Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon and Facebook; the company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the HomePod smart speaker. Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, Xcode, its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days.
It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT; as the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, product focus.
In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc. reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues, its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei.
In August 2018, Apple became the first public U. S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018, it operates the iTunes Store, the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are in use worldwide. The company has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne; the company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built by Wozniak, first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Apple I was sold as a motherboard —a base kit concept which would now not be marketed as a complete personal computer.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%; the Apple II invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place c
Antivirus software, or anti-virus software known as anti-malware, is a computer program used to prevent and remove malware. Antivirus software was developed to detect and remove computer viruses, hence the name. However, with the proliferation of other kinds of malware, antivirus software started to provide protection from other computer threats. In particular, modern antivirus software can protect users from: malicious browser helper objects, browser hijackers, keyloggers, rootkits, trojan horses, malicious LSPs, fraudtools and spyware; some products include protection from other computer threats, such as infected and malicious URLs, spam and phishing attacks, online identity, online banking attacks, social engineering techniques, advanced persistent threat and botnet DDoS attacks. Although the roots of the computer virus date back as early as 1949, when the Hungarian scientist John von Neumann published the "Theory of self-reproducing automata", the first known computer virus appeared in 1971 and was dubbed the "Creeper virus".
This computer virus infected Digital Equipment Corporation's PDP-10 mainframe computers running the TENEX operating system. The Creeper virus was deleted by a program created by Ray Tomlinson and known as "The Reaper"; some people consider "The Reaper" the first antivirus software written – it may be the case, but it is important to note that the Reaper was a virus itself designed to remove the Creeper virus. The Creeper virus was followed by several other viruses; the first known that appeared "in the wild" was "Elk Cloner", in 1981, which infected Apple II computers. In 1983, the term "computer virus" was coined by Fred Cohen in one of the first published academic papers on computer viruses. Cohen used the term "computer virus" to describe a program that: "affect other computer programs by modifying them in such a way as to include a copy of itself." The first IBM PC compatible "in the wild" computer virus, one of the first real widespread infections, was "Brain" in 1986. From the number of viruses has grown exponentially.
Most of the computer viruses written in the early and mid-1980s were limited to self-reproduction and had no specific damage routine built into the code. That changed when more and more programmers became acquainted with computer virus programming and created viruses that manipulated or destroyed data on infected computers. Before internet connectivity was widespread, computer viruses were spread by infected floppy disks. Antivirus software came into use, but was updated infrequently. During this time, virus checkers had to check executable files and the boot sectors of floppy disks and hard disks. However, as internet usage became common, viruses began to spread online. There are competing claims for the innovator of the first antivirus product; the first publicly documented removal of an "in the wild" computer virus was performed by Bernd Fix in 1987. In 1987, Andreas Lüning and Kai Figge, who founded G Data Software in 1985, released their first antivirus product for the Atari ST platform. In 1987, the Ultimate Virus Killer was released.
This was the de facto industry standard virus killer for the Atari ST and Atari Falcon, the last version of, released in April 2004. In 1987, in the United States, John McAfee founded the McAfee company and, at the end of that year, he released the first version of VirusScan. In 1987, Peter Paško, Rudolf Hrubý, Miroslav Trnka created the first version of NOD antivirus. In 1987, Fred Cohen wrote that there is no algorithm that can detect all possible computer viruses. At the end of 1987, the first two heuristic antivirus utilities were released: Flushot Plus by Ross Greenberg and Anti4us by Erwin Lanting. In his O'Reilly book, Malicious Mobile Code: Virus Protection for Windows, Roger Grimes described Flushot Plus as "the first holistic program to fight malicious mobile code."However, the kind of heuristic used by early AV engines was different from those used today. The first product with a heuristic engine resembling modern ones was F-PROT in 1991. Early heuristic engines were based on dividing the binary in different sections: data section, code section.
Indeed, the initial viruses re-organized the layout of the sections, or overrode the initial portion of section in order to jump to the end of the file where malicious code was located—only going back to resume execution of the original code. This was a specific pattern, not used at the time by any legitimate software, which represented an elegant heuristic to catch suspicious code. Other kinds of more advanced heuristics were added, such as suspicious section names, incorrect header size, regular expressions, partial pattern in-memory matching. In 1988, the growth of antivirus companies continued. In Germany, Tjark Auerbach released the first version of AntiVir. In Bulgaria, Dr. Vesselin Bontchev released his first freeware antivirus program. Frans Veldman released the first version of ThunderByte Antivirus known as TBAV. In Czechoslovakia, Pavel Baudiš and Eduard Kučera started avast! (at th
IBM Personal Computer
The IBM Personal Computer known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform. It is IBM model number 5150, was introduced on August 12, 1981, it was created by a team of engineers and designers under the direction of Don Estridge of the IBM Entry Systems Division in Boca Raton, Florida. The generic term "personal computer" was in use years before 1981, applied as early as 1972 to the Xerox PARC's Alto, but because of the success of the IBM Personal Computer, the term "PC" came to mean more a desktop microcomputer compatible with IBM's Personal Computer branded products. Since the machine was based on open architecture, within a short time of its introduction, third-party suppliers of peripheral devices, expansion cards, software proliferated. "IBM compatible" became an important criterion for sales growth. International Business Machines, one of the world's largest companies, had a 62% share of the mainframe computer market in 1982. In the late 1970s the new personal computer industry was dominated by the Commodore PET, Atari 8-bit family, Apple II, Tandy Corporation's TRS-80, various CP/M machines.
With $150 million in sales by 1979 and projected annual growth of more than 40% in the early 1980s, the microcomputer market was large enough for IBM's attention. Other large technology companies such as Hewlett-Packard, Texas Instruments, Data General had entered it, some large IBM customers were buying Apples, so the company saw introducing its own personal computer as both an experiment in a new market and a defense against rivals and small. In 1980 and 1981 rumors spread of an IBM personal computer a miniaturized version of the IBM System/370, while Matsushita acknowledged that it had discussed with IBM the possibility of manufacturing a personal computer for the American company; the Japanese project, codenamed "Go", ended before the 1981 release of the American-designed IBM PC codenamed "Chess", but two simultaneous projects further confused rumors about the forthcoming product. Data General and TI's small computers were not successful, but observers expected AT&T to soon enter the computer industry, other large companies such as Exxon, Montgomery Ward and Sony were designing their own microcomputers.
Xerox produced the 820 to introduce a personal computer before IBM, becoming the second Fortune 500 company after Tandy to do so, had its Xerox PARC laboratory's sophisticated technology. Whether IBM had waited too long to enter an industry in which Tandy and others were successful was unclear. An observer stated that "IBM bringing out a personal computer would be like teaching an elephant to tap dance." Successful microcomputer company Vector Graphic's fiscal 1980 revenue was $12 million. A single IBM computer in the early 1960s cost as much as $9 million, occupied one quarter acre of air-conditioned space, had a staff of 60 people; the "Colossus of Armonk" only sold through its own sales force, had no experience with resellers or retail stores, did not introduce the first product designed to work with non-IBM equipment until 1980. Another observer claimed that IBM made decisions so that, when tested, "what they found is that it would take at least nine months to ship an empty box"; as with other large computer companies, its new products required about four to five years for development.
IBM had to learn how to develop, mass-produce, market new computers. While the company traditionally let others pioneer a new market—IBM released its first commercial computer a year after Remington Rand's UNIVAC in 1951, but within five years had 85% of the market—the personal-computer development and pricing cycles were much faster than for mainframes, with products designed in a few months and obsolete quickly. Many in the microcomputer industry resented IBM's power and wealth, disliked the perception that an industry founded by startups needed a latecomer so staid that it had a strict dress code and employee songbook; the potential importance to microcomputers of a company so prestigious, that a popular saying in American companies stated "No one got fired for buying IBM", was nonetheless clear. InfoWorld, which described itself as "The Newsweekly for Microcomputer Users", stated that "for my grandmother, for millions of people like her, IBM and computer are synonymous". Byte stated in an editorial just before the announcement of the IBM PC: Rumors abound about personal computers to come from giants such as Digital Equipment Corporation and the General Electric Company.
But there is no contest. IBM's new personal computer... is far and away the media star, not because of its features, but because it exists at all. When the number eight company in the Fortune 500 enters the field, news... The influence of a personal computer made by a company whose name has come to mean "computer" to most of the world is hard to contemplate; the editorial acknowledged that "some factions in our industry have looked upon IBM as the'enemy'", but concluded with optimism: "I want to see personal computing take a giant step." Desktop sized programmable calculators by HP had evolved into the HP 9830 BASIC language computer by 1972. In 1972–1973 a team led by Dr. Paul Friedl at the IBM Los Gatos Scientific Center developed a portable computer prototype called SCAMP (Special Computer APL Machine Po
A patch is a set of changes to a computer program or its supporting data designed to update, fix, or improve it. This includes fixing security vulnerabilities and other bugs, with such patches being called bugfixes or bug fixes, improving the usability or performance. Although meant to fix problems, poorly designed patches can sometimes introduce new problems. In some special cases updates may knowingly break the functionality or disable a device, for instance, by removing components for which the update provider is no longer licensed. Patch management is a part of lifecycle management, is the process of using a strategy and plan of what patches should be applied to which systems at a specified time. Patches for proprietary software are distributed as executable files instead of source code; this type of patch modifies the program executable—the program the user runs—either by modifying the binary file to include the fixes or by replacing it. On early 8-bit microcomputers, for example the Radio Shack TRS-80, the operating system included a PATCH utility which accepted patch data from a text file and applied the fixes to the target program's executable binary file.
Small in-memory patches could be manually applied with the system debug utility, such as CP/M's DDT or MS-DOS's DEBUG debuggers. Programmers working in interpreted BASIC used the POKE command to temporarily alter the functionality of a system service routine. Patches can circulate in the form of source code modifications. In this case, the patches consist of textual differences between two source code files, called "diffs"; these types of patches come out of open-source software projects. In these cases, developers expect users to compile the changed files themselves; because the word "patch" carries the connotation of a small fix, large fixes may use different nomenclature. Bulky patches or patches that change a program may circulate as "service packs" or as "software updates". Microsoft Windows NT and its successors use the "service pack" terminology. IBM used the terms "FixPaks" and "Corrective Service Diskette" to refer to these updates. Software suppliers distributed patches on paper tape or on punched cards, expecting the recipient to cut out the indicated part of the original tape, patch in the replacement segment.
Patch distributions used magnetic tape. After the invention of removable disk drives, patches came from the software developer via a disk or CD-ROM via mail. With the available Internet access, downloading patches from the developer's web site or through automated software updates became available to the end-users. Starting with Apple's Mac OS 9 and Microsoft's Windows ME, PC operating systems gained the ability to get automatic software updates via the Internet. Computer programs can coordinate patches to update a target program. Automation simplifies the end-user's task – they need only to execute an update program, whereupon that program makes sure that updating the target takes place and correctly. Service packs for Microsoft Windows NT and its successors and for many commercial software products adopt such automated strategies; some programs can update themselves via the Internet with little or no intervention on the part of users. The maintenance of server software and of operating systems takes place in this manner.
In situations where system administrators control a number of computers, this sort of automation helps to maintain consistency. The application of security patches occurs in this manner; the size of patches may vary from a few bytes to hundreds of megabytes. In particular, patches can become quite large when the changes add or replace non-program data, such as graphics and sounds files; such situations occur in the patching of computer games. Compared with the initial installation of software, patches do not take long to apply. In the case of operating systems and computer server software, patches have the important role of fixing security holes; some critical patches involve issues with drivers. Patches may require prior application of other patches, or may require prior or concurrent updates of several independent software components. To facilitate updates, operating systems provide automatic or semi-automatic updating facilities. Automatic updates have not succeeded in gaining widespread popularity in corporate computing environments because of the aforementioned glitches, but because administrators fear that software companies may gain unlimited control over their computers.
Package management systems can offer various degrees of patch automation. Usage of automatic updates has become far more widespread in the consumer market, due to the fact that Microsoft Windows added support for them, Service Pack 2 of Windows XP enabled them by default. Cautious users system administrators, tend to put off applying patches until they can verify the stability of the fixes. Microsoft SUS supports this. In the cases of large patches or of significant changes, distributors limit availability of patches to qualified developers as a beta test. Applying patches to firmware poses special challenges, as it involves the provisioning of new firmware images, rather than applying only the differences from the previous version; the patch consists of a firmware image in form of binary d
Minecraft is a sandbox video game created by Swedish game developer Markus Persson and released by Mojang in 2011. The game allows players to build with a variety of different blocks in a 3D procedurally generated world, requiring creativity from players. Other activities in the game include exploration, resource gathering and combat. Multiple gameplay modes are available; these include survival mode in which the player must acquire resources to build the world and maintain health, creative mode where players have unlimited resources to build with and the ability to fly, adventure mode where players can play custom maps created by other players with certain restrictions, spectator mode where players can move throughout a world without being affected by gravity and collisions, or without being allowed to destroy or build anything. There is hardcore mode, similar to survival mode but the player is given only one life, the game difficulty is locked on hard. If the player dies on hardcore, the player does not respawn, the world is locked to spectator mode.
The Java Edition of the game allows players to create mods with new gameplay mechanics, items and assets. Minecraft has won numerous awards and accolades. Social media, adaptations and the MineCon convention played large roles in popularizing the game, it has been used in educational environments in the realm of computing systems, as virtual computers and hardware devices have been built in it. By late 2018, over 154 million copies had been sold across all platforms, making it the second best-selling video game of all time, behind Tetris. In September 2014, Microsoft announced a deal to buy Mojang and the Minecraft intellectual property for US$2.5 billion, with the acquisition completed two months later. A spin-off game titled Minecraft: Story Mode has been released. By mid-2018, the game had around 91 million active players monthly. Minecraft is a 3D sandbox game that has no specific goals to accomplish, allowing players a large amount of freedom in choosing how to play the game. However, there is an achievement system.
Gameplay is in the first-person perspective by default, but players have the option for third-person perspective. The game world is composed of rough 3D objects—mainly cubes and fluids, called "blocks"—representing various materials, such as dirt, ores, tree trunks and lava; the core gameplay revolves around placing these objects. These blocks are arranged in a 3D grid, while players can move around the world. Players can "mine" blocks and place them elsewhere, enabling them to build things; the game world is infinite and procedurally generated as players explore it, using a map seed, obtained from the system clock at the time of world creation. There are limits on vertical movement, but Minecraft allows an infinitely large game world to be generated on the horizontal plane. Due to technical problems when distant locations are reached, there is a barrier preventing players from traversing to locations beyond 30,000,000 blocks; the game achieves this by splitting the world data into smaller sections called "chunks" that are only created or loaded when players are nearby.
The world is divided into biomes ranging from deserts to jungles to snowfields. The in-game time system follows a day and night cycle, one full cycle lasts 20 real-time minutes. Players encounter various non-player characters known as mobs, such as animals and hostile creatures. Passive mobs can be hunted for food and crafting materials, such as cows and chickens, they spawn in the daytime, while hostile mobs spawn during nighttime or in dark places such as caves—including large spiders and zombies. Some hostile mobs such as zombies and drowned, burn under the sun if they have no headgear. Other creatures unique to Minecraft include the enderman. There are variants of mobs that spawn in different conditions, for example zombies have husk variants that spawn in deserts. Many commentators have described the game's physics system as unrealistic. Liquids continuously flow for a limited horizontal distance from source blocks, which can be removed by placing a solid block in its place or by scooping it into a bucket.
Complex systems can be built using primitive mechanical devices, electrical circuits, logic gates built with an in-game material known as redstone. Minecraft has two alternative dimensions besides the overworld: the End; the Nether is a hell-like dimension accessed via player-built portals. The player can build an optional boss mob called the Wither out of materials found in the Nether; the End is a barren land consisting of many islands. A boss dragon called the Ender Dragon dwells on the main island. Killing the dragon cues the game's ending a poem written by Irish novelist Julian Gough. Players are allowed to teleport back to their original spawn point in the overworld and continue the game indefinitely; the game consists of five game modes: survival, adventure and spectator. It has a changeable difficulty system of four levels. For example, the peaceful difficulty prevents hostile creatures from spawning, when playing on the hard difficulty players can starve to death if their h
A software bug is an error, failure or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave in unintended ways. The process of finding and fixing bugs is termed "debugging" and uses formal techniques or tools to pinpoint bugs, since the 1950s, some computer systems have been designed to deter, detect or auto-correct various computer bugs during operations. Most bugs arise from mistakes and errors made in either a program's source code or its design, or in components and operating systems used by such programs. A few are caused by compilers producing incorrect code. A program that contains a large number of bugs, and/or bugs that interfere with its functionality, is said to be buggy. Bugs can trigger errors. Bugs may cause the program to crash or freeze the computer. Other bugs qualify as security bugs and might, for example, enable a malicious user to bypass access controls in order to obtain unauthorized privileges; some software bugs have been linked to disasters.
Bugs in code that controlled the Therac-25 radiation therapy machine were directly responsible for patient deaths in the 1980s. In 1996, the European Space Agency's US$1 billion prototype Ariane 5 rocket had to be destroyed less than a minute after launch due to a bug in the on-board guidance computer program. In June 1994, a Royal Air Force Chinook helicopter crashed into the Mull of Kintyre, killing 29; this was dismissed as pilot error, but an investigation by Computer Weekly convinced a House of Lords inquiry that it may have been caused by a software bug in the aircraft's engine-control computer. In 2002, a study commissioned by the US Department of Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology concluded that "software bugs, or errors, are so prevalent and so detrimental that they cost the US economy an estimated $59 billion annually, or about 0.6 percent of the gross domestic product". The term "bug" to describe defects has been a part of engineering jargon since the 1870s and predates electronic computers and computer software.
For instance, Thomas Edison wrote the following words in a letter to an associate in 1878: It has been just so in all of my inventions. The first step is an intuition, comes with a burst difficulties arise—this thing gives out and that "Bugs"—as such little faults and difficulties are called—show themselves and months of intense watching and labor are requisite before commercial success or failure is reached; the Middle English word bugge is the basis for the terms "bugbear" and "bugaboo" as terms used for a monster. Baffle Ball, the first mechanical pinball game, was advertised as being "free of bugs" in 1931. Problems with military gear during World War II were referred to as bugs. In a book published in 1942, Louise Dickinson Rich, speaking of a powered ice cutting machine, said, "Ice sawing was suspended until the creator could be brought in to take the bugs out of his darling."Isaac Asimov used the term "bug" to relate to issues with a robot in his short story "Catch That Rabbit", published in 1944.
The term "bug" was used in an account by computer pioneer Grace Hopper, who publicized the cause of a malfunction in an early electromechanical computer. A typical version of the story is: In 1946, when Hopper was released from active duty, she joined the Harvard Faculty at the Computation Laboratory where she continued her work on the Mark II and Mark III. Operators traced an error in the Mark II to a moth trapped in a relay; this bug was removed and taped to the log book. Stemming from the first bug, today we call errors or glitches in a program a bug. Hopper did not find the bug, as she acknowledged; the date in the log book was September 9, 1947. The operators who found it, including William "Bill" Burke of the Naval Weapons Laboratory, Virginia, were familiar with the engineering term and amusedly kept the insect with the notation "First actual case of bug being found." Hopper loved to recount the story. This log book, complete with attached moth, is part of the collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of American History.
The related term "debug" appears to predate its usage in computing: the Oxford English Dictionary's etymology of the word contains an attestation from 1945, in the context of aircraft engines. The concept that software might contain errors dates back to Ada Lovelace's 1843 notes on the analytical engine, in which she speaks of the possibility of program "cards" for Charles Babbage's analytical engine being erroneous:... an analysing process must have been performed in order to furnish the Analytical Engine with the necessary operative data. Granted that the actual mechanism is unerring in its processes, the cards may give it wrong orders; the first documented use of the term "bug" for a technical malfunction was by Thomas Edison. The Open Technology Institute, run by the group, New America, released a report "Bugs in the System" in August 2016 stating that U. S. policymakers should make reforms to help researchers address software bugs. The report "highlights the need for reform in the field of software vulnerability discovery and disclosure."
One of the report’s authors said that Congress has not done enough to address cyber software vulnerability though Congress has passed a number of bills to combat the larger issue of cyber security. Government researchers and cyber security experts are the people who discover software flaws
Beta Test (film)
Beta Test is a 2016 American film written and directed by Nicholas Gyeney. Gyeney described the film as a cross between Die Hard and The Firm; the film stars Larenz Tate, Manu Bennett, Linden Ashby, Yuji Okumoto. The film was released on July 22, 2016. While testing the latest first person shooter from global game developer, video game champion Max Troy discovers the events happening within the game are being reflected in the real world, he soon determines that the game's protagonist is real-life Orson Creed, an ex-Sentinel employee, being remotely controlled by the corporation for reasons unknown. As virtual and real worlds collide and Creed must join forces to unravel the conspiracy before the game's sinister events escalate and overwhelm the city. Manu Bennett as Orson Creed Larenz Tate as Max Troy Linden Ashby as Andrew Kincaid Kevon Stover as Zane Yuji Okumoto as The Surgeon Brandy Kopp as Tech Support Sara Coates as Abbie Creed, Orson's wife. Edward Michael Scott as The Professional Edi Zanidache as The Runt Bill Sorice as Interviewer Stefan Hajek as Slackjaw Adrien Gamache as Caleb Angelo Mark Riccardi as The 2nd Professional Angela DiMarco as Lillian Brandt Angela Okumoto as Reporter Gyeney started developing Beta Test in the summer of 2014.
Gyeney provided information on the film stating "this film has 127 scenes and with Type-A personality, I have a specific vision." Gyeney stated, "I'm not Steven Spielberg," while indicating that there would be no auditions or screen tests for the film. Scripts were sent out to actors whom Gyeney was familiar with, those of whom liked the script with interest of being in the film were cast. Larenz Tate was cast as Max. Manu Bennett as the hero video game character, Orson Creed. And, Linden Ashby as the primary villain of the film. Principal photography was conducted in Washington, it took place over 19 days starting November 7. 2014 and finishing on November 26, 2014. Seattle was chosen as the place to shoot the film because it is Gyeney's hometown and he believed "shooting such a movie in the Northwest will diversify the local film community, dominated by indie dramas, it could lead to an entire wave of action-oriented material being shot here, which would bring tons of work to local stunt teams and stuff, nonexistent right now."Gyeney stated, "the longest long-take fight sequence on record is three-and-a-half minutes, it's held by the Korean movie'Oldboy.'
Our goal is to destroy that record." Video game footage was needed to be developed for the film after principal photography was completed. It began in December 2014 starting with Creed; the film was set to be released on July 22, 2016. On January 5, 2015, on and off set stills of the film were released via the film's Facebook page. On January 22, 2015, the first official poster was released. Beta Test on IMDb Beta Test at AllMovie Beta Test at Box Office Mojo Beta Test at Rotten Tomatoes