Computer software, or software, is a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work. This is in contrast to physical hardware, from which the system is built and performs the work. In computer science and software engineering, computer software is all information processed by computer systems and data. Computer software includes computer programs and related non-executable data, such as online documentation or digital media. Computer hardware and software require each other and neither can be realistically used on its own. At the lowest programming level, executable code consists of machine language instructions supported by an individual processor—typically a central processing unit or a graphics processing unit. A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state. For example, an instruction may change the value stored in a particular storage location in the computer—an effect, not directly observable to the user.
An instruction may invoke one of many input or output operations, for example displaying some text on a computer screen. The processor executes the instructions in the order they are provided, unless it is instructed to "jump" to a different instruction, or is interrupted by the operating system; as of 2015, most personal computers, smartphone devices and servers have processors with multiple execution units or multiple processors performing computation together, computing has become a much more concurrent activity than in the past. The majority of software is written in high-level programming languages, they are easier and more efficient for programmers because they are closer to natural languages than machine languages. High-level languages are translated into machine language using a compiler or an interpreter or a combination of the two. Software may be written in a low-level assembly language, which has strong correspondence to the computer's machine language instructions and is translated into machine language using an assembler.
An outline for what would have been the first piece of software was written by Ada Lovelace in the 19th century, for the planned Analytical Engine. She created proofs to show; because of the proofs and the algorithm, she is considered the first computer programmer. The first theory about software—prior to the creation of computers as we know them today—was proposed by Alan Turing in his 1935 essay On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem; this led to the creation of the academic fields of computer science and software engineering. Computer science is the theoretical study of computer and software, whereas software engineering is the application of engineering and development of software. However, prior to 1946, software was not yet the programs stored in the memory of stored-program digital computers, as we now understand it; the first electronic computing devices were instead rewired in order to "reprogram" them. In 2000, Fred Shapiro, a librarian at the Yale Law School, published a letter revealing that John Wilder Tukey's 1958 paper "The Teaching of Concrete Mathematics" contained the earliest known usage of the term "software" found in a search of JSTOR's electronic archives, predating the OED's citation by two years.
This led many to credit Tukey with coining the term in obituaries published that same year, although Tukey never claimed credit for any such coinage. In 1995, Paul Niquette claimed he had coined the term in October 1953, although he could not find any documents supporting his claim; the earliest known publication of the term "software" in an engineering context was in August 1953 by Richard R. Carhart, in a Rand Corporation Research Memorandum. On all computer platforms, software can be grouped into a few broad categories. Based on the goal, computer software can be divided into: Application software, software that uses the computer system to perform special functions or provide entertainment functions beyond the basic operation of the computer itself. There are many different types of application software, because the range of tasks that can be performed with a modern computer is so large—see list of software. System software, software for managing computer hardware behaviour, as to provide basic functionalities that are required by users, or for other software to run properly, if at all.
System software is designed for providing a platform for running application software, it includes the following: Operating systems which are essential collections of software that manage resources and provide common services for other software that runs "on top" of them. Supervisory programs, boot loaders and window systems are core parts of operating systems. In practice, an operating system comes bundled with additional software so that a user can do some work with a computer that only has one operating system. Device drivers which operate or control a particular type of device, attached to a computer; each device needs at least one corresponding device driver. Utilities which are computer programs designed to assist users in the maintenance and care of their computers. Malicious software or malware, software, developed to harm and disrupt computers; as such, malware is undesir
K. H. Muniyappa was a member of the 10th,11th,12th,13th, 14th, 15th,16th Lok Sabha of India, he has consecutively represented the Kolar constituency of Karnataka in the Lok Sabha since 1991 and is a member of the Indian National Congress political party. He was the Union Minister of State of Minister of Micro and Medium Enterprises. Muniyappa has represented Kolar seven times consecutively:, he lost the 2019 elections to a unknown face S. Muniswamy by more than one lakh votes.. Muniyappa blamed his own partymen for his defeat, he said. Muniyappa was the Union Minister of state for Minister of Micro and Medium Enterprises, he was administered the oath of office along with 59 other ministers on 28 May 2009 by President of India Pratibha Patil. 1969 onwards Vice-Convenor, Congress Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Cell, District. Kolar, Karnataka. 1978-83 Vice-President, Taluk Development Board, District. Kolar, Karnataka. 1991 Elected to 10th Lok Sabha Member, Pradesh Congress Committee, Legal Cell, Karnataka Member, Executive Committee, P.
C. C. SC and ST Cell, Karnataka Vice-President, Taluk Congress Committee, District. Kolar, Karnataka Member, District Congress Committee, Dist. Kolar, Karnataka Member and Civil Supplies, District. Kolar, Karnataka 1994 Joint Secretary, All India Congress Committee 1996 Re-elected to 11th Lok Sabha 1996-97 Member, Committee on Industry Member, Committee on Subordinate Legislation Member, Consultative Committee, Ministry of Welfare 1998 Re-elected to 12th Lok Sabha 1998-99 Member, Committee on Industry Member, Consultative Committee, Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment Special Invitee, Consultative Committee, Ministry of Steel and Mines 1999 Re-elected to 13th Lok Sabha 1999-2000 Member, Committee on Industry 2004 Re-elected to 14th Lok Sabha 23 May 2004 onwards Union Minister of State, Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport & Highways 2009 Re-elected to 15th Lok Sabha 2009 - 28 Oct. 2012 Union Minister of State, Railways 28 Oct. 2012 Union Minister of State, Micro and Medium Enterprises 2014 Re-elected to 16th Lok Sabha Honorary DoctorateHonorary Doctorate - 32nd Annual Convocation of Gulbarga University Official Website: Shri K.
H. Muniyappa, www.khmuniyappa.org
Gleason Leonard Archer Jr. was a biblical scholar, theologian and author. Gleason Archer was born in Norwell, Massachusetts in 1916 and became a Christian at a young age through the influence of his mother, Elizabeth Archer, his maternal grandfather was a pastor. Archer's father was Gleason Archer Sr. the founder of Suffolk Law School in Boston. Archer spent summers in Norwell, he graduated from Boston Latin School and in 1938 he graduated from Harvard University with a BA. He received an LL. B. from Suffolk Law School in Boston in 1939, the same year he was admitted to the Massachusetts bar. In 1940 he received a master's degree from Harvard and in 1944 he was awarded a PhD at Harvard University in Classics, he received his Bachelor of Divinity from Princeton Theological Seminary in 1945. Archer served as an assistant pastor of Park Street Church in Boston from 1945 to 1948, he became a Professor of Biblical Languages at Fuller Theological Seminary in Pasadena, California from 1948 to 1965. From 1965 to 1986 he served as a Professor of Old Testament and Semitics at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Illinois.
He became an emeritus faculty member in 1989. The remainder of his life was spent researching and lecturing. Archer served as one of the 50 original translators of the NASB published in 1971, he worked on the team which translated the NIV Bible published in 1978. His defense of the doctrine of Biblical inerrancy by proposing harmonizations and exegesis regarding inconsistencies in the Bible made Archer a well known biblical inerrantist, he stated: "One cannot allow for error in history-science without ending up with error in doctrine." He was critical of the documentary hypothesis. Archer maintained that the prophet Isaiah wrote the entire book of Isaiah. Archer Jr. Gleason Leonard; the reception of Pindar in Germany during the eighteenth century. Harvard University. ———. In the Shadow of the Cross. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. ———. The Epistle to the Hebrews: A Study Manual. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House. Jerome, Saint. Jerome's commentary on Daniel. Translated by Archer, Gleason Leonard Jr. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House.
———. The Epistle to the Romans: A Study Manual. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House. ———. A Survey of Old Testament Introduction. Chicago, IL: Moody Press. ———. Theological wordbook of the Old Testament. Chicago, IL: Moody Press. ISBN 0-8024-8631-2. ———. Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. ISBN 0-310-43570-6. ———. The Book of Job: God's Answer to the Problem of Undeserved Suffering. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House. ———. Old Testament quotations in the New Testament. Chicago: Moody Press. ISBN 0-8024-0236-4. ———. A descriptive catalog of the Trinity Evangelical Divinity School Biblical coin collection. Deerfield, IL: Trinity Evangelical Divinity School. ———. A Tribute to Gleason Archer. Chicago, IL: Moody Pres. ISBN 0-8024-8780-7. ———. The Discovery Bible. New American Standard, New Testament. Chicago, IL: Moody Press. ISBN 0-8024-4159-9. ———. A Survey of Old Testament Introduction. Chicago: Moody Press. ISBN 0-8024-8200-7. ———. Three Views on the Rapture. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. ISBN 0-310-21298-7.
———. A Survey of Old Testament Introduction. Chicago: Moody Press. ISBN 0-8024-8434-4. Robbins, David L.. Gleason L. Archer. Suffolk University historical pamphlet series. Boston, MA: Suffolk University