Software architecture refers to the fundamental structures of a software system and the discipline of creating such structures and systems. Each structure comprises software elements, relations among them, properties of both elements and relations; the architecture of a software system is a metaphor, analogous to the architecture of a building. It functions as a blueprint for the system and the developing project, laying out the tasks necessary to be executed by the design teams. Software architecture is about making fundamental structural choices that are costly to change once implemented. Software architecture choices include specific structural options from possibilities in the design of the software. For example, the systems that controlled the Space Shuttle launch vehicle had the requirement of being fast and reliable. Therefore, an appropriate real-time computing language would need to be chosen. Additionally, to satisfy the need for reliability the choice could be made to have multiple redundant and independently produced copies of the program, to run these copies on independent hardware while cross-checking results.
Documenting software architecture facilitates communication between stakeholders, captures early decisions about the high-level design, allows reuse of design components between projects. Opinions vary as to the scope of software architectures: Macroscopic system structure: this refers to architecture as a higher-level abstraction of a software system that consists of a collection of computational components together with connectors that describe the interaction between these components; the important stuff—whatever that is: this refers to the fact that software architects should concern themselves with those decisions that have high impact on the system and its stakeholders. That, fundamental to understanding a system in its environment Things that people perceive as hard to change: since designing the architecture takes place at the beginning of a software system's lifecycle, the architect should focus on decisions that "have to" be right the first time. Following this line of thought, architectural design issues may become non-architectural once their irreversibility can be overcome.
A set of architectural design decisions: software architecture should not be considered a set of models or structures, but should include the decisions that lead to these particular structures, the rationale behind them. This insight has led to substantial research into software architecture knowledge management. There is no sharp distinction between software architecture versus design and requirements engineering, they are all part of a "chain of intentionality" from high-level intentions to low-level details. Software architecture exhibits the following: Multitude of stakeholders: software systems have to cater to a variety of stakeholders such as business managers, owners and operators; these stakeholders all have their own concerns with respect to the system. Balancing these concerns and demonstrating that they are addressed is part of designing the system; this implies that architecture involves dealing with a broad variety of concerns and stakeholders, has a multidisciplinary nature. Separation of concerns: the established way for architects to reduce complexity is to separate the concerns that drive the design.
Architecture documentation shows that all stakeholder concerns are addressed by modeling and describing the architecture from separate points of view associated with the various stakeholder concerns. These separate descriptions are called architectural views. Quality-driven: classic software design approaches were driven by required functionality and the flow of data through the system, but the current insight is that the architecture of a software system is more related to its quality attributes such as fault-tolerance, backward compatibility, reliability, availability, security and other such –ilities. Stakeholder concerns translate into requirements on these quality attributes, which are variously called non-functional requirements, extra-functional requirements, behavioral requirements, or quality attribute requirements. Recurring styles: like building architecture, the software architecture discipline has developed standard ways to address recurring concerns; these "standard ways" are called by various names at various levels of abstraction.
Common terms for recurring solutions are architectural style, reference architecture and architectural pattern. Conceptual integrity: a term introduced by Fred Brooks in The Mythical Man-Month to denote the idea that the architecture of a software system represents an overall vision of what it should do and how it should do it; this vision should be separated from its implementation. The architect assumes the role of "keeper of the vision", making sure that additions to the system are in line with the architecture, hence preserving conceptual integrity. Cognitive constraints: an observation first made in a 1967 paper by computer programmer Melvin Conway that organizations which design systems are constrained to produce designs which are copies of the communication structures of these organizations; as with conceptual integrity, it was Fred Brooks who introduced it to a wider audience when he cited the paper and the idea in his elegant classic The Mythical Man-Month, calling it "Conway's Law."
Software architecture is an "intellectually graspable" abstraction of a complex system. This abstraction provides a number of benefits: It gives a basis for analysis of software systems' behavior before the system has been built; the ability to verify that a future software system fulfills its stakeholders' needs w
Sean Daniel Jordan is a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas. Jordan received his Bachelor of Arts, summa cum laude, from the University of Texas at Austin and his Juris Doctor, with honors, from the University of Texas School of Law. Prior to entering private practice Jordan served as Principal Deputy Solicitor General for the State of Texas, representing the state in appeals in both federal and state courts. From 2012–2019, he was a partner in the Austin, office of Jackson Walker L. L. P, he was the co-chair of the firm's Appellate Practice Group, where his practice focused on appellate and complex civil litigation and regulatory compliance. Jordan served in the United States Army as an infantryman and paratrooper in the 82nd Airborne Division. On January 16, 2019, President Trump announced his intent to nominate Jordan to serve as a United States District Judge for the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas.
On January 17, 2019, his nomination was sent to the Senate. President Trump nominated Jordan to the seat vacated by Judge Richard A. Schell, who took senior status on March 10, 2015. On March 5, 2019, a hearing on his nomination was held before the Senate Judiciary Committee. On April 4, 2019, his nomination was reported out of committee by a 12–10 party line vote. On July 30, 2019, the Senate voted 54 -- 36, his nomination was confirmed that day by a vote of 54–34. He received his judicial commission on August 20, 2019. Jordan has been a member of the Federalist Society since 2016. Sean D. Jordan at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Appearances at the U. S. Supreme Court from the Oyez Project
Altered State is the 16th studio album from the jazz group Yellowjackets, their third release for the Heads Up International label. The cover image was painted by pop art painter Peter Max. Yellowjackets: Russell Ferrante - acoustic piano, electric piano, keyboards Jimmy Haslip - electric bass Bob Mintzer - tenor & soprano saxophones, bass clarinet, EWI Marcus Baylor - drumsGuest Musicians: Jean Baylor - lead vocal Sharon Perry - backing vocals Lori Perry - backing vocals Carolyn Perry - backing vocals Darlene Perry - backing vocals Mike Shapiro - percussion and Yellowjackets - producers Dave Love - executive producer Bill Schnee - recording engineer Rich Breen - mixing engineer, mastering engineer Ryan Petry - assistant engineer Margi Denton - graphic design Mitch Haupers - photography Peter Max - cover art Recorded at: Schnee Studios, Studio City, CA, USA Mixed at: Dogmatic, Burbank, CA, USA Mastered at: Dogmatic, Burbank, CA, USA
The Lin Zexu Memorial Museum of Macau is a museum in Nossa Senhora de Fátima, China about Lin Zexu's arrival in Macau on 3 September 1839. The museum was completed in November 1997. In June 2017, the museum became part of the area where the Macau International Industrial Technology Development Association launched a Wi-Fi hotspot; the museum features the statue of Lin Zexu at its entrance with a height of 4 metres. The museum exhibition areas consists of Ban on Opium Trade and Inspection of Macao, Everlasting Memorials, Eyes Opened to the World and Macao before the Inspection Tour; the museum exhibits various photography of history during Lin Zexu period. List of museums in Macau
Tropical Park Race Track was a horse racing facility built on 245 acres at the current intersection of Bird Road and the Palmetto Expressway in Coral Gables, part of metropolitan Miami and what is now Olympia Heights. The race track was built by Bill Dwyer, a prohibition era bootlegger, Frank Bruen with backing from Canadian distilling tycoon, Samuel Bronfman, it opened on December 26, 1931, closed January 15, 1972. The track hosted meets for both for Standardbred horses. Tropical Park introduced the first synthetic racetrack surface for horse racing in the 1966-67 season. Known as "Tartan Turf, " it was a rubberized surface manufactured by the 3M company. Built inside the regular dirt track, one race per day was contested on the Tartan track but for safety reasons the majority of horse trainers and owners refused to run their horses on the track. Saul Silberman bought Tropical Park in 1953 after president Henry L. Straus died in a plane crash. A major gambler from Cleveland, Silberman was a former majority shareholder of the Cleveland Browns of the National Football League who had owned Randall Park Race Track in North Randall and the Painesville Raceway in Northfield, Ohio.
When Silberman died in 1971, new owner William L. McKnight made his intentions known, he wanted to close the track and have all of the racing dates switched to the new Calder Race Course, of which he was a principal investor. Tropical Park was closed after the 1972 racing season. In 1979, the Miami-Dade County Parks and Recreation service converted the facility into a public park they named Tropical Park; the park offers a number of sports activities including Tropical Park Stadium used for track and field athletics. The old racetrack's stables were used as part of the park's equestrian center
Henri Lhote was a French explorer and discoverer of prehistoric cave art. He is credited with the discovery of an assembly of 800 or more works of primitive art in a remote region of Algeria on the edge of the Sahara desert. Lhote came to believe the paintings testified to ancient contact with extraterrestrial beings and is considered one of the early proponents of paleocontact. Lhote was orphaned at age 12 and subsequently became a boy scout, where he learned about anthropology, he was self-taught until he became a pupil and protégé of Abbé Breuil, a great expert on prehistoric cave art in France. He began to do fieldwork in anthropology in 1929 but his work was contested due to his lack of credentials. In 1945, at the age of 42, he obtained a doctorate under the direction of Marcel Griaule, he led unsuccessful expeditions to Hoggar and Teffedest Mountains in 1949-1950. Lhote met and befriended a French soldier named Charles Brennans who had discovered rock paintings and engravings in a remote, uninhabited zone on the edge of the Sahara desert, while on an exploratory mission there in the 1930s.
The artwork was on sandstone cliffs in a deep wadi of a barren plateau known as Tassili-n-ajjer, included depictions of elephants, giraffes and strange human figures. With the help of Brennans, with financial support from the Musée de l'Homme in Paris, Lhote mounted an expedition to investigate, they made their way over land to Tassili. Lhote wrote that he had never seen anything "so extraordinary, so original, so beautiful" as the art at Tassili n'Ajjer. Over 16 months in 1956 and 1957 Lhote and his associates discovered about 800 paintings, many of which he documented with the aid of painters and photographers; these images were presented in 1957 and 1958 at the Musée des Arts Décoratifs in Paris and were, in the opinion of the writer and politician André Malraux, "one of the most defining exhibitions of the mid-century". Lhote mounted three subsequent expeditions to Tassili between 1958 and 1962. In his book The Search for the Tassili Frescoes: The story of the prehistoric rock-paintings of the Sahara, Lhote publicized the hypothesis that the humanoid drawings at Tassili represented space aliens.
He baptized one large and curious figure "Jabbaren" and described him as the "great Martian god." The popular press gave a lot of attention to this hypothesis of a prehistoric close encounter, Lhote's arguments were incorporated into the evidence assembled by Erich von Däniken for the thesis that ancient extraterrestrial astronauts visited the Earth in prehistoric times. However, mainstream scientists regard the "great Martian god" and other rock art figures of Tassili as representations of ordinary humans in ritual masks and costumes rather than extraterrestrial lifeforms. For instance a dance scene that Lhote discovered in 1956 can be attributed on stylistic grounds to Neolithic hunters who lived in the area around 6,000 to 8,000 years ago. In 2003 a British anthropologist named Jeremy Keenan undertook a review of Lhote's publications and concluded that "many of the claims of the expedition's leader, Henri Lhote, were misleading, a number of the paintings were faked, the copying process was fraught with errors."
Keenan found that the political context of French colonization of Algeria had influenced the treatment of the site and the interpretation of the artworks. In particular he singled out Abbé Breuil as "the arch-advocate of foreign influence in African rock art." He alleged that the expedition's methods caused damage to the rock art and "sterilized the archaeological landscape". The "Ouan Lhote Area" and the "Henri Lhote Arch" in Tassili National Park are named after him. A species of North African lizard, Philochortus lhotei, was named in his honour. Aux prises avec le Sahara. Le Sahara, désert mystérieux. L'extraordinaire aventure des Peuls. Présence Africaine. Paris. Oct.-Nov. 1959. Pp. 48–57 Les Touaregs du Hoggar. Le Niger en kayak. Dans les campements touaregs. La chasse chez les Touaregs. A la découverte des fresques du Tassili. L'épopée du Ténéré. Les gravures rupestres du Sud-oranais. Les gravures rupestres de l'Oued Djerat. Vers d'autres Tassilis. Chameau et dromadaire en Afrique du Nord et au Sahara.
Recherche sur leurs origines. Le Sahara. Monique Vérité, Henri Lhote: Une aventure scientifique au Sahara, Paris: Ibis publications, 2011. Rock art of south Oran Arbre du Ténéré Rock art of the Sahara Henri Lhote, The amazing adventure of the Peuls Engravings and paintings of Tassili N'Ahaggar