Softball is a game similar to baseball played with a larger ball on a field that has base lengths of 60 feet, a pitcher's mound that ranges from 35–43 feet away from home plate, a homerun fence, 220 feet away from home plate. It was invented in 1887 in Chicago, United States as an indoor game; the game moves at a faster pace than traditional baseball. There is less time for the base runner to get to first; the name "softball" was given to the game in 1926. A tournament held in 1933 at the Chicago World's Fair spurred interest in the game; the Amateur Softball Association of America is one of the largest governing bodies for the game in the United States and sponsors annual sectional and World Series championships. Other national and regional governing bodies exist, including the USSSA; the World Baseball Softball Confederation regulates rules of play in more than 110 countries, including the United States and Canada. Women's fast pitch softball became a Summer Olympic sport in 1996, but it and baseball were dropped from the 2012 program.
There are three types of softball. In the most common type, slow-pitch softball, the ball, which can measure either 11 inches, for a women's league, or 12 inches, for a men's league, in circumference, must arch on its path to the batter, there are 10 players on the field at once. In fast pitch softball, the pitch is fast, there are nine players on the field at one time, while bunting and stealing bases are permitted, leading off is not. Fast pitch being the most common in some states, such as Virginia, where fast pitch is the most common type of softball in high schools across the state; the Olympics features women's fast pitch softball. Modified softball restricts the "windmill" wind-up used by fast pitch pitchers, although the pitcher is allowed to throw as hard as possible with the restricted back swing. Softball rules vary somewhat from those of baseball. Two major differences are that the ball must be pitched underhand—from 46 ft for men or 43 ft for women as compared with 60.5 ft in baseball—and that seven innings instead of nine constitute a regulation game.
Despite the name, the ball used in softball is not soft. It is about 12 in in circumference, 3 in larger than a baseball. Softball recreational leagues for children use 11-inch balls until they participate in travel ball around age 12 and adjust to a 12-inch sized ball; the infield in softball is smaller than on an adult or high school baseball diamond but identical to that used by Little League Baseball. In fast pitch softball the entire infield is dirt, whereas the infield in baseball is grass except at the bases and on the pitcher's mound which are dirt. Softball mounds are flat, while baseball mounds are a small hill. Softballs are pitched underhand; this changes the arc of the ball. For example, depending if the pitcher pitches a fastball, in softball the ball would most rise while in baseball because the pitcher is on a hill, the ball would drop; the earliest known softball game was played in Chicago, Illinois on Thanksgiving Day, 1887. It took place at the Farragut Boat Club at a gathering to hear the outcome of the Yale University and Harvard University football game.
When the score was announced and bets were settled, a Yale alumnus threw a boxing glove at a Harvard supporter. The Harvard fan swung at the rolled up glove. George Hancock, a reporter there, called out "Play ball!" and the game began, with the boxing glove tightened into a ball, a broom handle serving as a bat. This first contest ended with a score of 41–40; the ball, being soft, was fielded barehanded. George Hancock is credited as the game's inventor for his development of a 17" ball and an undersized bat in the next week; the Farragut Club soon set rules for the game, which spread to outsiders. Envisioned as a way for baseball players to maintain their skills during the winter, the sport was called "Indoor Baseball". Under the name of "Indoor-Outdoor", the game moved outside in the next year, the first rules were published in 1889. In 1895 Lewis Rober, Sr. of Minneapolis organized outdoor games as exercise for firefighters. Rober's version of the game used a ball 12 inches in circumference, rather than the 16-inch ball used by the Farragut club, the Minneapolis ball prevailed, although the dimensions of the Minneapolis diamond were passed over in favor of the dimensions of the Chicago one.
Rober may not have been familiar with the Farragut Club rules. Fire Station No. 19 in Minneapolis, Rober's post from 1896 to 1906, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in part for its association with the sport's development. The first softball league outside the United States was organized in Toronto in 1897; the name "softball" dates back to 1926. The name was coined by Walter Hakanson of the YMCA at a meeting of the National Recreation Congress; the name softball had spread across the United States by 1930. By the
I Don Giovanni della Costa Azzurra /Beach Casanova is a 1962 Italian film, directed by Vittorio Sala. It stars Annette Stroyberg, Martine Carol and Gabriele Ferzetti. Curd Jürgens - Mr. Edmond Annette Stroyberg - Gloria Martine Carol - Nadine Leblanc Gabriele Ferzetti - Leblanc, the Lawyer Daniela Rocca - Assuntina Greco, aka "Géneviève" Paolo Ferrari - Michele Eleonora Rossi Drago - Jasmine Riccardo Garrone - Protettore di Assuntina Ingrid Schoeller - Denise Alberto Farnese - Commander Agnès Spaak - Nicole Tiberio Murgia - Melchiorre Coccinelle - Herself Francesco Mulè - Baldassarre Giaconia Ignazio Leone - Gaspare Patanè Mino Doro - Marito di Jasmine Raffaella Carrà - Cameriera motel Adriana Facchetti - American tourist Giuseppe Porelli - Gloria's Father Carlo Giustini - Yacht captain Mylène Demongeot - Cameo Jean-Paul Belmondo - Cameo I Don Giovanni della Costa Azzurra on IMDb
Jean de Ferrières, Vidame de Chartres, Seigneur de Maligny, was an influential Huguenot in the French Wars of Religion in the 16th century. He died a prisoner in a galley, unable to pay his ransom, was succeeded by his nephew, Pregent de La Fin. Jean de Ferrières, Vidame de Chartres, was the grandson of Jean de Ferrières, twice married, firstly to Marguerite de Bourbon, illegitimate daughter of John II, Duke of Bourbon, by whom he had two sons who died without issue, secondly to Marie de Damas, Dame de Maligny, by whom he had an elder son, Philippe de Ferrières, who inherited the Ferrières lands, a younger son, François de Ferrières, who inherited the Maligny lands, in 1516 married Louise de Vendôme, despite the strong opposition of her brother, Louis de Vendôme. François de Ferrières, chamberlain to Charles, Duke of Bourbon, Louise de Vendôme, maid of honour to Anne de Beaujeu, Duchess of Bourbon, had two sons and five daughters: Jean de Ferrières, the subject of this article. Edme de Maligny, known as'le jeune Maligny', who participated in the Amboise conspiracy, drowned at Geneva in 1560.
Beraude de Maligny, Maid of Honour to Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre, who married firstly Dieudonne de Barratz or Bascaz, Seigneur de Bedeuil, secondly, on 17 April 1559, Jean de La Fin, Seigneur de Beauvoir-la-Nocle, by whom she was the mother of Pregent de La Fin, who succeeded his uncle and was the last Vidame of Chartres of the Ferrières family. Catherine, Françoise and Claude, all of whom entered the religious life. In February 1538 Jean de Ferrières was given two benefices by his father. Less than two years however, he was disinherited by both his father and mother when they made their joint last wills on 23 December 1539. Although the reason for his disinheritance is unknown, d'Estang suggests that it may have been due to his abandonment of the Catholic religion. In November 1549 he travelled to Rome in the suite of Henri II's ambassador in ordinary, Claude d'Urfé for the papal conclave of 1549 to 1550 after the death of Pope Paul III. In 1553 he accompanied his first cousin, François de Vendôme, Vidame de Chartres, the Vidame de Chartres, to Metz, under siege by the English.
In 1557 he travelled to Piedmont. In 1560 de Ferrières' cousin François was imprisoned in the Bastille after having fallen out with the powerful Guise family, he died on 22 December 1560 without legitimate issue, despite the fact that Ferrières was his heir, did not mention him in his will. Petigny suggests that this might have been an act of prudence on Vendôme's part, considering the enemies he had made and the circumstances of his imprisonment. Ferrières inherited from the title of Vidame de Chartres. According to Arber, because of concerns about what steps his enemies might take if he were to administer his inheritance himself, Ferrières made a secret agreement with his sister Beraude, that she would present herself as Vendôme's sole heir; when civil war broke out in France over religious issues, the Protestant leader, Prince de Condé, sent Ferrières and the Seigneurs de Saint Aubin and de la Haye to England to persuade Elizabeth I to join the Huguenot resistance to the Catholic party. The French ambassadors arrived in England about 15 August 1562, after numerous secret conferences with English officials, signed the Treaty of Hampton Court on 20 September 1562.
An extant copy of the treaty bears Ferrières' signature. It was at this time that Richard Eden joined Ferrières' service as a secretary, according to Arber because he was an'excellent linguist'. Ferrières, 3000 English soldiers under the command of Sir Adrian Poynings sailed from Portsmouth on 2 October, arriving at Le Havre called by the English Newhaven, two days later. On 11 November a warrant authorized that a pension of £300 be paid to Ferrières in quarterly instalments. By 29 July 1563 a large part of the English force at Le Havre had been slain in action or had died of the plague, forcing the surrender of the town to the French; the survivors returned to England. The French civil war came to a temporary end on 19 March 1563 with the Edict of Pacification signed at Amboise, which granted the Huguenots certain religious freedoms; however Ferrières' goods were confiscated by the French crown on the ground of his responsibility for bringing English forces to Le Havre. From 23 March 1564 Charles IX of France, his mother, Catherine de' Medici, the rest of French court were at Troyes, where Ferrières and the Prince de Condé joined them on 8 April, receiving a'simulated welcome'.
Ferrières left the royal progress at Vitry on 27 April, joined the Prince de Condé in Paris, where he resided for the next several years. Richard Eden's own account states that he travelled to various places in Germany, including Strasbourg, according to Arber it is that Eden accompanied Ferrières on those journeys. In 1567 Ferrières recommended to Sir William Cecil a Frenchman, Pierre Briet, a Fleming, Jean Carre, who wrote to Cecil on 9 August 1567 requesting permission to'erect glassworks similar to those of Venice'; the religious wars broke out again with a Huguenot rising on 27 September 1567, when the entire French court narrowly escaped capture. The Battle of Saint Denis followed on 10 November. On 23 March 1568 the wars again