservative. Large quantities of sodium chloride are used in many industrial processes, it is a major source of sodium and chlorine compounds used as feedstocks for further chemical syntheses. A second major application of sodium chloride is de-icing of roadways in sub-freezing weather. In addition to the familiar domestic uses of salt, more dominant applications of the 250 megatons per year production include chemicals and de-icing. Salt is used, directly or indirectly, in the production of many chemicals, which consume most of the world's production, it is the starting point for the chloralkali process, the industrial process to produce chlorine and sodium hydroxide, according to the chemical equation 2 NaCl + 2 H2O → Cl2 + H2 + 2 NaOHThis electrolysis is conducted in either a mercury cell, a diaphragm cell, or a membrane cell.
Each of those uses a different method to separate the chlorine from the sodium hydroxide. Other technologies are under development due to the high energy consumption of the electrolysis, whereby small improvements in the efficiency can have large economic paybacks; some applications of chlorine include PVC, solvents. Sodium hydroxide enables industries that produce paper and aluminium. Sodium chloride is used in the Solvay process to produce calcium chloride. Sodium carbonate, in turn, is used to produce glass, sodium bicarbonate, dyes, as well as a myriad of other chemicals. In the Mannheim process and in the Hargreaves process, sodium chloride is used for the production of sodium sulfate and hydrochloric acid. Sodium chloride has an international standard, created by ASTM International; the standard is named ASTM E534-13 and is the standard test methods for chemical analysis of sodium chloride. These methods listed provide procedures for analyzing sodium chloride to determine whether it is suitable for its intended use and application.
Sodium chloride is used, so relatively minor applications can consume massive quantities. In oil and gas exploration, salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling, it is used to flocculate and increase the density of the drilling fluid to overcome high downwell gas pressures. Whenever a drill hits a salt formation, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution in order to minimize the dissolution within the salt stratum. Salt is used to increase the curing of concrete in cemented casings. In textiles and dyeing, salt is used as a brine rinse to separate organic contaminants, to promote "salting out" of dyestuff precipitates, to blend with concentrated dyes to standardize them. One of its main roles is to provide the positive ion charge to promote the absorption of negatively charged ions of dyes, it is used in processing aluminium, copper and vanadium. In the pulp and paper industry, salt is used to bleach wood pulp, it is used to make sodium chlorate, added along with sulfuric acid and water to manufacture chlorine dioxide, an excellent oxygen-based bleaching chemical.
The chlorine dioxide process, which originated in Germany after World War I, is becoming more popular because of environmental pressures to reduce or eliminate chlorinated bleaching compounds. In tanning and leather treatment, salt is added to animal hides to inhibit microbial activity on the underside of the hides and to attract moisture back into the hides. In rubber manufacture, salt is used to make buna and white rubber types. Salt brine and sulfuric acid are used to coagulate an emulsified latex made from chlorinated butadiene. Salt is added to secure the soil and to provide firmness to the foundation on which highways are built; the salt acts to minimize the effects of shifting caused in the subsurface by changes in humidity and traffic load. Sodium chloride is sometimes used as a cheap and safe desiccant because of its hygroscopic properties, making salting an effective method of food preservation historically. Though more effective desiccants are available, few are safe for humans to ingest.
Hard water contains calcium and magnesium ions that interfere with action of soap and contribute to the buildup of a scale or film of alkaline mineral deposits in household and industrial equipment and pipes. Commercial and residential water-softening units use ion-exchange resins to remove the offending ions that cause the hardness; these resins are regenerated using sodium chloride. The second major application of salt is for de-icing and anti-icing of roads, both in grit bins and spread by winter service vehicles. In anticipation of snowfall, roads are optimally "anti-iced" with brine, which prevents bonding between the snow-ice and the road surface; this procedure obviates the heavy use of salt after the snowfall. For de-icing, mixtures of brine and salt are used, sometimes with additional agents such as calcium chloride and/or magnesium chloride; the use of salt or brine becomes ineffective below −10 °C. Salt for de-icing in the United Kingdom predominantly comes from a single mine in Winsford in Cheshire.
Prior to distribution it is mixed with <100 ppm of sodium ferr
The Philippine Women's University – School of Fine Arts and Design is the academic institution of Fine Arts and Design of the Philippine Women's University. PWU-SFAD is located along one city block in the district of Malate in the City of Manila bounded by Taft Avenue and the streets of Malvar and Leon Guinto. Bachelor of Fine Arts Major in Painting Bachelor of Fine Arts Major in Visual Communication Bachelor of Fine Arts Major in Industrial Design Bachelor of Science in Interior Design Bachelor of Fine Arts Master of Arts Major in Fine Arts & Design The teaching of music in the Philippine Women’s University began in 1925, few years after the founding of the university in year 1919. In 1939, the Department of Music was organized and continued operating until the outbreak of the war in 1941. From 1943 to 1944, the Philippine Conservatory of Music, founded by the late Felicing Tirona, existed as an affiliate school of the Philippine Women’s University, it began enrollment to both men and women.
When the Philippine Women’s University re-opened after its rehabilitation in 1947, the School of Music was formally established under the deanship of its original founder. Having Music and Fine Arts under one department, known as the Philippine Women's University - College of Music and Fine Arts, it was the youngest among the colleges of the university, but it achieved distinct accomplishment and contributes to artistic progress. Now it is known as The Philippine Women's University – School of Fine Arts and Design. 1947College of Music and Fine Arts was opened, while in 1952, it became an educational affiliate of the Philippine Women’s University. The first Fine Arts Students were Patty Birocel, Antera Mar, Lilia Trinidad, Elenita Sayoc, Fe Severino and Rosario Bitanga. Mrs. Araceli Limcaco-Dans was the Fine Arts director. Since the College of Music and Fine Arts has developed curricula offerings that remain true to its mission. 1960The school started high caliber artists who excelled in the fields of paintings and graphic arts.
The students were engaged in experimental art activities and gained popularity for the school and the artists themselves. 1967The Shell Companies of the Philippines cited College of Music and Fine Arts as one of the best Fine Arts School in the country. Among the noted personalities in the world of art, the following occupied position in the College of Music and Fine Arts: Mariano Madarang who served a director. 1973Mr. Manuel Rodriguez Sr. became head of the Graphic Arts Department. In 1977 of June, the College of Music and Fine Arts building burned down, the college was transferred to the main building. 1978-1979Mr. Julian Cea Napal became the director with Mr. Alfonso Miaga as OIC designated by Dr. Leticia De Guzman. 1978-1991Mrs. Ludivina L. B. Abes was Associate Dean from 1979 to 1986 with Mr. Alfonso Miaga as OIC and Mrs. Purification torres as Administrative Officer. Mr. Jerry Elizalde Navarro was consultant professor but stayed only briefly. Mr. Virgilio Aviado became academic head of the College of Fine Arts and with Mrs. Purification Torres as Administrative Officer until 1989.
Dr. Luhualti Trias was designated Administrative from 1989 to 1991. 1994-1998Mrs. Lorna Alvarez-Salutal became the Officer in Charge of College of Fine Arts, under the new name Institute of Fine Arts and Design. 1998Mrs. Rosario Bitanga Peralta became the acting Dean, her original appointment was by the PWU President Dr. Jose Conrado Benitez. After 2 years she became Dean. 2006Mr. Reiner Suva was appointed as Assistant Dean together with Mrs. Rosario Bitanga Peralta as the Dean of Institute of Fine Arts and Design under the presidency of Dr. Amelou Benitez Reyes. In the same year, the Institute of Fine Arts and Design was changed into School of Fine Arts and Design in line with the thrust of the University President Dr. Amelou Benitez Reyes. 2007Mrs. Rosario Bitanga Peralta became Dean Emeritus and Mr. Reiner E. Suva was appointed as acting Dean of the School of Fine Arts and Design, became Dean in the year 2007, his original appointment was by the PWU President Dr. Amelou Benitez Reyes. 2010Arch. Ma.
Bienvinida T. Candelaria took over as Officer-in-Charge during the term of CEO Alfredo Benitez Reyes. Ms. Josephine L. Turalba was appointed Dean of School of Fine Arts and Design in May 1, 2011 by the incumbent president of the university Dr. Francisco Benitez and Arch. Ma. Bienvenida T. Candelaria was in turn appointed Associate Director for the Program Development. In 1967, the Shell Companies of the Philippines gave a citation to IFAD as one of the best Fine Arts schools in the country; the Atelier Academic Training Program offered the first Adult Workshop Training Program and a laboratory training workshop
Lesley Duncan was an English singer-songwriter, best known for her work during the 1970s. She received a lot of airplay on British radio stations such as BBC Radio 1 and BBC Radio 2. Duncan was born in Stockton-on-Tees on 12 August 1943, left school while only 14 years old. At 19, while working in a London coffee bar and her brother were placed on weekly retainers by a music publisher. Within a year Duncan had signed her first recording contract, with EMI, appeared in the film What a Crazy World. Considered one of Britain's first female singer-songwriters, her songs included "Everything Changes" and "Sing Children Sing", the song for which she is best known, "Love Song". Elton John recorded a duet with Duncan of the song, similar to her solo version, for his album Tumbleweed Connection, she appeared onstage with John in a 1974 concert at the Royal Festival Hall to perform the duet once again, the live recording of "Love Song" was included on John's Here and There album. John described "Love Song" as "one of the few" songs he did not co-author but included on an album earlier in his career.
Duncan's "Love Song" went on to be covered by more than 150 other artists, including David Bowie. This success notwithstanding, despite their receiving critical acclaim, Duncan's multiple solo albums failed to achieve commercial success. In addition to writing and singing her own material, Duncan was in wide demand as a session singer in the mid to late 1960s, most notably working with Dusty Springfield from 1964 to 1972, a favour Springfield returned by performing backing vocals for several Duncan recordings. Duncan can in fact be seen on many of the performances featured in the BBC DVD Dusty at the BBC. Duncan again joined Elton John at his request to provide vocals for his 1971 album Madman Across the Water, in exchange John played piano on her first solo album Sing Children Sing, she co-wrote three songs with Scott Walker for The Walker Brothers in addition to providing backing vocals for them. She can be heard on the studio recording of Jesus Christ Superstar. Duncan famously contributed backing vocals to one of the top selling albums of all time, Pink Floyd's 1973 release The Dark Side of the Moon, engineered by Alan Parsons.
In 1979, she again worked with Parsons, singing lead vocals on the song "If I Could Change Your Mind" for the Alan Parsons Project album Eve, in her final album appearance. In 1978 Duncan married the record producer Tony Cox and they moved to the Isle of Mull, Scotland, in 1996, where most residents came to know her as a cheerful gardener and knew nothing of her previous life in the music industry. By all accounts content to lead a more private, family-oriented life in her years, she died on 12 March 2010 of cerebrovascular disease, following an extended illness. "I Want A Steady Guy" b/w "Moving Away" – 1963 – Parlophone R5034 "You Kissed Me Boy" b/w "Tell Me" – 1963 – Parlophone R5106 "When My Baby Cries" b/w "Did It Hurt" – 1963 – Mercury MF830 "Just for the Boy" b/w "See That Guy" – 1965 – Mercury MF847 "Run To Love" b/w "Only The Lonely And Me" – 1965 – Mercury MF876 "Hey Boy" b/w "I Go To Sleep" – 1966 – Mercury MF939 "Lullaby" b/w "I Love You, I Love You" – 1968 – RCA 1746 "A Road To Nowhere" b/w "Love Song" – 1969 – RCA 1783 "Sing Children Sing" b/w "Exactly Who You Are" – 1969 – CBS 4585 "Love Song" b/w "Exactly Who You Are" – 1970 – Columbia 4-45354 "Sing Children Sing" – 1971 – CBS/64202 and Edsel/EDCD696 "Sing Children Sing" b/w "Emma" – 1971 – CBS/S7493 "Earth Mother" – 1972 – CBS/64807 and Edel/EDCD712 "Earth Mother" b/w "Love Will Never Lose You" – 1972 – CBS/S8362 "Watch The Tears" b/w "Sam" – 1974 – GM GMS 016 "Everything Changes" b/w "Love Melts Away" – 1974 – GM GMS 022 "I Can See Where I'm Going" b/w "Heaven Knows" – 1975 – GM GMS 036 "Could've Been A Winner" b/w "Moonbathing" – 1975 – GM GMS 9040 "Maybe It's Lost" b/w "Another Rainy Day" – 1977 – GM GMS 9046 "The Sky's on Fire" b/w "Don't Worry'Bout It" – 1977 – GM GMS 9048 "The Magic's Fine" b/w "Paper Highways" – 1978 – GM GMS 9049 "Sing Children Sing" b/w "Rainbow Games" – 1979 – CBS S8061 "Masters of War" b/w "Another Light Goes Out" – 1982 – Korova KOW 22 "Tomorrow" b/w "Paper Highway" – 1986 – R4 FOR 4 1971: Sing Children Sing 1972: Earth Mother 1973: Reading Festival'73 1974: Everything Changes 1975: Moon Bathing 1977: Maybe It's Lost 1980: Only You Website devoted to Lesley Duncan Lesley Duncan on IMDb Lesley Duncan obituary by David V Barrett in The Guardian, 23 March 2010 Lesley Duncan: singer and songwriter, obituary in The Times, 29 March 2010 Lesley Duncan: Singer and songwriter who worked with Elton John and Pink Floyd, obituary by Richard Stanley in The Independent, 12 April 2010