Women's sabre at the 2015 World Fencing Championships
The Women's sabre event of the 2015 World Fencing Championships was held on 14 July 2015. The qualification was held on 13 July 2015. Bracket
Almaty known as Alma-Ata and Verniy, is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,801,713 people, about 8% of the country's total population and more than 2 million in its built-up area that encompasses Talgar, Otegen Batyr and many others suburbs. It served as capital of the Kazakh state in its various forms from 1929 to 1997, under the influence of the Soviet Union and its appointees. In 1997, the government relocated the capital to Astana in the north of the country and about 12 hours away by train. Almaty continues as the major commercial and cultural centre of Kazakhstan, as well as its most populous and most cosmopolitan city; the city is located in the mountainous area of southern Kazakhstan in the foothills of the Trans-Ili Alatau at an elevation of 700–900 m, where the Large and Small Almatinka rivers run into the plain. The city has been part of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network in the area of music since November 2017; the city was the host for a 1978 international conference on Primary Health Care where the Alma Ata Declaration was adopted, marking a paradigm shift in global public health.
From 1929 to 1936, Almaty was the capital of Kazakh ASSR. From 1936 to 1991 it was the capital of Kazakh SSR. After Kazakhstan became independent in 1991, Almaty continued as the capital until 1997, when Astana was designated a return to the historic capital. Almaty remains the largest, most developed, most ethnically and culturally diverse city in Kazakhstan. Due to development by the Soviet Union and relocation of workers and industries from European areas of the Soviet Union during World War II, the city has a high proportion of ethnic Russians and Ukrainians; the city is in the foothills of Trans-Ili Alatau in the extreme south-east. It has a mild climate with warm summers and quite cold winters. Since the city is in a tectonically active area, it has an endemic risk of earthquakes. Although most do not cause any significant damage, Almaty has suffered some large destructive earthquakes. In 1997 the capital was moved to Astana in the north-central part of the country. Since Almaty has been referred to as the'southern capital' of Kazakhstan.
The name Almaty has its roots in the medieval settlement Almatu, that existed near the present-day city. A disputed theory holds that the name is derived from the Kazakh word for'apple', is translated as "full of apples", it was Almatau which means Apple Mountain. The Russian version of the name was Alma-Ata. Since gaining its independence from the Soviet Union, the use of the Kazakh Almaty is accepted. There is great genetic diversity among the wild apples in the region surrounding Almaty; the wild Malus sieversii is considered a candidate for the ancestor of the modern domestic apple. The city's name was written as آلماتی Ālmātī in Turkish and Persian written with the Perso-Arabic script. During 1000–900 BC in the Bronze Age, the first farmers and cattle-breeders established settlements in the territory of Almaty. During the Saka period, these lands were occupied by the Saka and Wusun tribes, who inhabited the territory north of the Tian Shan mountain range. Evidence of these times can be found in the numerous burial mounds and ancient settlements the giant burial mounds of the Saka tsars.
The most famous archaeological finds have been "The Golden Man" known as "The Golden Warrior", from the Issyk Kurgan. During the period of Saka and Wusun governance, Almaty became an early education centre. During the Middle Ages, a city culture developed in Almaty. There was a transition to a settled way of living, the development of farming and handicrafts, the emergence of a number of towns and cities in the territory of Zhetysu. In the 10–14th centuries, settlements in the territory of the so-called "Greater Almaty" became part of the trade routes of the Silk Road, which reached from China to western Asia and Europe. At that time, Almaty became one of the trade and agricultural centres on the Silk Road, it had an official mint. The city was first mentioned as Almatu in books from the 13th century. In the 15th–18th centuries, the city was in decline as trade activities were decreasing on this part of the Silk Road. European nations were conducting more trade by shipping; this period was one of crucial political transformations.
The Kazakh state and nation were founded here. The Dzungar invaded; the Kazakh fought to preserve independence. In 1730 the Kazakh defeated the Dzungar in the Anyrakay mountains, 70 kilometres north-west of Almaty. During the eighteenth century, the city and region was on the border between the Khanate of Kokand and Qing Empire, it was absorbed as part of the Russian Empire in the 1850s. To defend its empire, Russia built Fort Verniy near the Zailiysky Alatau mountain range between the Bolshaya and Malenkaya Almatinka rivers. Construction was nearly completed by the autumn of that year; the fort was a wooden palisade, shaped like a pentagon, with one side built along the Malaya Almatinka. The wood fence was replaced with a brick wall with embrasures; the main facilities were erected around the large square for parading. In 1855 Kazakhs displaced from their nomadic territor
2010 World Fencing Championships
The 2010 World Fencing Championships were held at the Grand Palais in Paris, France 4–13 November. * Host nation A record of 110 nations competed, with many making their debuts including Curaçao and Sri Lanka among others. FIE Organizing Committee official website
2012 Summer Olympics
The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event, held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom. The first event, the group stage in women's football, began on 25 July at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff, followed by the opening ceremonies on 27 July. 10,768 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees participated. Following a bid headed by former Olympic champion Sebastian Coe and then-Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, London was selected as the host city on 6 July 2005 during the 117th IOC Session in Singapore, defeating bids from Moscow, New York City and Paris. London became the first city to host the modern Olympics three times, having hosted the Summer Games in 1908 and in 1948. Construction for the Games involved considerable redevelopment, with an emphasis on sustainability; the main focus was a new 200-hectare Olympic Park, constructed on a former industrial site at Stratford, East London.
The Games made use of venues that existed before the bid. The Games received widespread acclaim for their organisation, with the volunteers, the British military and public enthusiasm praised highly; the opening ceremony, directed by Danny Boyle, received widespread acclaim throughout the world, particular praise from the British public and a minority of ranging criticisms from some social media sites. During the Games, Michael Phelps became the most decorated Olympic athlete of all time, winning his 22nd medal. Saudi Arabia and Brunei entered female athletes for the first time, so that every eligible country has sent a female competitor to at least one Olympic Games. Women's boxing was included for the first time, thus the Games became the first at which every sport had female competitors; these were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Jacques Rogge. The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by China and host Great Britain. Several world and Olympic records were set at the games.
Though there were several controversies, the 2012 games were deemed successful with the rising standards of competition amongst nations across the world, packed stadiums and smooth organisation. Furthermore, the focus on sporting legacy and post-games venue sustainability was seen as a blueprint for future Olympics. By 15 July 2003, the deadline for interested cities to submit bids to the International Olympic Committee, nine cities had submitted bids to host the 2012 Summer Olympics: Havana, Leipzig, Madrid, New York City and Rio de Janeiro. On 18 May 2004, as a result of a scored technical evaluation, the IOC reduced the number of cities to five: London, Moscow, New York and Paris. All five submitted their candidate files by 19 November 2004 and were visited by the IOC inspection team during February and March 2005; the Paris bid suffered two setbacks during the IOC inspection visit: a number of strikes and demonstrations coinciding with the visits, a report that a key member of the bid team, Guy Drut, would face charges over alleged corrupt party political finances.
Throughout the process, Paris was seen as the favourite as this was its third bid in recent years. London was seen as lagging behind Paris by a considerable margin, its position began to improve after the appointment of Lord Coe as the new head of London 2012 on 19 May 2004. In late August 2004, reports predicted a tie between Paris. On 6 June 2005, the IOC released its evaluation reports for the five candidate cities, they did not contain any scores or rankings, but the report for Paris was considered the most positive. London was close behind, having closed most of the gap observed by the initial evaluation in 2004. New York and Madrid received positive evaluations. On 1 July 2005, when asked who would win, Jacques Rogge said, "I cannot predict it since I don't know how the IOC members will vote, but my gut feeling tells me that it will be close. It will come down to a difference of say ten votes, or maybe less."On 6 July 2005, the final selection was announced at the 117th IOC Session in Singapore.
Moscow was the first city to be eliminated, followed by New Madrid. The final two contenders were Paris. At the end of the fourth round of voting, London won the right to host the 2012 Games with 54 votes to 50. Tragically, the celebrations in London were short-lived, being overshadowed by bombings on London's transport system less than 24 hours after the announcement; the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games was created to oversee the staging of the Games after the success of the bid, held its first board meeting on 3 October 2005. The committee, chaired by Lord Coe, was in charge of implementing and staging the Games, while the Olympic Delivery Authority was in charge of the construction of the venues and infrastructure; the latter was established in April 2006. The Government Olympic Executive, a unit within the Department for Culture and Sport, was the lead government body for coordinating the London 2012 Olympics, it focused on oversight of the Games, cross-programme programme management and the London 2012 Olympic Legacy before and after the Games that would benefit London and the United Kingdom.
The organisation was responsible for the supervision of the £9.3 billion of public sector funding. In August 2011, security concerns arose surrounding the hosting of the Olympic Games in London due to the 2011 England riots, with a few countries expressing fear over the safety of the Games, in spite of the International Olympic Committee's assurance that the riots would not affect the Games; the IOC's Coordination Commission for the 2
2014 European Fencing Championships
The 2014 European Fencing Championships were held in Strasbourg, France from 7–14 June 2014 at the Rhénus Sport. Official website
The Sabre is one of the three disciplines of modern fencing. The sabre weapon is for cutting with both the cutting edge and the back of the blade. Unlike other modern fencing weapons, the épée and foil, where the methods of making a hit are scored using the point of the blade; the informal term "sabreur" refers to a male fencer. "Sabreuse" is the female equivalent. "The blade, which must be of steel, is rectangular in section. The maximum length of the blade is 88 cm; the minimum width of the blade, which must be at the button, is 4 mm. The cross-sectional profile of the sabre blade is a V-shaped base which transitions to a flat rectangular shaped end with most blade variants, however this is dependent on the how it is manufactured; this allows the blade to be flexible towards the end. According to regulation, manufacturers must acknowledge that the blade must be fixed horizontally at a point 70 cm from the tip of the blade. Standardised Adult blades are 88 cm in length.. At the end of the blade, the point is folded over itself to form a "button" which, when viewed end on, must have a square or rectangular section of 4 mm - 6 mm no larger or smaller.
The button must not be any more than 3 mm from the end of the 88 cm blade section. The guard is full in shape, made in one piece and is externally smooth, the curvature of the guard is continuous without any aesthetic perforations or rims; the interior of the guard is insulated by either paint or a pad. The guard is designed to provide the hand adequate protection to ensure that injury does not occur which may hinder the performance of the fencer. Guards are dimensionally measured 15 cm by 14 cm in section where the blade is parallel with the axis of the gauge. On electrical sabres, a socket for the body wire is found underneath the bell guard. A fastener known as a pommel is attached to the end of the sword to keep the bell guard and handle on, it electrically separates the handle and the guard; the conventional handle of the sabre is shaped so that it may be held so that the hand may slide down to gain further extension of the weapon relative to the fencer. Other grips which form various shapes are incompatible and impractical with sabre as they limit the movement of the hand, are to be ergonomically incompatible with the guard.
The entire weapon is 105 cm long. It is shorter than the foil or épée, lighter than the épée, hence physically easier to move swiftly and decisively; however the integrity of the sabre blade is not as strong as other weapons as it is more to break due to the design. Like other weapons used in fencing, the modern sabre uses an electrical connection to register touches; the sabreur wears a lamé, a conductive vest, to complete the circuit and register a touch to a valid target. Sabre was the last weapon in fencing to make the transition over to using electrical equipment; this occurred in 32 years after foil and 52 years after the épée. In 2004 following the Athens Summer Olympics, the timing for recording a touch was shortened from its previous setting altering the sport and method in which a touch is scored. Unlike the other two weapons, there is little difference between an electric sabre and a steam or dry one; the blade itself is the same in steam and electric sabres, as there is no need for a blade wire or pressure-sensitive tip in an electric sabre.
An electric sabre has a socket, a 2-prong or bayonet foil socket with the two contacts shorted together. The electric sabre has insulation on the pommel and on the inside of the guard to prevent an electrical connection between the sabre and the lamé; this is undesirable because it extends the lamé onto the sabre, causing any blade contact to be registered as a valid touch. Early electric sabres were equipped with a capteur socket; the capteur was a device, intended to detect a parry by use of an accelerometer. If a parry was detected, the electronics were supposed to invalidate any subsequent closing of the scoring circuit due to the flexible blade whipping around the parry; this device never worked as intended and was discarded, the whipover effect was mitigated when the FIE mandated stiffer sabre blades in the S2000 specification. The general target area for the discipline contains the entire torso above the waist, the head, the arms up to the wrist of which a valid hit may be scored; the legs and feet are excluded from the target area.
A single circuit for the entire target area used in scoring systems is formed by multiple conductive equipment: Glove: Gloves provide the conductive'manchette' / cuff used in physical conjunction and contact with the lamé. Worn over the lamé; the hand may not be conductive. Lamé: The conductive lamé which covers the torso and arms of the fencer. Conductivity of the lamé does not extend past the waistline to meet with the target criteria. Mask: The conductive mask directly connected to the Lamé through a wire with a crocodile clip on each ends; because touches can be scored using the edge of the blade, there is no need for a pressure-sensitive head to be present on the end of the blade. When fencing "electric" a current runs through the sabre blade; when the blade comes into contact with the lamé, the electrical mask, or the manchette, the current flows through the body cord and interacts with the scoring equipment. Known as the'Scoring apparatus'. A
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta