A sodomy law is a law that defines certain sexual acts as crimes. The precise sexual acts meant by the term sodomy are spelled out in the law, but are understood by courts to include any sexual act deemed to be unnatural or immoral. Sodomy includes anal sex, oral sex, bestiality. In practice, sodomy laws have been enforced against heterosexual couples, have been used to target homosexuals; as of June 2019, 69 countries as well as five sub-national jurisdictions have laws criminalizing homosexuality. In 2006 that number was 92. Among these 69 countries, 44 of them criminalize not only male homosexuality but female homosexuality. In 11 of them, homosexuality is punished with the death penalty. In 2011, the United Nations Human Rights Council passed an LGBT rights resolution, followed up by a report published by the UN Human Rights Commissioner which included scrutinisation of the mentioned codes; the Middle Assyrian Law Codes state: If a man has intercourse with his brother-in-arms, they shall turn him into a eunuch.
This is the earliest known law condemning the act of male-to-male intercourse in the military. In the Roman Republic, the Lex Scantinia imposed penalties on those who committed a sex crime against a freeborn male minor; the law may have been used to prosecute male citizens who willingly played the passive role in same-sex acts. The law was enforced infrequently, it is unclear whether the penalty was a fine. For adult male citizens to experience and act on homoerotic desire was considered natural and permissible, as long as their partner was a male of lower social standing. Pederasty in ancient Rome was acceptable only when the younger partner was a slave. Most sodomy related laws in Western civilization originated from the growth of Christianity during Late Antiquity. Note that today some Christian denominations allow gay marriage and the ordination of gay clergy. Starting in the 1200s, the Roman Catholic Church launched a massive campaign against sodomites homosexuals. Between the years 1250 and 1300, homosexual activity was radically criminalized in most of Europe punishable by death.
In England, Henry VIII introduced the first legislation under English criminal law against sodomy with the Buggery Act of 1533, making buggery punishable by hanging, a penalty not lifted until 1861. Following Sir William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England, the crime of sodomy has been defined only as the "abominable and detestable crime against nature", or some variation of the phrase; this language led to varying rulings about what specific acts were encompassed by its prohibition. In 1786 Pietro Leopoldo of Tuscany, abolishing death penalty for all crimes, became not only the first Western ruler to do so, but the first ruler to abolish death penalty for sodomy. In France, it was the French Revolutionary penal code which for the first time struck down "sodomy" as a crime, decriminalizing it together with all "victimless-crimes", according with the concept that if there was no victim, there was no crime; the same principle was held true in the Napoleon Penal Code in 1810, imposed on the large part of Europe ruled by the French Empire and its cognate kings, thus decriminalizing sodomy in most of Continental Europe.
In 1830, Emperor Pedro I of Brazil signed a law into the Imperial Penal Code. It eliminates all references to sodomy. During the Ottoman Empire, homosexuality was decriminalized in 1858 as part of wider reforms during the Tanzimat period; the death penalty was not lifted in England and Wales until 1861. In 1917, following the Bolshevik Revolution led by V. I. Lenin and Leon Trotsky, Russia legalized homosexuality. However, when Joseph Stalin came to power in 1920s, these laws were reversed until homosexuality was made illegal again by the government. During the First Czechoslovak Republic, there was a movement to repeal sodomy laws, it has been claimed that this was the first campaign to repeal anti-gay laws, spearheaded by heterosexuals. After the publishing of the 1957 Wolfenden report in the UK, which asserted that "homosexual behaviour between consenting adults in private should no longer be a criminal offence", many western governments, including many U. S. states, repealed laws against homosexual acts.
However, by 2003, 13 U. S. states still criminalized homosexuality, along with many Missouri counties, the territory of Puerto Rico, but in June 2003, the U. S. Supreme Court ruled in Lawrence v. Texas that state laws criminalizing private, non-commercial sexual activity between consenting adults at home on the grounds of morality are unconstitutional since there is insufficient justification for intruding into people's liberty and privacy. There have never been Western-style sodomy related laws in the People's Republic of China, North Korea, South Korea, Poland, or Vietnam. Additionally, Vietnam and Cambodia were part of the French colony of Indochina; this trend among Western nations has not been followed in all other regions of the world, where sodomy remains a serious crime. For example, male homosexual acts, at least in theory, can result in life imprisonment in Barbados and Guyana; as of 2019, sodomy related laws have been repealed or judicially struck down in all of Europe, North America, South Am
Harold Hughes or Henry Harold Hughes was born in Liverpool and trained as an architect under Arthur Baker in London. He qualified as an ARIBA in 1890 and set up an architectural practice in Bangor in 1892, where he remained until his death in 1940. Hughes was appointed diocesan surveyor and architect in 1900 and restored many churches in the Diocese of Bangor. In 1919 he formed a partnership with W. G. Williams, who continued the practice after his death in 1940. Hughes was occupied in the restoration of churches, he only undertook the minimal amount of restoration work. Wherever possible. Hughes only appears to have been the architect for one new church St. Cyngar, Borth-y-gest, Porthmadog, his joint co-operation with the leading Arts and Crafts Architect, Herbert Luck North in the production of two books, The Old Churches of Snowdonia, 1924. and The Old Cottages of Snowdonia, did much to increase public interest in the Vernacular architecture of Snowdonia. He contributed numerous articles to Archaeologia Cambrensis on architectural subjects.
He was interested in archaeology and he joined the Cambrian Archaeological Association in 1892. He was an editor of Archaeologia Cambrensis from 1926 to 1940, he became president of the Cambrian Archaeological Association in 1930. From its foundation, he was a member of the Council of the National Museum of Wales and of the Commission on Ancient Monuments of Wales from 1935 onwards, he served as the second President of the North Wales Society of Architects between 1932 and 1933. Herbert Luck North would serve as the Society's fifth President between 1938 and 1939. Llangwyfan, 1891-3 Bryncroes. Clynog Fawr Llanrhychwyn Llangelynin Mallwyd Llaneilan St Padarn's Church, Llanberis 1914 The Old Churches of Snowdonia, 1924; the Old Cottages of Snowdonia. Archaeologia Cambrensis, Vol 95, pp. 85–7. Antiquaries Journal, Vol 20, p. 425. Antonia Brodie Directory of British Architects, 1834-1914: Vol. 1, 972-3, British Architectural Library, Royal Institute of British Architects, London. Haslam R. Orbach J. and Voelcker A.
Mortality salience is the awareness by individuals that their death is inevitable. The term derives from terror management theory, which proposes that mortality salience causes existential anxiety that may be buffered by an individual's cultural worldview and/or sense of self-esteem. Mortality salience engages the conflict that humans have to face both their instinct to avoid death and their intellectual knowledge that avoiding death is futile. According to terror management theory, when human beings begin to contemplate their mortality and their vulnerability to death, feelings of terror emerge because of the simple fact that humans want to avoid their inevitable death. Mortality salience comes into effect, because humans contribute all of their actions to either avoiding death or distracting themselves from the contemplation of it. Thus, terror management theory asserts that all human activity is driven by the fear of death. Most research done on terror management theory revolves around the mortality salience paradigm.
It has been found that religious individuals as well as religious fundamentalists are less vulnerable to mortality salience manipulations, so religious believers engage in cultural worldview defense to a lesser extent than nonreligious individuals. Mortality salience is manipulated by one's self-esteem. Individuals with low self-esteem are more apt to experience the effects of mortality salience, whereas individuals with high self-esteem are better able to cope with the idea that their death is uncontrollable; as an article states, "according to terror management theory, increased self-esteem should enhance the functioning of the cultural anxiety buffer and thereby provide protection against death concerns". Mortality salience has the potential to cause worldview defense, a psychological mechanism that strengthens people's connection with their in-group as a defense mechanism. Studies show that mortality salience can lead people to feel more inclined to punish minor moral transgressions. One such study divided a group of judges into two groups—one, asked to reflect upon their own mortality, one group, not.
The judges were asked to set a bond for an alleged prostitute. The group that had reflected on mortality set an average bond of $455, while the control group's average bond was $50. Another study found that mortality salience could cause an increase in support for martyrdom and military intervention, it found that students who had reflected on their mortality showed preference towards people who supported martyrdom, indicated they might consider martyrdom themselves. They found that among students who were politically conservative, mortality salience increased support for military intervention, but not among students who were politically liberal. A study tested "the hypothesis that mortality salience intensifies gender differences in reactions to sexual and emotional infidelity". In the study, participants were asked to work through packets that had mortality salience manipulation questions in each. In the results, they found that "sex is more relevant to the self-esteem of men than women and being in a committed relationship is more important to women than for men".
Therefore, when linking mortality salience to gender and sex, men are more to suffer from sexual infidelity, women are more to suffer from emotional infidelity. The results of this study showed that there is a logistic regression revealing a significant three-way interaction between gender, sex value, mortality salience for the item pitting "passionate sex" against "emotional attachment". With mortality salience, humans who have encountered near-death experiences develop a greater sense of self and meaning to life, it has been shown that individuals who face these experiences tend to invest more into relationships, political beliefs, religious beliefs, other beliefs over material things. Developing a cultural worldview provides humans with comfort from the thought of their own inevitable death; this coping mechanism has shown to improve the self-worth of humans and alleviates existential anxiety. Awareness of Dying Being-toward-death Birthday effect Cognitive dissonance Death anxiety Existential psychology Memento mori, the medieval Latin Christian theory and practice of reflection on mortality Social psychology Suicidal ideation
Shanoa is a character in the Castlevania series of video games. She first appeared in Castlevania: Order of Ecclesia in 2008 for the Nintendo DS. Shanoa was created by game designer Koji Igarashi, she was modeled after his wife. Her design in Castlevania Judgment was created by Takeshi Obata. Shanoa first appears in Castlevania: Order of Ecclesia for the Nintendo DS in 2008, she appears in the 2008 Wii fighting game Castlevania Judgment, featuring a modified character design. Shanoa has received positive reception following her appearance in Castlevania: Order of Ecclesia, she was included in Complex's list of the 50 greatest heroines in video games. The Mary Sue writer Jonathan Ore wrote an article praising Shanoa as an example of a female lead in a video game done well, he praised her design, noting that she lacks overt sexualization while still being an attractive character. He notes that her backless dress feels racy without feeling vulgar, adding that while she at first may seem like a "superfluous, flimsy character disguised as a strong female character," she has agency in the story.
He finds her to be better than other Castlevania female characters such as Maria Renard, Sypha Belnades, Charlotte Aulin, all of whom are secondary to the protagonist of their respective games. Writer Zachary Miller felt that Shanoa was the first strong female lead in the series, excepting for Sonia Belmont, made non-canon by Igarashi. Destructoid's Jonathan Holmes called her a "woman with depth and purpose," praising her abilities while calling her "one of the most, if not the most, interesting Castlevania protagonists ever." GamesRadar awarded Shanoa with "sexiest new heroine" of 2008, praising her for being attractive without "shedding every last scrap of clothing." She was praised as a rare example of a female Castlevania lead. Joystiq writer Candace Savino expressed excitement for her during the pre-release of Order of Ecclesia, calling her a "pretty badass character." Escapist Magazine writer Keane Ng however felt that she would not "spark a gender revolution in the ranks of videogame protagonists," but still felt that she was a unique protagonist in the series.
Writer Phillip Willis felt that her amnesia made her stereotypical of other similar role-playing game characters. Game Revolution was more critical of this plot point criticizing it for being stereotypical while feeling that it makes Shanoa "completely unempathetic" and "cold and lifeless." The design and abilities of Bloodstained: Ritual of the Night protagonist Miriam has been compared to Shanoa's by outlets such as Hardcore Gamer. Shanoa's design in Castlevania Judgment has been criticized for being too different from her traditional one by sources such as GamePro and Engadget. Zachary Miller however notes that Shanoa stands out to him as one of the few characters in Judgment whose design was at all comparable to the original
Weddings is a major business in India. According to a report by KPMG in 2017, the Indian wedding industry is estimated to be around $40–50 billion in size, it is the second largest wedding market after USA, at $70 Billion. While the industry is unorganised with small and medium scale businesses, there are corporates who are trying to tap this industry; the prime factors because of which this industry has seen more growth are the rise of middle class in India, an overall booming economy and use of social media. It is estimated. An Indian, is to spend one fifth of his total life time wealth on a wedding. Many Indian celebrities are choosing destination weddings and Indians are taking inspiration from them. Both domestic and international destinations are popular for weddings in India; the destination wedding industry itself in India is estimated to cross INR 45,000 crore in 2020. Pre-wedding shoots along with wedding photography are having a big stake in Indian weddings. Average Wedding shoots can cost ranging from INR 15,000 to INR 100,000 per day.
Wedding industry in the United States
Clermont Public School known as Larrabee School, is a historic building located in Clermont, United States. The school was named for its patron, William Larrabee, the twelfth Governor of Iowa. Larrabee himself had been a teacher in Iowa. During his time in the Iowa Senate and as governor he championed education reform, he used as one of his campaign slogans: "A schoolhouse on every hill and no saloons in the valley." Larrabee and his wife Anna studied school buildings for a number of years, were involved in planning this building. They hired Cedar Iowa architect Charles A. Dieman to design the structure. R. A. Wallace, a contractor from Cedar Rapids, was responsible for its construction; the building was over-engineered. The bricks were produced, the limestone was quarried, locally, it is a two-story Neoclassical building that features a classical portico, brick pilasters with Doric capitals, two arched dormers on the hipped roof. Larrabee died while the building was under construction, his wife took over supervising its construction.
From 1913 to 1924 it housed all grades. It remained as an elementary school until 1990 when the city of Clermont acquired the building for use as a public library and city hall, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1995